"European flag" redirects here. For a gallery of flags of countries in Europe, see Flags of Europe
The design was conceived in 1955, and officially adopted later that year by the Council of Europe as a symbol for the whole of Europe.
The Council of Europe urged that it be adopted by other European organisations, and in 1985 the European Communities
(EC) adopted it.
The EU also inherited the emblem's use when it was formed in 1993, being the successor organisation to the EC starting from 1 December 2009 (date of entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty
). It has been in wide official use by the EC since the 1990s, but it has never been given official status in any of the EU's treaties
. Its adoption as an official symbol of the EU was planned as part of the proposed 2004 European Constitution
, which failed to be ratified in 2005.
The flag is used by different European organisations as well as by unified European sporting teams under the name of Team Europe
given by the EU in 1996 describe the design as: "On an azure
field a circle of twelve golden mullets
, their points not touching."
The flag used is the Flag of Europe, which consists of a circle of
twelve golden stars on a blue background. Originally designed in 1955 for the Council of Europe, the flag was adopted by the European Communities
, the predecessors of the present European Union, in 1986. The Council of Europe gave the flag a symbolic description in the following terms,
though the official symbolic description adopted by the EU omits the reference to the "Western world":
Against the blue sky of the Western world, the stars symbolise the peoples of Europe in a form of a circle, a sign of union. Their number is invariably twelve
, the figure twelve being the symbol of perfection and entirety.
— Council of Europe. Paris, 7–9 December 1955.
Other symbolic interpretations have been offered based on the account of its design by Paul M. Levy
. The five-pointed star is used on many national flags and represents aspiration and education. Their golden colour is that of the sun, which is said to symbolise glory and enlightenment.
Their arrangement in a circle represents the constellation of Corona Borealis
and can be seen as a crown and the stability of government. The blue background resembles the sky and symbolises truth and the intellect. It is also the colour traditionally used to represent the Virgin Mary. In many paintings of the Virgin Mary as Stella Maris
she is crowned with a circle of twelve stars.
In 1987, following the adoption of the flag by the EC, Arsène Heitz (1908–1989), one of the designers who had submitted proposals for the flag's design, suggested a religious inspiration for it. He claimed that the circle of stars was based on the iconographic tradition of showing the Blessed Virgin Mary
as the Woman of the Apocalypse
, wearing a "crown of twelve stars".
Heitz also made a connection to the date of the flag's adoption, 8 December 1955, coinciding with the Catholic Feast of the Immaculate Conception
of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Paul M. G. Lévy
, then Director of Information at the Council of Europe responsible for designing the flag, in a 1989 statement maintained that he had not been aware of any religious connotations.
In an interview given 26 February 1998, Lévy denied not only awareness of the "Marian" connection, but also denied that the final design of a circle of twelve stars was Heitz's. To the question "Who really designed the flag?" Lévy replied:
I did, and I calculated the proportions to be used for the geometric design. Arsène Heitz, who was an employee in the mail service, put in all sorts of proposals, including the 15-star design. But he submitted too many designs. He wanted to do the European currencies with 15 stars in the corner. He wanted to do national flags incorporating the Council of Europe flag.
Carlo Curti Gialdino (2005) has reconstructed the design process to the effect that Heitz's proposal contained varying numbers of stars, from which the version with twelve stars was chosen by the Committee of Ministers meeting at Deputy level in January 1955 as one out of two remaining candidate designs.
Lévy's 1998 interview apparently gave rise to a new variant of the "Marian" anecdote. An article published in Die Welt
in August 1998 alleged that it was Lévy himself who was inspired to introduce a "Marian" element as he walked past a statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
An article posted in La Raison
in February 2000 further connected the donation of a stained glass window for Strasbourg Cathedral
by the Council of Europe on 21 October 1956. This window, a work by Parisian master Max Ingrand
, shows a blessing Madonna underneath a circle of 12 stars on dark blue ground.
The overall design of the Madonna is inspired by the banner of the cathedral's Congrégation Mariale des Hommes
, and the twelve stars are found on the statue venerated by this congregation inside the cathedral (twelve is also the number of members of the congregation's council).
