Foreign relations of Qatar
Qatar achieved full independence from the United Kingdom on 3 September 1971.[1] Arab states were among the first to recognize Qatar, and the country gained admittance to the United Nations and the Arab League in the same year. Qatar established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, and Communist China in 1988. The country was an early member of OPEC and a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Qatar is a strategic ally of China, with relationship between the two countries growing stronger.[2][3]
Over the past two decades, Qatar has grown its international profile and pursued independent and neutral foreign policy, aiming to secure stability, peace and a pursuit of multilateralism and negotiations to solve problems in the greater Middle East. Qatar's critics have said that the country has punched above its weight in international affairs. It has been "very confident of itself and believes that it has the capabilities and capacity to adopt an independent foreign policy."[citation needed] The country is a member of numerous international organizations and maintains bilateral relations around the globe because, as Islam Hassan Research Analyst at Center for International and Regional Studies- Georgetown University in Qatar argues, the monarchy believes that a way of regime survival here is to have recognition on the regional and international level."[4]
Qatar also uses its massive wealth to purchase influence abroad; its state-funded news media company Al Jazeera serves as a means of exerting international soft power. Qatar buys influence in Western countries through investments and donations. For example, the country has made large donations to the prominent Washington-based think tank the Brookings Institution, purchased British retailer Harrods, and donated $1 million to the Clinton Foundation while Hillary Clinton was U.S. Secretary of State.[5]
Multilateral relations
Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, the emir of Qatar from 1995 to 2013, helped establish Qatar's reputation as an influential player in Middle East politics. The first major move in this regard was the founding of Al Jazeera,[6] a state-owned news media company.
Qatar has also cultivated close relationships with Western powers, particularly the United States and the United Kingdom. Al Udeid Air Base hosts American and British air forces. Qatar has invested extensively in London real estate, and the country has also made donations to prominent research centers in the United States.[7][8] At the same time, Qatar maintains ties to Western adversaries, including Iran, Hamas, the Muslim Brotherhood, and extremist elements in Syria.[9][10][11]
Qatar has a population of around 1.8 million people, however only 280,000 of these are citizens.[12] The vast majority of the population are migrant laborers who suffer severe human rights abuses including unfit living conditions, abuse by employers, and seizure of passports and other immigration documents.[13] These human rights abuses have caused tensions between Qatar and liberal western democracies.[14] It is also one of the few countries in which citizens do not have to pay any taxes.[15][16]
Qatar is a member of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Gulf Cooperation Council, OPEC and the Council of Arab Economic Unity.
Regional relations
According to American sociologist and historical social scientist Immanuel Wallerstein, Qatar is seeking to become a major regional player in Middle East politics. Wallerstein has argued that Qatar aimed to do the same in the Syrian Civil War, and has provided support to extremist elements in Syria.[17] According to Wallerstein, Qatar and Saudi Arabia are competing for influence in regional politics.
Qatar has been influential in political and religious upheavals in the Middle East. Qatar supported several rebel groups during the Arab Spring financially and by asserting global influence through its expanding news group, Al Jazeera.[18][19][20]
Qatar's support for the Muslim Brotherhood and allied groups throughout the Middle East, as well as positions taken by Al Jazeera have led to increasing tensions with other Gulf States. On 5 March 2014, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Bahrain withdrew their ambassadors from Qatar in protest at what they claimed was Qatar's non-compliance with a November 2013 agreement not to "interfere" in countries' internal affairs.[21][22][23]
Some financial economists have interpreted the 2014 Saudi-Qatari rift as the tangible political sign of a growing economic rivalry between oil and natural gas producers, which could “have deep and long-lasting consequences” beyond the Middle East.[24]
In March 2014 Qatar made overtures to Oman in order to counteract the influence of Saudi Arabia on politics in the region.[25]
In May 2017, an alleged hack of state media led to stories quoting the Emir as enquiring US resentment towards Iran and remarking on Hamas. Doha reported it as false and gave no indication on where it originated. However, news organizations in the region reported the emir's comments as fact. This led to Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt and Bahrain cutting diplomatic ties with Qatar on 5 June 2017.[26][27]
Qatar voiced support for the Turkish invasion of northern Syria aimed at ousting U.S.-backed Syrian Kurds from the enclave of Afrin. Spokeswoman of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Lulwah Rashif Al-Khater said that: "The launching of the Turkish military operation last Saturday was motivated by legitimate concerns related to its national security and the security of its borders, in addition to protecting Syria's territorial integrity from the danger of secession. Turkey, a NATO member, has always been a stabilizing factor in the region."[28]
