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Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah Al Saud
Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah Al Saud (Arabic: فيصل بن تركي بن عبد الله آل سعود‎‎ Fayṣal ibn Turkī ibn ʿAbdullāh Āl Suʿūd; 1785–1865) was the second ruler of the Second Saudi State and seventh head of the House of Saud.
Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah Al Saud
Emir of Nejd
Reign1834–1838 (first time)
1843–1865 (second time)
PredecessorMishari bin Abdul Rahman bin Mishari
Abdallah bin Thunayyan bin Ibrahim Al Saud
SuccessorKhalid bin Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
Abdullah bin Faisal bin Turki
Born1785
Died1865 (aged 79–80)
Riyadh, Emirate of Nejd
Issue
Names
Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad
DynastyHouse of Saud
FatherTurki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad
Early life
Faisal was the son of Imam Turki bin Abdullah.[1] He was one of the members of the Al Saud family who was taken to Cairo following the capture of Diriyah by Ibrahim Pasha, son of Muhammad Ali, in May 1819.[1] Faisal returned to Riyadh in 1827-1828.[1][2]
In 1830 Faisal was sent on military operations to Al Hasa in the east.[3] But his father was assassinated by Mishari bin Abdul Rahman, a distant cousin in 1834.[4] Faisal hurried back to Riyadh to deal with the revolt.[5] His troops stormed the castle and killed Mishari. Emir of Jabal Shammar, Abdullah bin Rashid, helped Faisal in this attack.[5] Those not directly involved in the murder were spared and the town pledged allegiance.
Reign
Imam Faisal ruled the Second Saudi State from 1834 to 1838.[4] Then he was forced into exile in Cairo by the Ottomans due to his rejection of paying tribute to the Egyptian forces in Hejaz.[6]
Faisal's rule continued to be opposed by the Ottoman forces, however, and the Egyptian governor of Arabia, Khurshid Pasha, supported a rival candidate - Khalid bin Saud.[7] Khalid was a member of the senior line of the Saud family.[3] Faisal was forced to flee the city and take refuge with the al Khorayef princes of the tribes of Bani Tamim. In December 1838, he attempted to come to terms with Khurshid Pasha, but was forced to return to captivity a second time in Cairo.[3] He was accompanied by his younger brother Jiluwi, his sons, Abdullah and Muhammad, and his cousin, Abdullah bin Ibrahim bin Abdullah, a son of his uncle.[3] In 1843, he was released in Cairo and returned to Riyadh following the total withdrawal of the remaining Egyptian troops from Najd in 1841.[8]
Following his return to Riyadh he reclaimed the throne in 1843 and ruled until 1865.[9] Faisal managed to escape with the help of a group of people called the Osamies tribe from the tribe Otaiba. They returned him to Riyadh according to Prince Turki bin Abdullah Al Faisal, a son of Prince Abdullah. A grandson called Faisal bin Turki stated that the people who got his grandfather out of prison in Egypt are Osamies.
He easily defeated Abdullah bin Thunayan, who had revolted against the ineffective Khalid and taken control. Faisal depended on a close alliance with the Al Rashid family of Ha'il.[10]Abdullah bin Rashid played a key role in his success,[10] and the two families were extensively intermarried. In return, Faisal appointed Abdullah as the Amir of Ha'il in 1835.[10] He formally requested the support of the British Political Resident in Bushire for his representative in Trucial Oman in 1848.[11] In 1851 he also demanded the assistance of the British Political Resident to collect zakat from Bahraini Muslims.[11] Following unsuccessful attempts to gain authority in Al Qassim Faisal appointed his younger brother Jiluwi governor to the region.[12] However, Jiluwi did not manage to obtain full loyalty of people there who revolted against him 1854.[12] In 1865 a colonel in the British army, Lewis Pelly, officially visited Faisal in Riyadh.[11]
Faisal's major income sources included zakat, import duties, pilgrim fees, one-fifth share from raids and warfare, fines, revenues from the ruler’s personal domains, and tributes paid by neighbouring countries such as Bahrain and Muscat.[13] He governed the Emirate with success until his death in December 1865.[14] However, around the end of his rule the de facto ruler of the Emirate was his heir and son, Abdullah, and infighting among his four sons eventually destroyed the state.[14]
Personal life and death
Faisal bin Turki had four sons, Abdullah, Saud, Muhammad and Abdul Rahman.[4][15] Of them Abdullah and Muhammad were full brothers so were Saud and Abdul Rahman.[3] The mother of Abdullah and Muhammad was from the Al Saud whereas the mother of Saud and Abdul Rahman was from the Ajman tribe.[3] One of his daughters married Rashidi Emir, Abdullah bin Rashid.[7] Another, Tarfa, married Nasser Al Saud who was a great great grandson of Farhan bin Saud.[3]
Faisal became very frail and blind during the later years.[16] He died following a prolonged illness in Riyadh in December 1865 and was succeeded by his son Abdullah.[14][16]
References
  1. ^ a b c R. Bayly Winder (1965). Saudi Arabia in the Nineteenth Century. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 67. doi​:​10.1007/978-1-349-81723-8​. ISBN 9780333055410.
