Important academics, public officials, and policy leaders regularly appear in the magazine's pages. Recent Foreign Affairs
authors include Robert O. Keohane
, Hillary Clinton
, Donald H. Rumsfeld
, Ashton Carter
, Colin L. Powell
, Francis Fukuyama
, David Petraeus
, Zbigniew Brzezinski
, John J. Mearsheimer
, Stanley McChrystal
, Christopher R. Hill
and Joseph Nye
The Council on Foreign Relations, founded in the summer of 1921, primarily counted diplomats, financiers, scholars, and lawyers among its members. Its founding charter declared its purpose should be to "afford a continuous conference on international questions affecting the United States, by bringing together experts on statecraft, finance, industry, education, and science."
In its first year, the Council engaged primarily in discourse via meetings and small discussion groups, however, eventually it decided to seek a wider audience and it began publishing Foreign Affairs
on 15 September 1922 on a quarterly basis.
The Council named Professor Archibald Cary Coolidge
of Harvard University
as the journal's first editor
. As Coolidge was unwilling to move from Boston
to New York, Hamilton Fish Armstrong
, a Princeton
alumnus and a European correspondent of the New York Evening Post
, was appointed managing editor and worked New York, handling the day-to-day mechanics of publishing the journal. Armstrong chose the distinctive light blue color for the cover of the magazine, while his sisters, Margaret and Helen, designed the logo and lettering respectively.
is a successor publication of the Journal of International Relations
(which ran from 1910 to 1922), which in turn was a successor to the Journal of Race Development
(which ran from 1911 to 1919).
The lead article in the first issue of Foreign Affairs
was written by former Secretary of State
under Theodore Roosevelt
's Administration, Elihu Root
. The article argued that the United States had become a world power
, and that as such the general population needed to be better informed about international matters. John Foster Dulles
, then a financial expert attached to the American Commission to Negotiate Peace, who would later become Secretary of State
under Dwight D. Eisenhower
, also contributed an article to the inaugural issue of Foreign Affairs
on Allied debt following World War I.
In 1925, Foreign Affairs
published a series of articles, entitled "Worlds of Color",
by prominent African American
intellectual W. E. B. Du Bois
. DuBois, a personal friend of Armstrong, wrote mainly about race issues and imperialism. Although in the early days of publication the journal did not have many female authors, in the late 1930s American journalist for Time (magazine)
magazine Dorothy Thompson
would contribute articles.
, a member of the U.S. Policy Planning Staff, also wrote an influential article in Foreign Affairs
in 1950. His article, "On a Certain Impatience with Latin America", created the anticommunist intellectual framework that justified U.S. policy towards Latin America in the Cold War era. Halle's article described that the encouragement of democracy in postwar Latin America had ended. He demonstrated disgust over Latin America's inability to assume autonomy and to become democratic. His rationalization towards Latin America was later used to justify U.S. efforts to overthrow the left-leaning Guatemalan government.
Since the end of the Cold War, and especially after the 9/11 attacks
, the journal's readership has grown significantly. Foreign Affairs'
s current total readership is 351,000 for the print magazine and it has 955,000 unique visitors per month for the website.
In the Summer 1993 issue, Foreign Affairs
published Samuel P. Huntington
's influential "Clash of Civilizations
In the article, Huntington argued that "the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural."
The article "Who is Khamenei
" by Akbar Ganji
, which was published in the magazine's September/October 2013 issue, emphasized the view that the Supreme Leader is the primary decision maker in Iran.
Then-opposition leader and former UkrainianPrime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko
caused a stir by publishing an article entitled "Containing Russia" in the May–June 2007 issue of Foreign Affairs
accusing Russia under Vladimir Putin
of expansionism and urging the rest of Europe to stand against him. Russian foreign ministerSergei Lavrov
wrote an article in response, but he withdrew it, citing "censorship" from the Foreign Affairs
editorial board. Tymoshenko's party went on to win the 2007 elections and she became Prime Minister once again.
In 2009, Foreign Affairs launched its new website, ForeignAffairs.com, which offers both print content and online-only features.
Since its inception, Foreign Affairs
has included a long book review section, typically reviewing 50 or more books per issue. The magazine's first editor, Archibald Cary Coolidge, asked his Harvard colleague, William L. Langer
, a historian and World War I
veteran, to run the section. Langer initially had full control over the magazine's book reviews and did all the reviews by himself. A month before the reviews were due, the Foreign Affairs
office in New York would ship approximately one hundred books to Langer for review and within two weeks he would return his completed reviews for the next issue.
Beginning with the first issue in 1922, Harry Elmer Barnes
authored a reoccurring section titled “Some Recent Books on International Relations”. By 1924, the Foreign Affairs website lists Barnes as Bibliographical Editor.
In the late 1930s, the review section was broken down into several categories. Currently, the Foreign Affairs reviews are broken down into long review essays, which are placed at the front of the books section, and the "Recent Books" section, where shorter reviewers are featured. The "Recent Books" section is further broken down into the following subject categories.
- Political and Legal, reviewed by G. John Ikenberry
- Economic, Social, and Environmental, reviewed by Richard N. Cooper
- Military, Scientific, and Technological, reviewed by Lawrence D. Freedman
- The United States, reviewed by Jessica T. Mathews
- Western Europe, reviewed by Andrew Moravcsik
- Western Hemisphere, reviewed by Richard Feinberg
- Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Republics, reviewed by Maria Lipman
- Middle East, reviewed by John Waterbury
- Asia and Pacific, reviewed by Andrew J. Nathan
- Africa, reviewed by Nicolas van de Walle
The majority of the book reviews featured in the "Recent Books" section are reviewed by the same person; however, other reviewers contribute to the "Recent Books" section on occasion.
is considered an important forum for debate among academics and policy makers. In 1996, the Deputy Secretary of State, Strobe Talbott
, noted: "Virtually everyone I know in the foreign policy-national security area of the Government is attentive to Foreign Affairs
- ^ "Foreign Affairs". britannica.com. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- ^ Kennan, George F. (July 1947). "The Sources of Soviet Conduct". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- ^ a b c Huntington, Samuel P. (Summer 1993). "The Clash of Civilizations?". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- ^ "Authors". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- ^ a b "CFR History". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- ^ Continuing the Inquiry: The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996, pg 9.
- ^ Continuing the Inquiry: The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996, pg 12.
- ^ a b c Bundy, William (1994). "History". Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- ^ Mark Mazower, 2013, "Governing the world: The history of an idea", Penguin Books, London, page 165.
- ^ DuBois, W. E. B. (April 1925). "Worlds of Color". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- ^ Schoultz, Lars (1998). Beneath the United States: A History of U.S. Policy toward Latin America. London: Harvard University Press. pp. 341–342. ISBN 0-674-92275-1.
- ^ "Circulation". Foreign Affairs. 2016-09-30. Retrieved 2016-12-23.
- ^ Duke, Lynne (February 27, 2005). "A Plot Thickens". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- ^ Barnes, Harry Elmer (June 1924). "The World Struggle for Oil". Foreign Affairs. Capsule Reviews. Council on Foreign Relations. 2 (4). Reviewed By Harry Elmer Barnes Bibliographical Editor
- ^ Pogrebin, Robin (1998-01-12). "Foreign Affairs Magazine Becoming Harder to Predict". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-09-05.
- ^ "Journals Ranked by Impact: International Relations". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Social Sciences ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2015.
- ^ Continuing the Inquiry: The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996, pg 73.
- ^ "Staff". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
Last edited on 22 March 2021, at 23:10
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