Peace brokering and peacekeeping activities
The First Contact Group Meeting on Libya was held in Doha, Qatar on 3 April 2011
The onset of the Arab spring in January 2011 complicated Qatar's ability to mediate having forced Gulf leaders to side with revolutionaries or the longstanding autocratic regimes. Sheikh Hamad stated in that Qatar would support the uprisings, a position that clashed with neighboring Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Qatar provided extensive support, in funding and weapons, to Libyan revolutionaries and aided in the removal of Muammar Gaddafi by mobilising Arab support behind NATO airstrikes. In Egypt, Qatar supported President Mohamed Morsi and has suffered from strained relations with President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi following Morsi's removal. In Syria, Qatar has provided arms and funding to various opposition groups.[29]
Starting in 2013 Qatar was accused of financing Islamic extremists in Syria, a charge which has been refuted by Emir Sheikh Tamim on CNN and by Foreign Minister Khaled Al-Attiyah in an opinion piece in the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph. According to the Royal United Services Institute, Qatar plays an important role in Syria and Iraq as an interlocutor between Western powers and resistant groups that cannot be engaged directly. This role is consistent with Qatar's efforts as an interlocutor with the Taliban in Afghanistan, hosting a small Embassy in Doha where US officials are able to meet with the Taliban behind closed doors.[30]
Prior to the abdication of Emir Sheikh Hamad, Qatar's mediation was fronted by the Qatari Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Ahmad Abdullah Al Mahmud. On 4 May 2009, the Qatari Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Ahmad Abdullah Al Mahmud announced that Chad and Sudan had agreed to end hostilities against each other and to normalize relations during Qatari-mediated talks in Doha; however the agreement quickly broke down.[31] Qatar also brokered an agreement between the Sudanese government and the strongest Darfur rebel group, the Justice and Equality Movement, in Doha in February 2010.[32] The agreement fell apart in May 2010 and the conflict is ongoing.
U.S. President Donald Trump with the Emir of Qatar Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, May 2017
Qatar hosted a donors conference to help rebuild war-ravaged Darfur in April 2013.[33]
In June 2010, Qatari peacekeeping forces deployed in the disputed Ras Doumeira area on the border between Djibouti and Eritrea after the latter withdrew from the area. The intention was to help start bilateral negotiations and solve the territorial dispute which had turned violent.[34] Qatar withdrew its 450 troops from the Djibouti-Eritrea border in June 2017 after the two countries severed ties with Qatar.[35]
Cultural and religious activities
In a controversial bidding process marred by bribery and corruption scandals, Qatar was selected to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup. Qatar will be the first Middle Eastern country to host the popular international sporting event. Qatar-funded Qatar Airways has gone on an aggressive expansion campaign by competing with nearby Emirates Airline to reach more destinations and serve more passengers.[36]
The sixty-sixth session of the United Nations General Assembly was presided over by former permanent representative of Qatar to the UN Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser.[37] The country has not accepted compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction.
In September 2013, Qatar funded 70% of a US$16 million mosque to be built in Slovenia (the only mosque in that country). It is due for completion in 2016. Due to its natural resource revenue and low indigenous population, Qatar has been able to take bold moves in expanding its global presence, particularly its regional role following the Arab Spring funding the oppositions in the Libyan Civil War and the Syrian civil war, as well as the Islamist government of Egypt (which was opposed by other fellow GCC states).[38]
Foreign aid
Main article: Qatari foreign aid
Qatar’s international aid program has expanded dramatically since the beginning of 2010, and focuses heavily on the Arab world, most notably in the humanitarian crises in Syria and Gaza.[39]
According to the UN OCHA’s Financial Tracking Service, Qatar’s international aid increased from less than $10 million annually in the pre-Arab Spring period to the hundreds of millions following the event.[40]
For example in 2012, according to the Qatari Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the country donated more than QAR3 billion (or c. £524 million) through governmental and non-governmental aid to nearly 100 countries across the globe.[41]
Qatari leadership has since pledged publicly to reduce suffering of victims and to achieve and support global partnerships for the achievement of foreign countries’ Millennium Development Goals. The state is engaged in investments in a wide range of humanitarian and developmental sectors.[41]
Bilateral relations
CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
See Algeria–Qatar relations
  • Algeria has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Algeria.