The Regional Office for Cultural Affairs describe this stained glass window called "Le vitrail de l'Europe de Max Ingrand" (The Glass Window of Europe of Max Ingrand).
Adoption and usage
According to graphical specifications published online by the Council of Europe in 2004, the flag is rectangular with 2:3 proportions: its fly
(width) is one and a half times the length of its hoist
(height). Twelve yellow stars are centred in a circle (the radius
of which is a third of the length of the hoist) upon a blue background. All the stars are upright (one point straight up), have five points and are spaced equally, like the hour positions on the face of a clock
. The diameter of each star is equal to one-ninth of the height of the hoist.
The colours are regulated in the 1996 guide by the EC,
and equivalently in the 2004 guide by the Council of Europe.
The base colour of the flag is defined as Pantone
", while the golden stars are portrayed in Pantone "Yellow":
The 2013 logo of the Council of Europe has the colours:
1950–present: Council of Europe
The Council of Europe
in 1950 appointed a committee to study the question of adopting a symbol. Numerous proposals were looked into.
Among the unsuccessful proposals was the flag of Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi
's International Paneuropean Union
, which he had himself recently adopted for the European Parliamentary Union
The design was a blue field with a red cross inside an orange circle at the centre. Kalergi was very committed to defending the cross
as "the great symbol of Europe's moral unity", the Red Cross
in particular being "recognized by the whole world, by Christian and non-Christian nations[,] as a symbol of international charity and of the brotherhood of man",
but the proposal was rejected by Turkey
(a member of the Council of Europe since 1949) on grounds of its religious associations
in spite of Kalergi's suggestion of adding a crescent
alongside the cross to overcome the Muslim objections.
The Consultative Assembly narrowed their choice to two designs. One was by Salvador de Madariaga
, the founder of the College of Europe
, who suggested a constellation
of stars on a blue background
(positioned according to capital cities, with a large star for Strasbourg
, the seat of the Council). He had circulated his flag round many European capitals and the concept had found favour.
The second was a variant by Arsène Heitz, who worked for the Council's postal service and had submitted dozens of designs,
one of which was accepted by the Assembly. The design was similar to Salvador de Madariaga's, but rather than a constellation, the stars were arranged in a circle.
In 1987, Heitz would claim that his inspiration had been the crown of twelve stars of the Woman of the Apocalypse
, often found in Marian iconography
On 25 September 1953, the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe recommended that a blue flag with fifteen gold stars be adopted as an emblem for the organisation, the number fifteen reflecting the number of states of the Council of Europe.West Germany
objected to the fifteen-star design, as one of the members was Saar Protectorate
, and to have its own star would imply sovereignty
for the region.[better source needed]
The Committee of Ministers (the Council's main decision making body) agreed with the Assembly that the flag should be a circle of stars, but opted for a fixed number of twelve stars, "representing
perfection and entirety".
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
on 25 October 1955 agreed to this. Paul M. G. Lévy
drew up the exact design of the new flag.
Officially adopted on 8 December 1955, the flag was unveiled at the Château de la Muette
in Paris on 13 December 1955.
For the flag of the Council of Europe, many stylistic proposals were made in regards to colours and symbolism. These first proposals were made 19 January 1950 by Paul Levy in a letter to the Secretary-General. He proposed that the flag should contain a cross for several reasons. Firstly, the cross symbolizes roads crossing, and also represents the east, the west, the north, and the south with its arms. Furthermore, the cross appears in most of the European Council members' flags, and it is the oldest and most noble symbol in Europe. Moreover, the cross depicted Christianity. As far as the colours are concerned, he proposed them to be white and green, colours of the European Movement, which was of great significance since 1947. Green also depicted hope, and the green cross over a white background was a design that had not been used yet. Finally, Levy proposed that the arms of Strasbourg was an important element to be added as it represented where the council would be, and being located in the heart of the cross meant that the council was the point where the European roads met.
Shortly after this design considerations by Paul Levy, on 27 July 1950, Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, president of the Pan-European
movement wrote a memorandum which contained some rules that a flag for such union should follow. The rules he stated where:
- It should be a symbol of our common civilisation.
