Born 4 February 1480 into a family of minor Portuguese nobility
, Magellan became a skilled sailor and naval officer and was in service of the Portuguese crown in Asia
. After King Manuel I of Portugal
refused to support his plan to reach India
by a new route, by sailing around the southern end of the South American continent, he was eventually selected by King Charles I of Spain
to search for a westward route to the Maluku Islands
(the "Spice Islands"). Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia. Despite a series of storms and mutinies, they made it through the Strait of Magellan
into a body of water he named the "peaceful sea" (the modern Pacific Ocean
The expedition reached the Philippine islands
, where Magellan was killed during the Battle of Mactan
. The expedition later reached the Spice Islands in 1521 and one of the surviving ships eventually returned home via the Indian Ocean
, completing the first circuit of the globe.
Magellan had already reached the Malay Archipelago
in Southeast Asia on previous voyages traveling east (from 1505 to 1511–1512). By visiting this area again but now travelling west, Magellan achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history.
Early life and travels
House where Magellan lived, in Sabrosa
Magellan was born in the Portuguese town of Sabrosa
on 4 February 1480.
His father, Pedro de Magalhães, was a minor member of Portuguese nobility
and mayor of the town. His mother was Alda de Mezquita.
Magellan's siblings included Diego de Sosa and Isabel Magellan.
He was brought up as a page
of Queen Eleanor
, consort of King John II
. In 1495 he entered the service of Manuel I
, John's successor.
He later sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira
in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca
, with Francisco Serrão
, his friend and possibly cousin.
In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to a conspiracy ending in retreat. Magellan had a crucial role, warning Sequeira and risking his life to rescue Francisco Serrão and others who had landed.
In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque
, Magellan and Serrão participated in the conquest of Malacca
. After the conquest their ways parted: Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured
and baptized, Enrique of Malacca
, he returned to Portugal in 1512 or 1513.
Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the "Spice Islands
" in the Moluccas
, where he remained. He married a woman from Amboina
and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate
, Bayan Sirrullah. His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories.
After taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco
, he was wounded, resulting in a permanent limp. He was accused of trading illegally with the Moors
. The accusations were proven false, but he received no further offers of employment after 15 May 1514. Later on in 1515, he got an employment offer as a crew member on a Portuguese ship, but rejected this. In 1517 after a quarrel with King Manuel I
, who denied his persistent demands to lead an expedition to reach the spice islands from the east (i.e., while sailing westwards, seeking to avoid the need to sail around the tip of Africa
), he was allowed to leave for Spain. In Seville
he befriended his countryman Diogo Barbosa and soon married the daughter of Diogo's second wife, Maria Caldera Beatriz Barbosa.
They had two children: Rodrigo de Magalhães
and Carlos de Magalhães, both of whom died at a young age. His wife died in Seville
Meanwhile, Magellan devoted himself to studying the most recent charts
, investigating, in partnership with cosmographer Rui Faleiro
, a gateway from the Atlantic to the South Pacific and the possibility of the Moluccas being Spanish according to the demarcation of the Treaty of Tordesillas
Voyage of circumnavigation
Background and preparations
, the sole ship of Magellan's fleet to complete the circumnavigation. Detail from a map by Ortelius
After having his proposed expeditions to the Spice Islands repeatedly rejected by King Manuel of Portugal, Magellan renounced his Portuguese nationality and turned to Charles I
, the young King of Spain (and future Holy Roman Emperor). Under the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas
, Portugal controlled the eastern routes to Asia that went around Africa. Magellan instead proposed reaching the Spice Islands by a western route, a feat which had never been accomplished. Hoping that this would yield a commercially useful trade route for Spain, Charles approved the expedition, and provided most of the funding.
Magellan's fleet consisted of five ships, carrying supplies for two years of travel. The crew consisted of about 270 men.
Most were Spanish, but around 40 were Portuguese.
Magellan's voyages; the double line represents Magellan's trip from Portugal to the Moluccas. The single line traces his long, continuous voyage from Spain to the Philippines.