 Burkina Faso
1988Relations between the two countries were inaugurated in 1988. Qatar agreed to donate $13.8 million towards the construction of a cancer hospital in Burkina Faso in December 2017.[43] The same month, the Qatar Development Fund allocated $814,000 towards the commencement of humanitarian projects in Burkina Faso.[44]
Qatar shuttered the Chadian embassy in Doha in August 2017, two months after Chad broke off diplomatic ties with Qatar over the Qatar diplomatic crisis, with Chad claiming that Qatar was attempting to destabilize it via Libya.[45] Bilateral relations were returned to normal in February 2018 after a memorandum of understanding was signed.[46]
 ComorosSee Comoros–Qatar relations
On 7 June 2017, Comoros cut ties with Qatar, following the lead of several other countries led by a quartet composed of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Egypt and the United Arab Emirates.[citation needed] After Comoros severed ties, local media reported that two local Qatari charities suspended their activities in the country and that the $37 million under-construction hospital in Anjouan was put on hold. It was speculated that the cessation of philanthropic activities by Qatar was a retaliatory measure against Comoros' alignment with the Saudi-led quartet.[47] Qatar also expelled Comoran representatives in the country on 19 June, giving them 48 hours to leave the country.[48]
 Cote D'Ivoire
1994Both nations developed bilateral ties in 1994.[43] In December 2017, during a visit to Abidjan by Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, Qatar pledged a $6 million donation for Côte d'Ivoire's development.[44]
The Qatari embassy in Djibouti City was inaugurated in December 2005, shortly after the establishment of Djibouti's embassy in Doha.[49] Qatari peacekeepers were deployed to help mediate a border dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea in June 2010. After it was reported that Djibouti had sided with the Saudi-led bloc in the 2017–18 Qatar diplomatic crisis, Qatar pulled its peacekeepers from the area.[50]
1972See Egypt–Qatar relations
Bilateral relations first began with Egypt in 1972.[51] In recent years, relations have been tense. Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, Emir of the State of Qatar, has described the 2013 political transition in Egypt as a "military coup".[52] The main issue between the two governments is the Qatari support to the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt.[52]
The Egyptian government, along with those of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates, broke off diplomatic relations with Qatar on 5 June 2017. The Egyptian Foreign Ministry announced it was closing its air and sea ports to Qatari transportation. One of the driving forces behind this decision was, according to the Egyptian's government, Qatar's continuing support for "terrorism", such as the Muslim Brotherhood.[53] Egypt and Qatar resumed diplomatic relations on 20 January 2021. [54]
 EritreaQatari peacekeepers were deployed to help mediate a border dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea in June 2010.[50] During the Qatar diplomatic crisis, Eritrea was asked to sever ties with Qatar by the Saudi-led camp, but on 10 June 2017 it refused, claiming it had strong bonds with Qatar.[55] Despite this, some news outlets later reported that Eritrea did in fact cut ties, though this was denied by the Eritrean government.[56]
In March 2018, Eritrea accused Qatar and Sudan of jointly funding rebel groups in its country.[57]
 EthiopiaSee Ethiopia–Qatar relations
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
Ghana has an embassy in Doha.[58]
2003See Kenya–Qatar relations
Diplomatic relations started in 2003.[59]
  • Kenya has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Nairobi.
1988The existence of diplomatic relations between Guinea and Qatar date back to 1988.[43]
  • Libya has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Tripoli.
1977Relations between Mali and Qatar started off in 1977.[43] In December 2017, Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani visited Mali and agreed to finance a program for the education of nearly 600,000 Malian children to the tune of $40 million.[44]
On 6 June 2017, Mauritania followed the lead of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Egypt in severing ties with Qatar. Mauritania's Foreign Ministry justified the decision by citing Qatar's alleged "support of terrorism" which has "resulted in heavy losses of human lives" throughout the region and beyond.[61] Later in the month, Mauritania announced that it would be freezing all Qatari-financed projects in Mauritania, several of which were under the auspices of Qatar Charity, as Mauritania regarded these projects as "suspicious" and believed they were linked to the aiding and abetting of regional terrorist groups.[62]
1972See Morocco–Qatar relations
Qatar and Morocco formed diplomatic relations in 1972.[64]
  • Morocco has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Rabat.
Niger has maintained an embassy in Doha since 2015. On 10 June 2017, five days after the start Qatar diplomatic crisis, Niger sided with the Saudi-led camp and recalled its ambassador from Doha.[65]
There are over 7,000 Nigerian citizens in Qatar.[66]
Nigeria has an embassy in Doha.[67]
4 May 2017Qatar and Rwanda officially formed relations on 4 May 2017.[68]
In December 2019, Rwanda hosted the annual Sheikh Tamim Bin Hamad Al Thani International Anti-Corruption Excellence Award.[69] The Emir of Qatar visited Rwanda for the same.[70]
10 February 1975
Qatar and Senegal formed diplomatic relations 10 February 1975.[71] Senegal sided with the Saudi-led bloc and withdrew its ambassador from Doha after the onset of the Qatar diplomatic crisis in June 2017 but recalled its ambassador in August 2017, expressing its desire for a resolution to the crisis.[72]
  • Senegal has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Dakar.
