is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community
and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion
. It is often marked as a local or national holiday
, or eid
. A festival constitutes typical cases of glocalization
, as well as the high culture-low culture interrelationship.
Next to religion and folklore
, a significant origin is agricultural
. Food is such a vital resource that many festivals are associated with harvest
time. Religious commemoration and thanksgiving for good harvests are blended in events that take place in autumn
, such as Halloween
in the northern hemisphere and Easter
in the southern.
Village Feast. Facsimile of a woodcut of the Sandrin ou Verd Galant, facetious work end of 16th century (edition of 1609)
Festivals often serve to fulfill specific communal purposes, especially in regard to commemoration or thanking to the gods, goddesses or saints: they're called patronal festivals
. They may also provide entertainment
, which was particularly important to local communities before the advent of mass-produced entertainment. Festivals that focus on cultural or ethnic topics also seek to inform community members of their traditions; the involvement of elders
sharing stories and experience provides a means for unity among families
In Ancient Greece
, festivals such as the Saturnalia
were closely associated with social organisation and political processes as well as religion.
In modern times, festivals may be attended by strangers such as tourists, who are attracted to some of the more eccentric or historical ones. The Philippines
is one example of a modern society with many festivals, as each day of the year has at least one specific celebration. There are more than 42,000 known major and minor festivals in the country, most of which are specific to the barangay
A Festival at Antwerp
, Belgium, 17th century
The word "festival" was originally used as an adjective from the late fourteenth century, deriving from Latin
via Old French
In Middle English
, a "festival dai" was a religious holiday.
Its first recorded used as a noun was in 1589 (as "Festifall").
Feast first came into usage as a noun circa 1200,
and its first recorded use as a verb was circa 1300.
The term "feast" is also used in common secular parlance
as a synonym for any large or elaborate meal
. When used as in the meaning of a festival, most often refers to a religious festival
rather than a film or art festival. In the Philippines
and many other former Spanish colonies, the Spanish word fiesta
is used to denote a communal religious feast to honor a patron saint
The word gala
comes from Arabic
, meaning robe of honor.
The word gala was initially used to describe "festive dress", but came to be a synonym of festival starting in the 18th century.
Many festivals have religious origins and entwine cultural and religious significance in traditional activities. The most important religious festivals such as Christmas
, Rosh Hashanah
, Eid al-Fitr
and Eid al-Adha
serve to mark out the year. Others, such as harvest festivals
, celebrate seasonal change. Events of historical significance, such as important military victories or other nation-building events also provide the impetus for a festival. An early example is the festival established by Ancient Egyptian
Pharaoh Ramesses III
celebrating his victory over the Libyans.
In many countries, royal holidays commemorate dynastic events just as agricultural holidays are about harvests. Festivals are often commemorated annually.
There are numerous types of festivals
in the world and most countries celebrate important events or traditions with traditional cultural events and activities. Most culminate in the consumption of specially prepared food (showing the connection to "feasting") and they bring people together. Festivals are also strongly associated with national holidays. Lists of national festivals are published to make participation easier.
Types of festivals
Among many religions
, a feast is a set of celebrations in honour of God
A feast and a festival are historically interchangeable. Most religions have festivals that recur annually and some, such as Passover
, Easter and Eid al-Adha are moveable feasts
– that is, those that are determined either by lunar or agricultural cycles or the calendar in use at the time. The Sed festival
, for example, celebrated the thirtieth year of an Egyptian pharaoh
's rule and then every three (or four in one case) years after that.
Among the Ashantis
, most of their traditional festivals are linked to gazette sites which are believed to be sacred with several rich biological resources in their pristine forms. Thus, the annual commemoration of the festivals helps in maintaining the buoyancy of the conserved natural site, assisting in biodiversity conservation.
In the Christian liturgical calendar
, there are two principal feasts, properly known as the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord (Christmas) and the Feast of the Resurrection (Easter), but minor festivals in honour of local patron saints
are celebrated in almost all countries influenced by Christianity. In the Catholic
, Eastern Orthodox
, and Anglican
liturgical calendars there are a great number of lesser feasts throughout the year commemorating saints, sacred events or doctrines. In the Philippines
, each day of the year has at least one specific religious festival, either from Catholic, Islamic, or indigenous origins.
Food and drink festivals
A food festival is an event celebrating food or drink. These often highlight the output of producers from a certain region. Some food festivals are focused on a particular item of food, such as the National Peanut Festival
in the United States, or the Galway International Oyster Festival
in Ireland. There are also specific beverage festivals, such as the famous Oktoberfest
in Germany for beer
. Many countries hold festivals to celebrate wine
. One example is the global celebration of the arrival of Beaujolais nouveau
, which involves shipping the new wine around the world for its release date on the third Thursday of November each year.
Both Beaujolais nouveau and the Japanese rice wine sake
are associated with harvest time. In the Philippines, there are at least two hundred festivals dedicated to food and drinks.
