During Muammar Gaddafi
, Libya from 1969-1977, had a red-white-black flag and from 1977-2011, it was replaced by the all-green flag, which was the only flag in the world to have one color and no design.
The flag of the Kingdom of Libya
was adopted when Libya gained full independence in 1951. It consisted of a white star and crescent
on a triband red-black-green design, with the central black band being twice the width of the outer bands. The design was based on the banner of the Senussi
dynasty from Cyrenaica
, which consisted of a black field and star and crescent
design, and was later used as the flag of the region.
Omar Faiek Shennib
, Chief of the Royal Diwans, Vice President of the National Assembly and Minister of Defense under King Idris Al Senussi
is credited in the memoirs of Adrian Pelt
, UN commissioner for Libya (1949 to 1951) for the design of the original flag of Libya.
According to Pelt: "during deliberations of the Libyan National Constitutional Convention, a paper drawing of a proposed national flag was presented to the convention by Omar Faiek Shennib
[distinguished member of the delegation from Cyrenaica]. The design was composed of three colors; red, black and green, with a white Crescent and Star centered in the middle black stripe. Mr. Shennib informed the delegates that this design had met the approval of His Highness Emir of Cyrenaica, King Idris Al Senussi
[later to become King of Libya]. The assembly subsequently approved that design."[year needed][page needed]
This flag represented Libya from its independence in 1951 until the 1969 Libyan coup d'état
. The symbolism of the star and crescent in the flag of the Kingdom of Libya was explained in an English language booklet, The Libyan Flag & The National Anthem
, issued by the Ministry of Information and Guidance of the Kingdom of Libya (year unknown) as follows: "The crescent is symbolic of the beginning of the lunar month according to the Muslim calendar. It brings back to our minds the story of Hijra
[migration] of our Prophet Mohammed from his home in order to spread Islam and teach the principles of right and virtue. The Star represents our smiling hope, the beauty of aim and object and the light of our belief in God, in our country, its dignity and honour which illuminate our way and puts an end to darkness."
In 2011, interviews with Ibtisam Shennib and Amal Omar Shennib, Omar Faeik Shennib's only two remaining children, were cited as confirming Pelt's account of the origin of the flag.
Ibtisam Shennib recalled the morning her father brought a draft of the flag to the breakfast table and showed it to her and her siblings, explaining the original intent behind the selection of the flag's colours and symbols. According to Omar Faiek Shennib, "red was selected for the blood sacrificed for the freedom of Libya, black to remember the dark days that Libyans lived under the occupation of the Italians
and green to represent its primary wealth, agriculture, [Libya once being referred to as the 'agricultural basket' or 'breadbasket' of the Ottoman Empire
] and the future prosperity of the country. The star and crescent were placed within the black central strip of the flag as a reference to the Senussi
flag and the role of King Idris in leading the country to independence".
The national flag shall have the following shape and dimensions:
Its length shall be double its width, its shall be divided into three parallel coloured stripes, the uppermost being red, the centre black and lowest green, the black stripe shall be equal in area to the other two stripes together and shall bear in its centre a white crescent, between the two extremities of which there shall be a five-pointed white star.
On 10 March 2011, France was the first country to recognise the council as the official government of Libya, as well as the first to allow the Libyan embassy staff to raise the flag.
On 21 March, the flag was flown by the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations and appeared on their official website,
and thereafter in late August by the Arab League
and by Libya's own telecommunications authority,
the Libya Telecom & Technology
, on its own website. In the following months many other Libyan embassies replaced the green flag of Gaddafi with the tricolour flag.
This original flag of Libya is now the only flag used by the United Nations to represent Libya, according to the following UN statement: "Following the adoption by the General Assembly of resolution 66/1, the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations formally notified the United Nations of a Declaration by the National Transitional Council of 3 August 2011 changing the official name of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya to 'Libya' as well as a decision to change Libya's national flag to the original."
All Libyan diplomatic posts, such as embassies
, use the original flag of Libya.
Legal basis and construction
The Libyan Flag & The National Anthem, English-language booklet issued by the Ministry of Information and Guidance of the Kingdom of Libya (year unknown, copy kept by the library of Swiss Vexillological Society)
The flag of Libya is described in Article 7 of the Constitution of 7 October 1951. It was officially adopted on 24 December 1951. The passage from the constitution reads:
Chapter 1, Article 7: The national flag shall have the following dimensions: Its length shall be twice its breadth, it shall be divided into three parallel coloured stripes, the uppermost being red, the centre black and the lowest green, the black stripe shall be equal in area to the two other stripes combined and shall bear in its centre a white crescent, between the two extremities of which there shall be a five-pointed white star.
Both the precise shade and legal construction is described in a booklet issued by the Ministry of Information and Guidance of the Kingdom of Libya in 1951.
The passage reads:
The exact particulars of the Libyan National Flag prescribed by Article 7 of the Constitution shall be as follows: The red shall be sign red, and the green permanent green. The Crescent shall be on the hoistward side of the star, and the centre of the circle of which the crescent forms a part shall be in the centre of the flag. The star shall be in the open end of the crescent and one point of the star shall point to the centre of the circle. The maximum width of the 270 crescent shall equal 1⁄6 of its outside diameter which is 1⁄4 of the width of the flag. The distance between the tips of the crescent shall equal that between the uppermost and lowermost point of the star measured along a perpendicular forming the hoistward sides of these two points. The perpendicular shall form a tangent to the outside circumference of the crescent at a point equidistant from the top and bottom of the flag.
Colors and their RGB:
Red: 231, 0, 19
Black: 0, 0, 0
White: 255, 255, 255
Green: 35, 158, 70
- ^ "Libya Draft Constitutional Charter" (PDF) (in Arabic). National Transitional Council. 3 August 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2012.
- ^ "Libya Draft Constitutional Charter". Retrieved 8 September 2011 – via Scribd.
- ^ a b "National Flag of Libya". 24dec1951.com. 24 December 1951. Archived from the original on 31 October 2015.
- ^ cited after a copy kept by the library of Swiss Vexillological Society; c.f. Jos Poels at FOTW, 1997.
- ^ "For Amal, life (re)begins at 75 |". Feb17.info. 19 October 2011. Archived from the original on 11 September 2012.
- ^ .Libya's monarchist flag: a symbol of anti-Gathafi protest. Middle East Online. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- ^ What's in a flag? – Libya. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- ^ Mark Tran (17 February 2011). "Bahrain in crisis and Middle East protests – live blog". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- ^ National Transitional Council (Retrieved 13 March 2011) Ntclibya.org. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- ^ "Libya National Flag". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- ^ "Libya: France recognises rebels as government". BBC News. 10 March 2011.
- ^ "Libya air raid 'killed civilians'". BBC News. 31 March 2011.
- ^ Libyan Mission New York. Libyanmission-un.org (5 March 2011). Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- ^ "Libya regains Arab League seat – Africa". Al Jazeera English.
- ^ "ليبيا للاتصالات و التقنية". Ltt.ly. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
- ^ "United Nations Information Service (Retrieved 19 December 2011)". Unis.unvienna.org. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- ^ [English translation based on The Libyan Flag & The National Anthem, a booklet issued by the Ministry of Information and Guidance of the Kingdom of Libya, cited after Jos Poels at FOTW, 27 January 1997]
- ^ "World Statesmen-Libya". Retrieved 12 December 2009.[verification needed]
- ^ "Libya Flag". Retrieved 12 December 2009.[verification needed]
- ^ "Staff of Libyan consulate in Egypt lower flag". Reuters. 22 February 2011.[verification needed]
Last edited on 2 May 2021, at 00:26
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