1970See Somalia–Qatar relations
The two countries formally established diplomatic ties in 1970. Somalia allegedly refused Saudi Arabia's offer to join it in severing ties with Qatar in June 2017 and instead opted to stay neutral.[44]
 South Africa
10 May 1994See Qatar–South Africa relations
Diplomatic relations between Qatar and South Africa were initiated on 10 May 1994, the same day that Nelson Mandela was sworn in as President of South Africa.[73]
 Sudan1972See Qatar–Sudan relations
Relations between Qatar and Sudan were first established in 1972, when Qatar inaugurated its embassy in Sudan's capital city, Khartoum.[75] Qatar remains one of the largest foreign investors in Sudan,[76] and has helped broker peace agreements between the Sudanese government and rebel factions in Darfur.[77]
Both countries agreed to form diplomatic relations in 2002.[78]
  • Eswatini has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Mbabane.
13 December 1982
Bilateral relations between the two countries date back to 13 December 1982.[79]
  • Tanzania has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Dar es Salaam.
See Qatar–Tunisia relations
Qatar is among the largest Arab investors in Tunisia.[80] Relations between Qatar and Tunisia improved immensely between 2011 and 2013, when Ennahda Movement-affiliated candidate Hamadi Jebali was declared Prime Minister of Tunisia in the 2011 Tunisian Constituent Assembly elections. Cooperation in all fields gradually started picking up traction; for instance, the two governments signed ten bilateral agreements in 2012.[81]
CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
 Argentina15 June 1974
Argentina and Qatar's relations date back to 15 June 1974 when they signed joint agreement in New York.[82]
  • Argentina has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
5 December 2007Barbados and Qatar agreed to formalize relations on 5 December 2007 during a meeting in New York.[83]
 Belize17 May 2002Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 17, 2002.[84]
5 November 1974See Brazil–Qatar relations
Both countries formally established bilateral relations on 5 November 1974 – three years after Qatar gained its sovereignty.[85]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Brasília.
 CanadaSee Canada–Qatar relations
 Costa RicaJanuary 2010
Bilateral relations began after then-Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani visited Costa Rica from January 24 to January 25, 2010.[88]
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in San José.
Formal ties between Cuba and Qatar were established in 1989.[89]
 Dominican Republic
In 2000, an agreement was signed between the Dominican Republic and Qatar to commence diplomatic relations.[91]
  • The Dominican Republic has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Santo Domingo.
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Doha.[92]
  • Qatar has an embassy in Quito.[93]
 El Salvador24 September 2003
Relations began on 24 September 2003.[94]
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in San Salvador.
 Guyana23 August 1996Diplomatic relations commenced on 23 August 1996.[95] They are both members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.[96]
 Mexico30 June 1975See Mexico–Qatar relations
At an official level, both countries began diplomatic relations in 1989.[100]
  • Peru has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Lima.
 St. Kitts and Nevis
16 August 2017Both countries forged diplomatic relations on 16 August 2017 in a ceremony held in New York.[101]
 United States19 March 1972See Qatar–United States relations
The United States formed diplomatic relations with Qatar on 19 March 1972, when diplomat William Stoltzfus met with Qatari government officials and submitted his credentials.[102]
16 March 1987
On 16 March 1987, the two countries officially inaugurated diplomatic relations.[105]
  • Qatar has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Doha.
See also: 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis
CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
During the waning years of Operation Enduring Freedom in 2010 the United States and the Taliban initiated exploratory talks in regards to ending the conflict in Afghanistan after the latter announced its intention to open an office in Doha. Though they were halted later amid Taliban accusations of malfeasance by the United States,[106] president Hamid Karzai claimed the two parties held daily talks in Qatar, although the U.S.and the Taliban denied it.[107]
In December 2011, Afghanistan recalled their envoy from Qatar in protest of the newly opened Taliban office. An Afghan government official later claimed that Qatar had not consulted with them prior to the inauguration of the office.[108]
 Armenia5 November 1997
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 November 1997. Approximately 5,500 Armenians live in Qatar, mostly in the capital Doha.
 Azerbaijan14 September 1994
Azerbaijan and Qatar signed an agreement to start diplomatic relations on 14 September 1994.[109]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Baku.
