Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah Al Saud Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah Al Saud
: فيصل بن تركي بن عبد الله آل سعود
Fayṣal ibn Turkī ibn ʿAbdullāh Āl Suʿūd
; 1785–1865) was the second ruler of the Second Saudi State
and seventh head of the House of Saud
In 1830 Faisal was sent on military operations to Al Hasa
in the east.
But his father was assassinated by Mishari bin Abdul Rahman, a distant cousin in 1834.
Faisal hurried back to Riyadh to deal with the revolt.
His troops stormed the castle and killed Mishari. Emir of Jabal Shammar
, Abdullah bin Rashid
, helped Faisal in this attack.
Those not directly involved in the murder were spared and the town pledged allegiance.
Imam Faisal ruled the Second Saudi State from 1834 to 1838.
Then he was forced into exile in Cairo
by the Ottomans due to his rejection of paying tribute to the Egyptian forces in Hejaz
Faisal's rule continued to be opposed by the Ottoman forces, however, and the Egyptian governor of Arabia, Khurshid Pasha
, supported a rival candidate - Khalid bin Saud
Khalid was a member of the senior line of the Saud family.
Faisal was forced to flee the city and take refuge with the al Khorayef princes of the tribes of Bani Tamim
. In December 1838, he attempted to come to terms with Khurshid Pasha, but was forced to return to captivity a second time in Cairo.
He was accompanied by his younger brother Jiluwi
, his sons, Abdullah
and Muhammad, and his cousin, Abdullah bin Ibrahim bin Abdullah, a son of his uncle.
In 1843, he was released in Cairo and returned to Riyadh following the total withdrawal of the remaining Egyptian troops from Najd in 1841.
Following his return to Riyadh he reclaimed the throne in 1843 and ruled until 1865.
Faisal managed to escape with the help of a group of people called the Osamies tribe from the tribe Otaiba. They returned him to Riyadh according to Prince Turki bin Abdullah Al Faisal, a son of Prince Abdullah
. A grandson called Faisal bin Turki stated that the people who got his grandfather out of prison in Egypt are Osamies.
He easily defeated Abdullah bin Thunayan
, who had revolted against the ineffective Khalid and taken control. Faisal depended on a close alliance with the Al Rashid
family of Ha'il
.Abdullah bin Rashid
played a key role in his success,
and the two families were extensively intermarried. In return, Faisal appointed Abdullah as the Amir of Ha'il in 1835.
He formally requested the support of the British Political Resident in Bushire
for his representative in Trucial Oman
In 1851 he also demanded the assistance of the British Political Resident to collect zakat
Following unsuccessful attempts to gain authority in Al Qassim
Faisal appointed his younger brother Jiluwi governor to the region.
However, Jiluwi did not manage to obtain full loyalty of people there who revolted against him 1854.
In 1865 a colonel
in the British army
, Lewis Pelly
, officially visited Faisal in Riyadh.
Faisal's major income sources included zakat
, import duties, pilgrim
fees, one-fifth share from raids and warfare, fines, revenues from the ruler’s personal domains, and tributes paid by neighbouring countries such as Bahrain and Muscat
He governed the Emirate with success until his death in December 1865.
However, around the end of his rule the de facto
ruler of the Emirate was his heir and son, Abdullah
, and infighting among his four sons eventually destroyed the state.
Personal life and death
Faisal bin Turki had four sons, Abdullah, Saud
, Muhammad and Abdul Rahman
Of them Abdullah and Muhammad were full brothers so were Saud and Abdul Rahman.
The mother of Abdullah and Muhammad was from the Al Saud whereas the mother of Saud and Abdul Rahman was from the Ajman tribe
One of his daughters married Rashidi
Emir, Abdullah bin Rashid.
Another, Tarfa, married Nasser Al Saud who was a great great grandson of Farhan bin Saud.
Faisal became very frail and blind during the later years.
He died following a prolonged illness in Riyadh in December 1865 and was succeeded by his son Abdullah.
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For further reading
Last edited on 5 June 2021, at 15:43
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