- It should present a European emblem.
- It should not provoke any national rivalry.
- It should represent tradition.
- It should be beautiful and dignified.
15 July 1951, the consultative assembly put forward a final memorandum on the European flag. The symbols proposed where the following
- A cross: Symbol of Christianity, Europe's crossroads, reminiscent of the crusades, and present in half of the member state's flags.
- An "E": Used by the European Movement.
- A white star in a circle: Symbol used in 1944–45 by the armies of liberation.
- Multiple stars: Each star could represent a member. They could be green on a white background, white stars on a red background, or silver stars for associate members, and golden stars for full members.
- Strasbourg's Coat of Arms: To symbolize the official seat of the Council of Europe.
- A sun: It would represent dawning hope.
- A triangle: It would represent culture.
Furthermore, several colours were also proposed:
- Multi-coloured: It was proposed that the flag could contain all the colours the flags of the member states had.
- Green and White: These were the colours of the European Movement.
- Sky Blue: Symbol of peace and neutrality, as other colours were already used for other movements such as black for mourning, red for bolshevism, or green for Islam.
In the end, the flag of Europe was chosen to have 12 five-pointed golden stars in a circle over a blue background, probably inspired by the Pan-European flag and other designs such as Salvador de Madriaga's and Arsène Heitz's proposals.
1983–present: From European Communities to European Union
Vertical flag of Europe
Following Expo 58
in Brussels, the flag caught on and the Council of Europe lobbied for other European organisations to adopt the flag as a sign of European unity.
The European Parliament took the initiative in seeking a flag to be adopted by the European Communities
. Shortly after the first direct elections in 1979
a draft resolution was put forward on the issue. The resolution proposed that the Communities' flag should be that of the Council of Europe
and it was adopted by the Parliament on 11 April 1983.
"Flag and emblem" for the European Communities proposed in the 1985 Adonnino Report
The June 1984 European Council
(the Communities' leaders) summit in Fontainebleau
stressed the importance of promoting a European image and identity to citizens and the world. The European Council appointed an ad hoc
committee, named "Committee for 'a People's Europe'" (Adonnino Committee).
This committee submitted a substantial report, including wide-ranging suggestions, from organising a "European lottery" to campaigning for the introduction of local voting rights for foreign nationals throughout Europe.
Under the header of "strengthening of the Community's image and identity", the Committee suggested the introduction of "a flag and an emblem", recommending a design based on the Council of Europe flag, but with the addition of "a gold letter E" in the center of the circle of stars.
The European Council held in Milan
on 28/29 June 1985 largely followed the recommendations of the Adonnino Committee. But as the adoption of a flag was strongly reminiscent of a national flag
and was extremely controversial with some member states (in particular the United Kingdom), the Council of Europe's "flag of Europe" design was adopted only with the official status of a "logo".
This compromise was widely disregarded from the beginning, and the "European logo", in spite of the explicit language of giving it the status of a "logo", was referred to as the "Community flag" or even "European flag" from the outset.
The European Union, which was established by the Maastricht Treaty
in 1992 to replace the European Communities and encompass its functions, has retained de facto
use of the "Community logo" of the EC.
Technically and officially, the "European flag" as used by the European Union remains not a "flag" but "a Community 'logo' — or 'emblem' — [...] eligible to be reproduced on rectangular pieces of fabric".
In 1997, the "Central and Eastern Eurobarometer
" poll included a section intending to "discover the level of public awareness of the European Union" in what were then candidate countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Interviewees were shown "a sticker of the European flag" and asked to identify it. Responses considered correct were: the European Union, the European Community, the Common Market
, and "Europe in general". 52% of those interviewed gave one of the correct answers, 15% gave a wrong answer (naming another institution, such as NATO or the United Nations), and 35% could or would not identify it.
The "barcode flag"
In 2002, Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas
designed a new flag, dubbed the "barcode", as it displayed the colours of the national flags of the EU member states in vertical stripes. It was never officially adopted by the EU or any organisation, but it was used as the logo of the Austrian EU Presidency
The official status of the emblem as the flag of the European Union was to be formalised as part of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe
. However, as the proposed treaty failed ratification, the mention of all state-like emblems, including the flag, were not included in the replacement Treaty of Lisbon
, which entered into force in 2009.