 BahrainDiplomatic ties ended on 5 June 2017See Bahrain-Qatar relations
Both had a dispute over ownership of the Hawar Islands and the maritime boundary which was solved by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague in 2001.[110] On 5 March 2014, Bahrain withdrew its ambassadors from Qatar to protest Qatar's non-compliance with a November 2013 agreement not to "interfere" in countries' internal affairs.[111] The widely accepted cause for this move was Qatar's support for the organization, the Muslim Brotherhood.[112] On 5 June 2017, Bahrain, along with Saudi Arabia, Egypt and the United Arab Emirates, announced that it would cut ties with Qatar.[113]
 Bangladesh25 January 1978See Bangladesh–Qatar relations
On 25 January 1978, an agreement on the commencement of diplomatic relations was signed.[114] Approximately 123,000 Bangladeshi expatriates were working in Qatar in 2015, mainly in the construction sector.[115] In June 2017, Bangladesh signed an agreement with Qatari company RasGas to receive 2.5 million tonnes of LNG annually for the following 15 years.[116]
 Brunei2 October 1991See Brunei–Qatar relations
Relations between the two countries were established on 2 October 1991.[117]
July 1988See China–Qatar relations
China and Qatar formed relations in July 1988.[118] Emir Tamim bin Hamad made his first visit to China in November 2014. While there, he signed a number of accords with the Chinese leader Xi Jinping, one of which entailed the formation of a China-Qatar Strategic Partnership.[119]
  • China has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Beijing and a consulate-general in Guangzhou.
16 March 1993
Both countries formed diplomatic relations on 16 March 1993.[120]
  • Georgia has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Tbilisi.
1973See India–Qatar relations
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Emir Tamim Bin Hamad Al Thani in Doha, June 2016
India and Qatar began bilateral relations in 1973.[121] Both countries signed a maritime defence agreement and an information-sharing agreement in November 2008.[122] As part of these agreements, the inaugural India-Qatar Joint Committee on Defence Co-operation meeting was hosted in the Qatari capital Doha in 2008.[123]
1976See Indonesia–Qatar relations
Indonesia and Qatar established bilateral relations in 1976.[127] The two countries have signed a number of memorandums of understanding in the fields of air transport, tourism, and agriculture.[128]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Jakarta.
 IranOctober 1971See Iran–Qatar relations
Qatar and Iran signed an agreement on setting up diplomatic relations in October 1971, only one month after Qatar gained its independence.[129] The two countries have close ties. Both are members of OPEC, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference. Unlike fellow GCC member states Saudi Arabia and the UAE, Qatar generally refrains from criticizing Iran's domestic and foreign activities. Qatar has also held several high-level meetings with Iranian officials to discuss security and economic agreements.[130] They jointly control the world's largest gas field.[131] In addition to ties in the oil and natural gas arena, Iran and Qatar also cooperate in the shipping sector.[130]
In January 2016, as a result of the attack on the Saudi diplomatic missions in Iran by Iranian protesters, Qatar recalled its ambassador to Tehran and denounced the attack.[132] On 23 August 2017, Qatar announced it would return its ambassador to Iran.[133]
Following the 1990–91 Gulf War, in which Qatar and Iraq were on opposing sides, Qatar closed their embassy in Baghdad. Relations gradually improved between the two countries in the late 1990s.[134] Qatar reopened its embassy for the first time twenty-five years in mid-2015,[135] and in September 2015, appointed its ambassador to Iraq.[136]
See Israel–Qatar relations
Qatar established trade relations with the State of Israel in 1996.[137] Despite Qatar's support of Hamas and its cordial relations with Hezbollah, Israeli leaders have maintained direct contact with the emirate. In January 2007, in his last months as vice premier, Shimon Peres paid a high-profile visit to the capital city of Doha.[138] Peres also visited Qatar in 1996, when he launched the new Israeli trade bureau there.[139] The bureau was closed in February 2009.[140]
In 2010, Qatar twice offered to restore trade relations with Israel and allow the reinstatement of the Israeli mission in Doha, on condition that Israel allow Qatar send materials and money to Gaza for its infrastructure, and that Israel make a public statement expressing appreciation for Qatar's efforts. Israel refused on the grounds that Qatari materials could be used by Hamas against Israel, and that Israel did not want to get involved in the competition between Qatar and Egypt over mediation.[141][142]
1972See Japan–Qatar relations
Diplomatic relations between Qatar and Japan were established in 1972. The two countries share strong economic ties, with Japan being Qatar's foremost trading partner, and Qatar ranking as Japan's sixth most significant import partner in 2016. Japan has an embassy in Doha.[143][144][145][146]
 Jordan1972See Jordan–Qatar relations