The fleet left Spain on 20 September 1519, sailing west across the Atlantic toward South America. In December, they made landfall at Rio de Janeiro
. From there, they sailed south along the coast, searching for a way through or around the continent. After three months of searching (including a false start in the estuary of Río de la Plata
), weather conditions forced the fleet to stop their search to wait out the winter. They found a sheltered natural harbor at the port of Saint Julian
, and remained there for five months. Shortly after landing at St. Julian, there was a mutiny attempt led by the Spanish captains Juan de Cartagena
, Gaspar de Quesada
and Luis de Mendoza
. Magellan barely managed to quell the mutiny, despite at one point losing control of three of his five ships to the mutineers. Mendoza was killed during the conflict, and Magellan sentenced Quesada and Cartagena to being beheaded and marooned, respectively. Lower-level conspirators were made to do hard labor in chains over the winter, but later freed.
During the winter, one of the fleet's ships, the Santiago
, was lost in a storm while surveying nearby waters, though no men were killed. Following the winter, the fleet resumed their search for a passage to the Pacific in October 1520. Three days later, they found a bay which eventually led them to a strait, now known as the Strait of Magellan
, which allowed them passage through to the Pacific. While exploring the strait, one of the remaining four ships, the San Antonio
, deserted the fleet, returning east to Spain. The fleet reached the Pacific by the end of November 1520. Based on the incomplete understanding of world geography at the time, Magellan expected a short journey to Asia, perhaps taking as little as three or four days.
In fact, the Pacific crossing took three months and twenty days. The long journey exhausted their supply of food and water, and around 30 men died, mostly of scurvy
Magellan himself remained healthy, perhaps because of his personal supply of preserved quince
On 6 March 1521, the exhausted fleet made landfall at the island of Guam
and were met by native Chamorro people
who came aboard the ships and took items such as rigging, knives, and a ship's boat
. The Chamorro people may have thought they were participating in a trade exchange (as they had already given the fleet some supplies), but the crew interpreted their actions as theft.
Magellan sent a raiding party ashore to retaliate, killing several Chamorro men, burning their houses, and recovering the stolen goods.
On 16 March, the fleet reached the Philippines
, where they would remain for a month and a half. Magellan befriended local leaders on the island of Limasawa
, and on 31 March, held the first Mass in the Philippines
, planting a cross on the island's highest hill. Magellan set about converting the locals to Christianity. Most accepted the new religion readily, but the island of Mactan
resisted. On 27 April, Magellan and members of his crew attempted to subdue the Mactan natives by force, but in the ensuing battle
, the Europeans were overpowered and Magellan was killed.
Following his death, Magellan was initially succeeded by co-commanders Juan Serrano
and Duarte Barbosa (with a series of other officers later leading). The fleet left the Philippines (following a bloody betrayal by former ally Rajah Humabon
) and eventually made their way to the Moluccas in November 1521. Laden with spices, they attempted to set sail for Spain in December, but found that only one of their remaining two ships, the Victoria
, was seaworthy. The Victoria
, captained by Juan Sebastián Elcano
, finally returned to Spain by 6 September 1522, completing the circumnavigation. Of the 270 men who left with the expedition, only 18 or 19 survivors returned.
Nineteenth-century artist's depiction of Magellan's death at the hands of Mactan warriors
After several weeks in the Philippines, Magellan had converted as many as 2,200 locals to Christianity, including Rajah Humabon
and most leaders of the islands around Cebu.
, the leader of Mactan,
In order to gain the trust of Rajah Humabon,
Magellan sailed to Mactan with a small force on the morning of 27 April 1521. During the resulting battle against Lapulapu's troops, Magellan was struck by a bamboo spear, and later surrounded and finished off with other weapons.