Instead, a separate declaration by sixteen Member States was included in the final act of the Treaty of Lisbon stating that the flag, the anthem, the motto and the currency and Europe Day "will for them continue as symbols to express the sense of community of the people in the European Union and their allegiance to it."
In reaction to the removal of the flag from the treaty, the European Parliament, which had supported the inclusion of such symbols, backed a proposal to use these symbols "more often" on behalf of the Parliament itself; Jo Leinen
, MEP for Germany, suggested that the Parliament should take "an avant-garde
role" in their use.[clarification needed]
In September 2008, the Parliament's Committee on Constitutional Affairs
proposed a formal change in the institution's rules of procedure to make "better use of the symbols". Specifically, the flag would be present in all meeting rooms (not just the hemicycle) and at all official events.
The proposal was passed on 8 October 2008 by 503 votes to 96 (15 abstentions).
In 2015, a set of commemorative Euro coin
was issued on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the adoption of the emblem by the European Communities.
Following the 2004 Summer Olympics
, President Romano Prodi
expressed his hope "to see the EU Member State teams in Beijing [viz., the 2008 games]
carry the flag of the European Union alongside their own national flag as a symbol of our unity".
Use of the flag has also been reported as representing the European team at the Ryder Cup
golf competition in the early 2000s, although most European participants preferred to use their own national flags.
, the flag has been on most government buildings since the coming to power of Mikheil Saakashvili
who used it during his inauguration,
stating: "[the European] flag is Georgia's flag as well, as far as it embodies our civilisation, our culture, the essence of our history and perspective, and our vision for the future of Georgia."
It was used in 2008 by pro-western Serbian voters ahead of an election.
By the 2010s, the association of the emblem with the EU had become so strong that the Council of Europe saw it necessary to design a new logo, to "avoid confusion", officially adopted in 2013.
It is also depicted on many driving licences
and vehicle registration plates
issued in the Union. Diplomatic missions
of EU member states fly the EU flag alongside their national flag. In October 2000, the then-new British Embassy in Berlin
sparked controversy between the UK and Germany and the EU when the embassy did not have a second external flagpole for the EU flag. After diplomatic negotiations, it was agreed that the outside flagpole would have the diplomatic Union Flag
while inside the embassy, the EU flag would accompany the UK flag.
Some member states' national airlines
such as Lufthansa
have the EU flag alongside their national flags on aircraft as part of their aircraft registration codes, but this is not an EU-mandated directive.
A number of logos used by EU institutions, bodies and agencies are derived from the design and colours of the EU emblem.
Other emblems make reference to the European flag, such as the EU organic food label
that uses the twelve stars but reorders them into the shape of a leaf on a green background. The original logo of the European Broadcasting Union
used the twelve stars on a blue background adding ray beams to connect the countries.
There was a proposal in 2003 to deface
national civil ensigns with the EU emblem. The proposal was rejected by Parliament in 2004.
Extraordinary flying of the flag is common on Europe Day
, celebrated annually on 9 May.
On Europe Day 2008, the flag was flown for the first time above the German Reichstag
Sixteen out of twenty-seven member states in 2007 signed the declaration recognising "the flag with a circle of twelve golden stars on a blue background" as representing "the sense of community of the people in the European Union and their allegiance to it."
In 2017, president of France Emmanuel Macron
signed a declaration endorsing the 2007 statement,
so that, as of 2018, 17 out of 27 members
have recognised the emblem as a flag representing "allegiance to the EU": Austria
, France, Germany, Greece
, Italy, Lithuania
Italy has incorporated the EU flag into its flag code. According to an Italian law passed in 2000, it is mandatory for most public offices and buildings to hoist the European Flag alongside the Italian national flag
(Law 22/1998 and Presidential Decree 121/2000). Outside official use, the flag may not be used for "aims incompatible with European values
The 2000 Italian flag code expressly replaces the Italian flag with the European flag in precedence when dignitaries from other EU countries visit – for example the EU flag would be in the middle of a group of three flags rather than the Italian flag.