  2. ^ William Sheakespear. "Captain". Qatar National Library. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Gary Samuel Samore (1984). Royal Family Politics in Saudi Arabia (1953-1982) (PhD thesis). Harvard University. pp. 22-23–24-25. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  4. ^ a b c Parvaiz Ahmad Khanday (2009). A Critical Analysis of the Religio-Political Conditions of Modern Saudi Arabia (PDF) (PhD thesis). Aligarh Muslim University. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  5. ^ a b Bilal Ahmad Kutty (1993). Political and religious origins of Saudi Arabia (PDF) (MA thesis). Aligarh Muslim University. p. 71. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  6. ^ Madawi Al Rasheed (2002). A History of Saudi Arabia (PDF). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 24.
  7. ^ a b Christopher Keesee Mellon (May 2015). "Resiliency of the Saudi Monarchy: 1745-1975"(Master's Project). The American University of Beirut. Beirut. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  8. ^ Donald Hawley (1970). The Trucial States. Allen & Unwin. p. 152. ISBN 9780049530058.
  9. ^ Turki bin Khalid bin Saad bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (2015). Saudi Arabia-Iran relations 1929-2013(PDF) (PhD thesis). King's College London. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  10. ^ a b c Ehab Omar (14 March 2018). "The Story of the Shammar Tribe, the Indigenous Inhabitants of the Region". Raseef. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  11. ^ a b c Abdullah Mohammad Sindi. "The Direct Instruments of Western Control over the Arabs: The Shining Example of the House of Saud"(PDF). Social sciences and humanities. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  12. ^ a b Mansour Alsharidah (July 2020). Merchants without Borders: Qusman Traders in the Arabian Gulf and Indian Ocean, c. 1850-1950 (PhD thesis). University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. p. 217. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  13. ^ Anthony B. Toth (2012). "Control and Allegiance at the Dawn of the Oil Age: Bedouin, Zakat and Struggles for Sovereignty in Arabia, 1916–1955". Middle East Critique. 21 (1): 62. doi​:​10.1080/19436149.2012.658667​.
  14. ^ a b c Bilal Ahmad Kutty (1997). Saudi Arabia under King Faisal (PDF) (PhD thesis). Aligarh Muslim University. pp. 45–46–49. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  15. ^ Alois Musil (July 1928). "Religion and Politics in Arabia". Foreign Affairs. 6.
  16. ^ a b Jacob Goldberg (1986). The Foreign Policy of Saudi Arabia. The Formative Years. Harvard University Press. p. 23. doi​:​10.4159/harvard.9780674281844.c1​. ISBN 9780674281844.
For further reading
Second State of Saudi Arabia
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mishari bin Abdul Rahman bin Mishari
Emir of Nejd
1834–1838
Succeeded by
Khalid bin Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
Preceded by
Abdullah bin Thunayyan bin Ibrahim Al Saud
Emir of Nejd
1843–1865
Succeeded by
Abdallah bin Faisal bin Turki
Preceded by
Turki bin Abdallah
Head of the House of Saud
1834–1865
Succeeded by
Abdul Rahman bin Faisal
Last edited on 5 June 2021, at 15:43
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