Qatar and Jordan had turbulent relations since the 2000s. Authorities in Qatar arrested and tried a Jordanian journalist working for Qatar TV named Firas Majali on charges of espionage in February 2002 and in August 2002, Jordan closed Al Jazeera's Amman bureau over a segment deemed insulting towards its ruling family.[147] Additionally, Jordan recalled its ambassador to Doha that month. A Qatari court sentenced Firas Majali to death in October 2002,[148] but in March 2003, the Qatari emir granted Majali a pardon after meeting with King Abdullah II of Jordan.[149] This prompted Jordan to reinstate Al Jazeera's Amman bureau that year.[150]
On June 6, 2017, one day after the beginning of the 2017 Qatari diplomatic crisis, Jordan announced that it would be cutting back ties with Qatar in solidarity with the blockading countries as well as shuttering the Al Jazeera bureau based there.[151]
Bilateral trade between Qatar and Jordan improved by the end of the third quarter of 2019, with the number of joint Qatari-Jordanian companies established in the Qatari market exceeding 1,700 as compared to 1,550 firms at the end of 2018.[152]
 KazakhstanJuly 1993See Kazakhstan–Qatar relations
Kazakhstan and Qatar signed an official agreement formalizing diplomatic relations in July 1993.[153]
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
 KuwaitSee Kuwait–Qatar relations
In 1990, at the beginning of the Gulf War, Qatar was among the Arab countries to condemn Iraq's occupation of Kuwait. It also pledged military support to Kuwait.[134] Qatari soldiers participated in the Battle of Khafji, the first major ground engagement in the Gulf War.[154]
Amir Sabah Al-Sabah was recognized as chief mediator of the 2017 Qatari diplomatic crisis. Kuwait's neutrality and good relations with both parties were the main reasons behind its status as mediator.[155]
 Kyrgyzstan3 March 1998
Officially, diplomatic relations between the two countries started on 3 March 1998.[156]
  • Kyrgyzstan has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Bishkek.
3 February 2005Diplomatic exchange between Qatar and Laos commenced on 3 February 2005.[157]
Qatar mediated negotiations between leading Lebanese political parties in 2008 during the backdrop of the 2006–08 Lebanese protests.[158] The Doha Agreement was signed by all parties in May after five days of negotiations, resolving the crisis.[159]
In 2010, the Qatari emir became the first Arab leader to tour South Lebanon and view the various projects it funded following the 2006 Lebanon War.[160] Qatar contributed $3mn in funding to the restoration of Lebanon following the war, and financed the reconstruction of over 12,000 residential units and a number of buildings in 195 villages in southern Lebanon.[161] The emir visited a hospital in Bint Jbeil and a nearby mosque and church which he funded the reconstruction of, while being accompanied by Lebanon's President Michel Sleiman and Prime Minister Saad al-Hariri.[160]
In January 2019, the Qatari government pledged to invest in Lebanon by purchasing government bonds worth $500 million in order to improve Lebanon's economic situation.[162]
 Malaysia1974See Malaysia–Qatar relations
The two countries formalized diplomatic relations in 1974.[163]
26 May 1984 (Diplomatic ties ended on 5 June 2017)The two countries initiated relations on 26 May 1984.[166] On 5 June 2017, in solidarity with Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt, Maldives decided to sever ties with Qatar.[167]
26 December 2005
Both countries have had diplomatic relations since 26 December 2005.[168]
Qatar has an embassy in Yangon.
 Mongolia21 January 1998The inception of Mongolia–Qatar relations dates back to 21 January 1998.[169] Qatar donated $10 million to Mongolia for its Millennium Road Project in 2006.[170]
In February 2020, Qatar and Mongolia signed a memorandum of understanding to establish political consultations between the foreign affairs ministries of both the countries.[171]
21 January 1977
Diplomatic relations were inaugurated on 21 January 1977.[172] The Nepali ambassador to Qatar, Maya Kumari Sharma, described the emirate as an "open jail" in reference to the working conditions of migrant Nepali laborers.[173]
 North Korea11 January 1993Qatar and North Korea formed diplomatic links on 11 January 1993.[176]
 Oman1970See Oman–Qatar relations
Formal diplomatic relations date back to 1970.[177] Oman helped facilitate shipping to Qatar after several Arab countries cut sea routes to Qatar during the 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis. Following the onset of the crisis in June 2017, most Qatari-destined goods flowed through the Port of Salalah and Sohar Port.[178] Two direct shipping lines between the aforementioned ports and Qatar's Hamad Port were launched the same month.[179] When Qatar Airways was banned from Saudi airspace, Oman stepped in and transported Saudi-based Qataris back to Doha.[180] At the official level, Oman remained uninvolved in the dispute, but its status as an alternative transit route has helped Qatar bypass the blockade imposed by its neighbors.[180]
1972See Pakistan–Qatar relations
Formal diplomatic ties were formed in 1972.[181]
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Islamabad and a consulate-general in Karachi.
Qatar invested $500 million in Pakistan in June 2019 as part of a planned $3 billion investment in the country.[182][183]
  • Palestine has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has a representative office in Gaza City.