In Germany, the federal flag code of 1996 is only concerned with the German flag
but some of the states
have legislated additional provisions for the European flag, such as Bavaria
in its flag regulation of 2001, which mandates that the European flag take the third order of precedence, after the federal and state flags, except on Europe Day
, where it is to take the first order of precedence.
on occasions of "European Union Events" (for example, at a European Council
meeting), where the European flag is flown alongside all national flags of member states, the national flags are placed in alphabetical order (according to their name in the main language
of that state) with the European flag either at the head, or the far-right, of the order of flags.
In most member states, use of the EU flag is only de facto
and not regulated by legislation, and as such subject to ad hoc
revision. In national usage, national protocol usually[clarification needed]
demands the national flag takes precedence over the European flag (which is usually displayed to the right of the national flag from the observer's perspective). In November 2014, the speaker of the Hungarian Parliament László Kövér
ordered the removal of the EU flag from the parliament building, following an incident in which a member of parliament had "defenestrated" two EU flags from a fourth story window.
In November 2015, the newly elected
Polish government under Beata Szydło
removed the EU flag from government press conferences.
The design of the European flag has been used in a variation, such as that of the Council of Europe mentioned above, and also to a greater extent such as the flag of the Western European Union
(WEU; now defunct), which uses the same colours and the stars but has a number of stars based on membership and in a semicircle rather than a circle. It is also defaced
with the initials of the former Western European Union
in two languages.
The European Parliament
used its own flag from 1973, but never formally adopted it. It fell out of use with the adoption of the twelve-star flag by the Parliament in 1983. The flag followed the yellow and blue colour scheme however instead of twelve stars there were the letters EP and PE (initials of the European Parliament in the six community languages
at the time) surrounded by a wreath
Sometime later, the Parliament chose to use a logo consisting of a stylised hemicycle
and the EU flag at the bottom right.
uses blue, yellow and stars in its flag
, which has been mocked as a "none too subtle nod to the flag of the European Union, which is about to become Kosovo's new best friend as it takes over protector status from the United Nations".
The flag of the Brussels-Capital Region
(introduced in 2016) consists of a yellow iris with a white outline upon a blue background. Its colours are based on the colours of the Flag of Europe, because Brussels is considered the unofficial capital of the EU.
Several EU publications related to the CSDP generally, and its prospective development as a defence arm, have also displayed the European emblem in this manner, albeit as a graphical design element rather than an official symbol.
Flags of the European Union's precursors
Flags of other European unification movements
Other continental flags
- ^ Some flags were proposed on several occasions. Therefore, the dates shown are the oldest dates on which the flag was first recorded.
- ^ Most of the documents sourced are from the Council of Europe webpage. Furthermore, some reconstructions were assisted by images of the flag sketches stored in the Digital Research in European Studies. Other reconstructions were made from descriptions in the documents and images provided by the European Council.
- ^ Probably Louis Wirion, who had already talked about reverting the colours in his first proposal.
- ^ The European flag, Council of Europe, retrieved 8 December 2020
- ^ Emblème du Conseil de l'Europe, Council of Europe, 9 December 1955, retrieved 8 December 2020
- ^ a b c d Council of Europe's Emblems, Council of Europe, archived from the original on 7 August 2007, retrieved 16 August 2007
- ^ "The European flag". The Council of Europe in brief. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
- ^ "The European flag". The Council of Europe in brief. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
- ^ The European flag, Council of Europe. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 June 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- ^ a b (in French) Guide graphique relatif à l'emblème européen (1996), p. 3: Description symbolique: Sur le fond bleu du ciel, les étoiles figurant les peuples d'Europe forment un cercle en signe d'union. Elles sont au nombre invariable de douze, symbole de la perfection et de la plénitude...Description héraldique: Sur fond azur, un cercle composé de douze étoiles d'or à cinq rais, dont les pointes ne se touchent pas. c.f. Graphical specifications for the European Emblem, European Commission, archived from the original on 22 June 2006, retrieved 4 August 2004
- ^ Thirty-sixth meeting of the ministers' deputies: resolution (55) 32 (PDF), Council of Europe, 9 December 1955, archived from the original(PDF) on 28 May 2009, retrieved 2 February 2008
- ^ [Guide graphique relatif à l'emblème européen (1996) "Guide graphique relatif à l'emblème européen"] Check |url= value (help) (in French). 1996. p. 3. Description symbolique: Sur le fond bleu du ciel, les étoiles figurant les peuples d'Europe forment un cercle en signe d'union. Elles sont au nombre invariable de douze, symbole de la perfection et de la plénitude...Description héraldique: Sur fond azur, un cercle composé de douze étoiles d'or à cinq rais, dont les pointes ne se touchent pas.