Food and drink festivals
Seasonal and harvest festivals
Seasonal festivals, such as Beltane
, are determined by the solar
and the lunar calendars
and by the cycle of the seasons
, especially because of its effect on food supply, as a result of which there is a wide range
of ancient and modern harvest festivals
. Ancient Egyptians relied upon the seasonal inundation
caused by the Nile River
, a form of irrigation
, which provided fertile land for crops.
In the Alps
, in autumn the return of the cattle from the mountain pastures
to the stables in the valley is celebrated as Almabtrieb
. A recognized winter festival, the Chinese New Year
, is set by the lunar calendar, and celebrated from the day of the second new moon after the winter solstice
. Dree Festival
of the Apatanis living in Lower Subansiri District of Arunachal Pradesh is celebrated every year from July 4 to 7 by praying for a bumper crop harvest.
or St John's Day, is an example of a seasonal festival, related to the feast day
of a Christian saint as well as a celebration of the time of the summer solstice
in the northern hemisphere, where it is particularly important in Sweden. Winter carnivals
also provide the opportunity to utilise to celebrate creative or sporting activities requiring snow and ice. In the Philippines
, each day of the year has at least one festival dedicated to harvesting of crops, fishes, crustaceans, milk, and other local goods.
Seasonal and harvest festivals
Study of festivals
- ^ Caves, R. W. (2004). Encyclopedia of the City. Routledge. p. 264.
- ^ Robertson, Noel (1992). Festivals and legends: the formation of Greek cities in the light of public ritual (Repr. ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0802059880.
- ^ Brandt, edited by J. Rasmus; Iddeng, Jon W. (2012). Greek and Roman festivals : content, meaning, and practice (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-969609-3.
- ^ Pickard-Cambridge, Sir Arthur (1953). The dramatic festivals of Athens (2nd ed.). Oxford: At the Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198142587.
- ^ Picard, David; Robinson, Mike (2006). "Remaking Worlds: Festivals, Tourism and Change". In David Picard and Mike Robinson (ed.). Festivals, Tourism and Social Change. Channel View Publications. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-1-84541-267-8.
- ^ a b "festival, adj. and n.". OED Online. March 2014. Oxford University Press. Accessed April 16, 2014.
- ^ festival (adj.) at the Middle English Dictionary. Accessed April 16, 2014.
- ^ "feast, n.". OED Online. March 2014. Oxford University Press. Accessed April 16, 2014.
- ^ "feast, v.". OED Online. March 2014. Oxford University Press. Accessed April 16, 2014.
- ^ James E Glevin. The Modern Middle East: A History. Oxford University Press. p. 21.
- ^ "gala (n.)".
- ^ Berrett, LaMar C.; Ogden D. Kelly (1996). Discovering the world of the Bible (3rd ed., rev. ed.). Provo, Utah: Grandin Book Co. p. 289. ISBN 0-910523-52-5.
- ^ See for example: List of festivals in Australia; Bangladesh; Canada; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Fiji; India; Indonesia; Iran; Japan; Laos; Morocco; Nepal; Pakistan; Philippines; Romania; Tunisia; Turkey; United Kingdom; United States; Vietnam.
- ^ Ancient Egyptian festivals could be either religious or political.Bleeker, C. J. (1968) . Egyptian festivals. Enactments of religious renewal. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill.
- ^ "Heb-Sed (Egyptian feast)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- ^ Robson, James P. (2007). "Local approaches to biodiversity conservation: lessons from Oaxaca, southern Mexico". International Journal of Sustainable Development. 10 (3): 267. doi:10.1504/ijsd.2007.017647. ISSN 0960-1406.
- ^ Gerson, Ruth (1996). Traditional festivals in Thailand. Kuala Lumpur; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9676531111.
- ^ Roy, Christian (2005). "Sikh Vaisakhi: Anniversary of the Pure". Traditional Festivals, Vol. 2 [M – Z]: A Multicultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 480. ISBN 978-1-57607-089-5.
- ^ See List of music festivals.
- ^ Some such as such as Cúirt International Festival of Literature started as a poetry festival and then broadened in scope.
- ^ Kasilag, Giselle P. (February 1999). "Performances, exhibits around the country mark National Arts Month". BusinessWorld (SanJuan, Philippines): 1. ISSN 0116-3930 – via Nexis Uni.
- ^ "Best Istanbul Film Festival". Retrieved February 12, 2021.
- ^ Hyslop, Leah (November 21, 2013). "Beaujolais Nouveau day: 10 facts about the wine". The Telegraph.
- ^ Haine, W. Scott (2006). Culture and Customs of France. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-313-32892-3.
- ^ Bunson, Margaret (2009). "Nile festivals". Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Infobase Publishing. p. 278. ISBN 978-1-4381-0997-8.
- ^ "Press release – Dree festival". Directorate of Information, Govt of Arunachal Pradesh. July 5, 2004. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2009.
- ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Heortology" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- ^ Robert Parker: Athenian Religion
Ian Yeoman, ed. (2004). Festival and events management: an international arts and culture perspective (1st ed., repr. ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 9780750658720
- Media related to Festivals at Wikimedia Commons
- The dictionary definition of Festival at Wiktionary
Last edited on 31 March 2021, at 14:53
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.