 Philippines5 May 1981See Philippines–Qatar relations
The Philippines and Qatar established diplomatic relations on 5 May 1981.[184] As of 2014, about 200,000 Filipinos live in Qatar.[185]
 Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic ties ended on 5 June 2017See Saudi Arabia-Qatar relations and Qatar–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict
In September 1992, tensions arose between Qatar and Saudi Arabia when Saudi forces allegedly attacked a Qatari border post, resulting in the death of two Qatari soldiers and the imprisonment of a third.[186]
Saudi Arabia withdrew its ambassador from Doha due to some reservations over Al Jazeera content in 2002.[187] It was not until 2008 that Saudi Arabia reinstated its ambassador to Qatar.[188] On 5 March 2014, Saudi Arabia once again withdrew its ambassador from Qatar, this time to protest Qatar's non-compliance with a November 2013 agreement not to "interfere" in countries' internal affairs.[111] The widely accepted cause for this move was Qatar's support for the Muslim Brotherhood.[112]
On 5 June 2017, Saudi Arabia cut diplomatic relations with Qatar.[189] The move was followed by a number of other countries in the region and beyond.
Diplomatic ties between the two were created in 1984.[190]
 South Korea
April 1974
Qatar and South Korea established diplomatic relations in 1974.[193] On 8 March 2015, Qatari foreign minister Khalid bin Mohammad Al Attiyah and his South Korean counterpart, Yun Byung-se signed a memorandum of understanding entailing joint diplomatic training between the Diplomatic Institute of Qatar and the Korea National Diplomatic Academy. Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani and South Korean president Park Geun-hye attended the signing ceremony held in Doha.[194]
  • South Korea has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Seoul.
During the Syrian Civil War, Qatar, along with Saudi Arabia, Turkey and western states, vocally and materially supported different rebels with arms and funds against the government. Qatar has been the biggest sponsor of Syrian opposition forces during the civil war.[195][196]
1980See Qatar–Thailand relations
Qatar and Thailand formed relations in 1980.[197] Their cooperation mainly revolves around tourism and energy.[198]
In 2019, considering Qatar's advancements in the field of sports, Thailand signed a MoU with Qatar for sports cooperation and exchange.[199]
1973See Qatar–Turkey relations
The history of bilateral relations between Qatar and Turkey dates back to the 1973.[200] In the 1980s, the two nations began signing bilateral agreements with one another. Relations gained further traction in the 2000s with the signing of a further number of bilateral agreements.[201]
Qatar and Turkey share similar positions on the Syrian Civil War and the Egyptian Crisis.[202] Their coordination in regional politics has been described as an alliance.[203]
On 2 December 2015, during a Turkish presidential visit to Qatar, Tamim bin Hamad and Tayyip Erdoğan announced the planned creation of a Turkish military base in Qatar; a first for Turkey in the Persian Gulf.[204]
As part of their foreign policy priorities, both countries overtly provides region-wide support for Muslim Brotherhood.[205]
22 November 1996Both countries released a joint communiqué on 22 November 1996 formally declaring the beginning of diplomatic relations.[206]
 United Arab EmiratesDiplomatic ties ended on 5 June 2017See Qatar–United Arab Emirates relations
In 1995, after Hamad bin Khalifa deposed his father to become emir of Qatar, UAE granted asylum to the deposed Khalifa bin Hamad. Qatar accused UAE, along with Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, of plotting against the new emir, to which the accused countries denied all charges. Several hundred arrests were made in relation to the incident throughout the next two years, and in February 1996, the Qatar Amiri Guard was mobilised.[207]
UAE was one of the three countries which withdrew their ambassadors from Qatar in 2014.[111] On 5 June 2017, UAE, along with Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Egypt, cut diplomatic ties with Qatar, giving the country's diplomats 48 hours to leave the country.[208] UAE was implicated in the hacking of the Qatar News Agency, which set off the diplomatic crisis.[209]
 Uzbekistan27 November 1997In a meeting in Ankara on 27 November 1997, Qatar and Uzbekistan released a joint statement formally declaring the commencement of diplomatic relations.[210]
8 February 1993See Qatar–Vietnam relations
Qatar and Vietnam formed ties on 8 February 1993.[211]
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Hanoi.
CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
28 August 1992
Albania and Qatar officially commenced diplomatic relations on 28 August 1992.[212]
  • Albania has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Tirana.
15 May 2007Diplomatic relations were established between Andorra and Qatar on 15 May 2007.[213]
 Belarus16 February 1996
On 16 February 1996, the two countries signed an agreement on forming diplomatic relations.[215]
Belarus has an embassy in Doha.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Bulgaria16 October 1990
Both countries agreed to begin diplomatic relations on 16 October 1990.[220]
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Sofia.