When morning came forty-nine of us leaped into the water up to our thighs, and walked through water for more than two crossbow flights before we could reach the shore. The boats could not approach nearer because of certain rocks in the water. The other eleven men remained behind to guard the boats. When we reached land, those men had formed in three divisions to the number of more than one thousand five hundred persons. When they saw us, they charged down upon us with exceeding loud cries ... The musketeers and crossbowmen shot from a distance for about a half-hour, but uselessly; for the shots only passed through the shields ... Recognizing the captain, so many turned upon him that they knocked his helmet off his head twice ... An Indian hurled a bamboo spear into the captain's face, but the latter immediately killed him with his lance, which he left in the Indian's body. Then, trying to lay hand on sword, he could draw it out but halfway, because he had been wounded in the arm with a bamboo spear. When the natives saw that, they all hurled themselves upon him. One of them wounded him on the left leg with a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, only being larger. That caused the captain to fall face downward, when immediately they rushed upon him with iron and bamboo spears and with their cutlasses, until they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true guide.
— Antonio Pigafetta:173–177
Nothing of Magellan's body survived, that afternoon the grieving rajah-king, hoping to recover his remains, offered Mactan's victorious chief a handsome ransom of copper and iron for them but Datu Lapulapu refused. He intended to keep the body as a war trophy. Since his wife and child died in Seville before any member of the expedition could return to Spain, it seemed that every evidence of Ferdinand Magellan's existence had vanished from the earth.
Reputation following circumnavigation
In the immediate aftermath of the circumnavigation, few celebrated Magellan for his accomplishments, and he was widely discredited and reviled in Spain and his native Portugal.
The Portuguese regarded Magellan as a traitor for having sailed for Spain. In Spain, Magellan's reputation suffered due to the largely unflattering accounts of his actions given by the survivors of the expedition.
The first news of the expedition came from the crew of the San Antonio
, led by Estêvão Gomes
, which deserted the fleet in the Strait of Magellan and returned to Seville 6 May 1521. The deserters were put on trial, but eventually exonerated after producing a distorted version of the mutiny at Saint Julian, and depicting Magellan as disloyal to the king. The expedition was assumed to have perished.
The Casa de Contratación
withheld Magellan's salary from his wife, Beatriz "considering the outcome of the voyage", and she was placed under house arrest with their young son on the orders of Archbishop Fonseca
The 18 survivors who eventually returned aboard the Victoria
in September 1522 were also largely unfavourable to Magellan. Many, including the captain, Juan Sebastián Elcano, had participated in the mutiny at Saint Julian. On the ship's return, Charles summoned Elcano to Valladolid
, inviting him to bring two guests. He brought sailors Francisco Albo and Hernándo de Bustamante, pointedly not including Antonio Pigafetta, the expedition's chronicler. Under questioning by Valladolid's mayor, the men claimed that Magellan refused to follow the king's orders (and gave this as the cause for the mutiny at Saint Julian), and that he unfairly favoured his relatives among the crew, and disfavoured the Spanish captains.
One of the few survivors loyal to Magellan was Antonio Pigafetta. Though not invited to testify with Elcano, Pigafetta made his own way to Valladolid and presented Charles with a hand-written copy of his notes from the journey. He would later travel through Europe giving copies to other royals including John III of Portugal
, Francis I of France
, and Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam
. After returning to his home of Venice, Pigafetta published his diary (as Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo
) around 1524. Scholars have come to view Pigafetta's diary as the most thorough and reliable account of the circumnavigation, and its publication helped to eventually counter the misinformation spread by Elcano and the other surviving mutineers.
In an often-cited passage following his description of Magellan's death in the Battle of Mactan, Pigafetta eulogizes
Magellan's main virtues were courage and perseverance, in even the most difficult situations; for example he bore hunger and fatigue better than all the rest of us. He was a magnificent practical seaman, who understood navigation better than all his pilots. The best proof of his genius is that he circumnavigated the world, none having preceded him.
A 1561 map of America showing Magellan's name for the pacific, Mare pacificum
, and the Strait of Magellan
, labelled Frenum Magaliani
Magellan has come to be renowned for his navigational skill and tenacity. The first circumnavigation has been called "the greatest sea voyage in the Age of Discovery
and even "the most important maritime voyage ever undertaken".