- ^ "Graphical specifications for the European Emblem". European Commission. Archived from the original on 22 June 2006. Retrieved 4 August 2004.
- ^ a b "European Union Flag : University of Dayton, Ohio". udayton.edu. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
- ^ a b c "Real politics, at last?". The Economist. 28 October 2004. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- ^ Large full version of the window, venez-chez-domi.fr, archived from the original on 27 February 2009, retrieved 28 January 2009
- ^ p. 309 of "Armorial des prélats Français du XIXème siècle"
- ^ a b c
Carlo Curti Gialdino, I Simboli dell'Unione europea, Bandiera – Inno – Motto – Moneta – Giornata. Roma: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato S.p.A., 2005. ISBN 88-240-2503-X, pp. 80–85. Gialdino is here cited after a translation of the Italian text published by the Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l'Europe (cvce.eu):
Irrespective of the statements by Paul M. G. Levy and the recent reconstruction by Susan Hood, crediting Arsène Heitz with the original design still seems to me the soundest option. In particular, Arsène Heitz himself, in 1987, laid claim to his own role in designing the flag and to its religious inspiration when he said that 'the flag of Europe is the flag of Our Lady' [Magnificat magazine, 1987].
Secondly, it is worth noting the testimony of Father Pierre Caillon, who refers to a meeting with Arsène Heitz. Caillon tells of having met the former Council of Europe employee by chance in August 1987 at Lisieux in front of the Carmelite monastery. It was Heitz who stopped him and declared "I was the one who designed the European flag. I suddenly had the idea of putting the 12 stars of the Miraculous Medal of the Rue du Bac on a blue field. My proposal was adopted unanimously on 8 December 1955, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception. I am telling you this, Father, because you are wearing the little blue cross of the Blue Army of Our Lady of Fatima".
- ^ European Union: Myths on the flag, Flags of the World, 2002 , retrieved 4 August 2007 "While Count Coudenhove-Kalergi in a personal statement maintained that three leading Catholics within the Council had subconsciously chosen the twelve stars on the model of Apocalypse 12:1, Paul M.G. Lévy, Press Officer of the Council from 1949 to 1966, explained in 1989 that there was no religious intention whatsoever associated with the choice of the circle of twelve stars." Peter Diem, 11 June 2002.
- ^ Pinzka, Thomas (26 August 1998). "Der Sternenkranz ist die Folge eines Gelübdes" [The crown of stars is the result of a vote]. Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 3 November 2018.
- ^ L'origine chrétienne du drapeau européen (in French), atheisme.org, retrieved 21 January 2009
- ^ Congrégation Mariale des Hommes (in French), Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Strasbourg, 4 February 2004, archived from the original on 14 November 2008, retrieved 24 January 2009
- ^ Le vitrail de l'Europe de Max Ingrand (in French), DRAC Alsace, retrieved 14 October 2017
- ^ a b Graphical specifications for the European flag, Council of Europe, archived from the original on 12 June 2004 "PANTONE REFLEX BLUE corresponds in the web-palette colour RGB:0/0/153 (hexadecimal: 000099) and PANTONE YELLOW corresponds in the web-palette colour RGB:255/204/0 (hexadecimal: FFCC00)."