 Croatia12 May 1992
Bilateral relations were established on 12 May 1992.[221]
  • Croatia has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Zagreb.
See Cyprus–Qatar relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Nicosia.
See France–Qatar relations
France maintains an embassy in Doha,[222] while Qatar maintains an embassy in Paris.[223] The first bilateral agreement was signed in 1974.[224] Qatar is an associate member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.[225] Both countries share strong economic and military ties. France and Qatar signed a defense pact since 1994,[226] and a significant portion of Qatar's military equipment is imported from France.[227]
In 2012, Qatar became France's seventh largest customer and sixth largest supplier in the Near East. Exports from France focus mainly on the supply of capital goods, deliveries of Airbus aircraft, and trade.[228] Qatar's sovereign wealth fund holds stakes in Vivendi, Lagardère Group,[229] and Vinci SA.[230]
 Germany1973See Germany–Qatar relations
Qatari embassy in Berlin
Qatar has had an embassy in Berlin since 2005,[231] and Germany has an embassy in Doha.[232] Bilateral ties were formed in 1973.[233] In regards to economic relations, Qatar has made large-scale investments in some of Germany's most prominent companies, including Volkswagen, Siemens and Deutsche Bank.[234]
On 6 June 2017, German FM Sigmar Gabriel condemned the Saudi-led boycott of Qatar.[235] In July, he called on the blockading countries to respect Qatar's rights as a sovereign nation, and applauded its prudence in responding to the blockade.[236]
1973See Greece–Qatar relations
Greece and Qatar officially formed relations in 1973.
  • Greece has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Athens.
Diplomatic relations between the two countries started in 1990.[237]
  • Hungary has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Budapest.
See Italy–Qatar relations
  • Italy has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan.
7 January 2011The Qatari Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced to Kosovan government officials that it would be recognizing the country's sovereignty on 4 January 2011, being the 73rd country to do so.[238] Diplomatic relations between the two were formalized on 7 January 2011.[239]
 Lithuania25 November 1992Relations between Lithuania and Qatar started on 25 November 1992.[240]
Qatar has an embassy in Valletta.[241]
Formal diplomatic relations date back to 1997.[242]
  • Moldova has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Chisnau.
 North Macedonia25 June 1996
Both countries initialized relations on 25 June 1996 in a public ceremony held in New York.[244]
  • Qatar has an embassy in Skopje.
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Doha.[245]
 PolandSeptember 1998
Poland and Qatar began diplomatic relations in September 1998.[246]
  • Poland has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Warsaw.
Portugal has an embassy in Doha.[247]
22 October 1990
Ties between Qatar and Romania were established on 22 October 1990.[248]
  • Qatar has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy in Doha.
1988See Qatar–Russia relations
Russian President Vladimir Putin meets with Qatar's Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, Moscow, January 2016
Qatar–Russia relations started in 1988 during the Soviet Union era.[249]
  • Qatar has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in Doha.
In 1989, both countries penned an agreement formalizing diplomatic relations.[250]
  • Qatar has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Doha.
December 1972See Qatar–Spain relations
  • Qatar has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Doha.
 SwedenSee Qatar–Sweden relations
  • Qatar has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Doha.
Diplomatic relations between Qatar and Switzerland first got underway in 1973.[251]
  • Qatar has an embassy in Bern and a consulate-general in Geneva.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Doha.
 United KingdomSee Qatar–United Kingdom relations
  • Qatar has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Doha.
CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
 AustraliaSee Australia–Qatar relations
  • Australia has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Canberra.
 Fiji20 October 2010Qatar and Fiji officially formed diplomatic relations on 20 October 2010 in a public ceremony held in New York.[252] In a 2014 incident where 45 Fijian peacekeepers were kidnapped and confined for two weeks in Syria by militants with connections to Al Qaeda, Qatar's government claimed responsibility for successfully negotiating the safe release of the peacekeepers.[253] It was reported in April 2017 that Fijian officials met with the Qatari government to discuss the possibility of turning the emirate into a refuge for Fijian peacekeepers in emergency situations.[254]
 Kiribati29 March 2016On 29 March 2016, both countries agreed to establish diplomatic relations during a ceremony in New York.[255]
 New Zealand
  • New Zealand is accredited to Qatar from its embassy in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
  • Qatar is accredited to New Zealand from its embassy in Canberra, Australia
 Papua New Guinea
24 February 2017Qatar formed ties with Papua New Guinea on 24 February 2017, at the Qatari Permanent Mission to the U.N. in New York.[256]
 Samoa9 March 2011Diplomatic relations between Qatar and Samoa commenced on 9 March 2011.[257]
 Vanuatu16 September 2002The two countries established bilateral relations on 16 September 2002.[258]
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