Appreciation of Magellan's accomplishments may have been enhanced over time by the failure of subsequent expeditions which attempted to retrace his route, beginning with the Loaísa expedition in 1525 (which featured Juan Sebastián Elcano as second-in-command).
The next expedition to successfully complete a circumnavigation, led by Francis Drake
, would not occur until 1580, 58 years after the return of the Victoria
Even though Magellan did not survive the trip, he has received more recognition for the expedition than Elcano has, since Magellan was the one who started it, Portugal wanted to recognize a Portuguese explorer, and Spain feared Basque nationalism. In 2019, the 500th anniversary of the voyage, Spain and Magellan’s native Portugal submitted a new joint application to UNESCO to honour the circumnavigation route.
Commemorations of the circumnavigation include:
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- ^ One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Magellan, Ferdinand". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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- ^ William J. Bernstein, A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World, pp. 183–185, Grove Press, 2009, ISBN 0-8021-4416-0
- ^ Zweig, Stefan, "Conqueror of the Seas – The Story of Magellan", pp. 44–45, Read Books, 2007, ISBN 1-4067-6006-4
- ^ Zweig, Stefan, "Conqueror of the Seas – The Story of Magellan", p. 51, Read Books, 2007, ISBN 1-4067-6006-4
- ^ R.A. Donkin, "Between East and West: The Moluccas and the Traffic in Spices up to the Arrival of Europeans", p. 29, Volume 248 of Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, Diane Publishing, 2003 ISBN 0-87169-248-1
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- ^ Nancy Smiler Levinson (2001), Magellan and the First Voyage Around the World, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, p. 39, ISBN 978-0-395-98773-5, retrieved 31 July 2010, Personnel records are imprecise. The most accepted total number is 270.
- ^ "Ferdinand Magellan - Allegiance to Spain". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
- ^ George Bryan Souza, Jeffrey S. Turley (2016). The Boxer Codex Transcription and Translation of an Illustrated Late Sixteenth-Century Spanish Manuscript Concerning the Geography, History and Ethnography of the Pacific, South-East and East Asia. Brill. p. 303. ISBN 978-90-04-29273-4. OCLC 932684337.
- ^ ABS-CBN News (1 May 2019). "It's Lapulapu: Gov't committee weighs in on correct spelling of Filipino hero's name". ABS-CBN News. ABS-CBN Corporation. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- ^ David, Hawthorne (1964). Ferdinand Magellan. Doubleday & Company, Inc.
- ^ "Battle of Mactan Marks Start of Organized Filipino Resistance Vs. Foreign Aggression". Retrieved 9 April 2009.
- ^ Ocampo, Ambeth (13 November 2019). "Lapu-Lapu, Magellan and blind patriotism". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- ^ Mojarro, Jorge (10 November 2019). "[OPINION] The anger toward the 'Elcano & Magellan' film is unjustified". Rappler. Rappler Inc. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- ^ a b Pigafetta, Antonio. Magellan's Voyage Around the World (1906 ed.). tr. James Alexander Robertson
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- ^ Camino, Mercedes Maroto. Producing the Pacific: Maps and Narratives of Spanish Exploration (1567–1606), p. 76. 2005.
- ^ "King and Queen of Spain open commemorative exhibition on first circumnavigation by Magellan and Elcano". 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
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- Castro, Xavier de; Hamon, Jocelynn; Thomaz, Luis Filipe de Castro (2007). Le voyage de Magellan (1519–1522). La relation d'Antonio Pigafetta & autres témoignages. Paris: Chandeigne, coll. "Magellane". ISBN 978-2-915540-32-1.
- Cliffe, Edward (1885). Hakluyt, Richard (ed.). "The voyage of M. John Winter into the South sea by the Streight of Magellan, in consort with M. Francis Drake, begun in the yeere 1577". The principal navigations, voyages, traffiques and discoveries of the English nation. Edinburgh: E. & G. Goldsmid.
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Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 13:03
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