- ^ a b
The 1996 guideline does not include any recommendation for RGB values. The 2004 guideline published online by the CoE recommends "RGB:0/51/153 (hexadecimal: 003399)" for "PANTONE REFLEX BLUE" and "RGB:255/204/0 (hexadecimal: FFCC00)" for "PANTONE YELLOW" for the web palette (the limited 12 bit color space popular at the time). These recommendations are by no means objective or universal. Other recommendations for "Reflex Blue" include:The former Pantone "Yellow" is now[clarification needed] called "Yellow C", with recommended RGB value #FEDD00 (CMYK 0.1.100.0). (pantone.com)
- ^ a b (in French) Guide graphique relatif à l'emblème européen (1996), p. 6: Le jaune est obtenu avec 100% de «Process Yellow». En mélangeant 100% de «Process Cyan» avec 80% de «Process Magenta», on obtient un bleu très semblable au Reflex Blue Pantone.
- ^ a b Council of Europe's new visual identity- Guide, Council of EUrope, 2013.
- ^ a b RGB and CMYK values are those given in the 2013 recommendation. Pantone recommendations for PMS 287: RGB #003087, CMYK 100.75.2.18 (pantone.com); for PMS 116: RGB #FFCD00, CMYK 0.14.100.0 (pantone.com).
- ^ Final Act, Official Journal of the European Union, 2007 C 306–2, p. 267 Declaration 52, consolidated EU treaties.
- ^ "EU Parliament set to use European flag, anthem". EU Business. 11 September 2008. Archived from the original on 12 September 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2008. The proposal was passed on 8 October 2008 by 503 votes to 96 (15 abstentions). Kubosova, Lucia (9 October 2008). "No prolonged mandate for Barroso, MEPs warn". EUobserver. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- ^ a b c d e f g CVCE (ed.), The European flag: questions and answers, retrieved 25 June 2014
- ^ (in French) Letter to the secretary general of the Council of Europe from Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, Council of Europe.
- ^ Johan Fornäs, Signifying Europe (2012), p. 131.
- ^ a b Council of Europe fahnenversand.de
- ^ (in French) Letter from Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi regarding a Muslim modification to the Pan-Europa flag design, Council of Europe.
- ^ European Movement crwflags.com Proposals for the European flag Archived 15 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine crwflags.com
- ^ a b Murphy, Sean (25 January 2006), Memorandum on the Role of Irish Chief Herald Slevin in the Design of the European Flag, Centre for Irish Genealogical and Historical Studies, archived from the original on 5 December 2008, retrieved 2 February 2009
- ^ Lettre d'Arsène Heitz à Filippo Caracciolo (Strasbourg, 5 janvier 1952), CVCE, retrieved 25 June 2014
- ^ Recommendation 56(1) of the Consultative Assembly on the choice of an emblem for the Council of Europe (25 September 1953), CVCE, retrieved 25 June 2014
- ^ Account by Paul M. G. Lévy, a Belgian Holocaust survivor on the creation of the European flag, CVCE, retrieved 25 June 2014
- ^ a b "Memorandum from Paul Levy to Jacques-Camille Paris (Secretary General) about having a cross on the European flag". Council of Europe. 19 January 2020.
- ^ "Memorandum from Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi on the European flag (Gstaad, 27 July 1950)". CVCE.EU by UNI.LU. 12 March 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
- ^ "Memorandumpresented to the Council of Europe by Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi". Council of Europe. 26 January 2020.
- ^ "Memorandum of the Secretariat General on the European Flag". Council of Europe. 26 January 2020.
- ^ "European Flag". Council of Europe. 3 January 2020.
- ^ "CVCE.eu". CVCE.eu. 3 January 2020.
- ^ "Sketch of a flag for the United States of Europe ("Union Stati Europa")". Council of Europe. 3 January 2020.
- ^ "Proposal by Camille Manné (Founder of the SICOP printing firm, Bischheim, Alsace, France)". Council of Europe. 3 January 2020.
- ^ "Flag showing the design by Camille Manet (Founder of the SICOP printing firm, Bischheim, Alsace, France)". Council of Europe. 3 January 2020.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Memorandum of the Secretariat General on the European Flag". 3 January 2020.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Proposals for flags submitted to the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe (December 1951)". CVCE.eu. 3 January 2020.
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