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Foreign relations of Tunisia
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Former President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali has maintained Tunisia's long-time policy of seeking good relations with the West, while playing an active role in Arab and African regional bodies. President Habib Bourguiba took a nonaligned stance but emphasized close relations with Europe and the United States.
Bilateral relations
Africa
CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
 Algeria
See Algeria–Tunisia relations
Tunisia and Algeria resolved a longstanding border dispute in 1993 and have cooperated in the construction of the Trans-Mediterranean natural gas pipeline through Tunisia that connects Algeria to Italy. In 2003 Tunisia and Algeria formed Numhyd, a petroleum company to develop oil resources. It is jointly owned (each 50%) by government corporations, Algeria's Sonatrach and Tunisia's Entreprise Tunisienne d'Activités Pétrolières (ETAP). Recently Tunisia signed an agreement with Algeria in order to demarcate more exactly the maritime frontier between the two countries.
 ComorosBoth countries have established diplomatic relations.[1]
 Egypt
In the 1950s the President of Tunisia, Habib Bourguiba, criticized on pragmatic grounds the type of Arab nationalism then promoted by Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, which was a widely popular ideology at the time in the Arabic-speaking countries. Their disagreement also concerned the policies of the Arab League. Bourguiba and Nassar eventually came to find some common ground.[2] Although ties were broken under Nasser, and again under Anwar Sadat, on the whole relations between Egypt and Tunisia have remained mutually beneficial.
After the Tunisian revolution in 2011, the Tunisian-Egyptian relations were very good, especially after the 2011 elections in Tunisia, where won the Ennahda Movement Islamic-oriented the elections, as well as the Muslim Brotherhood movement in Egypt won the elections, and also the convergence between the two presidents Moncef Marzouki and Mohamed Morsi. But since the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, relations became increasingly strained, and between the two and considered Tunisia that what is happening in Egypt is a military coup d'État bloody and protested against it in the United Nations, which led to a diplomatic crisis in relations severed in an indirect way and there is a lack of official visits at all levels. After the 2014 elections in Tunisia and the win of Nidaa Tounes's secular movement, improved relations and exchanged visits between officials and ministers.
  • Egypt has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Cairo.
 Ivory Coast
  • Ivory Coast has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Abidjan.
 LibyaSee Libya–Tunisia relations
Tunisia's relations with Libya have been erratic since Tunisia annulled a brief agreement to form a union in 1974. Diplomatic relations were broken in 1976, restored in 1977, and deteriorated again in 1980, when Libyan-trained rebels attempted to seize the town of Gafsa. In 1982, the International Court of Justice ruled in Libya's favor in the partition of the oil-rich continental shelf it shares with Tunisia. Libya's 1985 expulsion of Tunisian workers and military threats led Tunisia to sever relations. Relations were normalized again in 1987. While supporting the United Nations sanctions imposed following airline bombings, Tunisia has been careful to maintain positive relations with its neighbor. Tunisia supported the lifting of UN sanctions against Libya in 2003, and Libya is again becoming a major trading partner. Currently, Tunisia has a maritime dispute with Libya.
  • Libya has an embassy in Tunis and a consulate-general in Sfax.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Tripoli and a consulate-general in Benghazi.
 Mali
  • Mali has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Bamako.
 Mauritania
  • Mauritania has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Nouakchott.
 Morocco
Trade is increasing between Tunisia and Morocco. Direct maritime shipping commenced between the two countries in 2008 to supplement rail connections that remained uncertain. Also, the stock exchanges of Tunis and Casablanca this year began to jointly list the stock of a Maghriban company, this initial case involving an IPO.[3]
  • Morocco has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Rabat.
 Namibia
1990
Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1990.
  • Namibia is accredited to Tunisia from its embassy in Algiers, Algeria.
  • Tunisia is accredited to Namibia from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
 Nigeria
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Abuja.
 Senegal
  • Senegal has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Dakar.
 South Africa
  • South Africa has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Pretoria.
 Sudan
  • Sudan has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Khartoum.
Americas
CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
 Argentina
 BelizeBoth countries have passed a number of bilateral agreements.[4]
 Brazil
1956
  • Brazil has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Brasília.
 Canada
  • Canada has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate in Montreal.
 Cuba
  • Cuba has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia is accredited to Cuba from its embassy in Ottawa, Canada.
 Mexico16 November 1961See Mexico–Tunisia relations
  • Mexico is accredited to Tunisia from its embassy in Algiers, Algeria and maintains an honorary consulate in Tunis.[5]
  • Tunisia is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.[6]
 Nicaragua2 July 2019
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 July 2019.[7][8]
 United StatesSee Tunisia–United States relations
The Embassy of Tunisia in Washington, D.C.
The United States has very good relations with Tunisia, which date back more than 200 years. The United States has maintained official representation in Tunis almost continuously since 1795, and the American Friendship Treaty with Tunisia was signed in 1799. The two governments are not linked by security treaties, but relations have been close since Tunisia's independence. In each case, however, relations warmed again quickly, reflecting strong bilateral ties. The United States and Tunisia have an active schedule of joint military exercises. U.S. security assistance historically has played an important role in cementing relations. The U.S.-Tunisian Joint Military Commission meets annually to discuss military cooperation, Tunisia's defense modernization program, and other security matters. Since 2015, Tunisia and the United States are partners under the Major non-NATO partnership agreement.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Washington, D.C.
  • United States has an embassy in Tunis.
Asia
Tunisia has long been a voice for moderation and realism in the Middle East. Tunisia served as the headquarters of the Arab League from 1979 to 1990 and hosted the Palestine Liberation Organization's (PLO) headquarters from 1982 to 1993, when the PLO Executive Committee relocated to Jericho and the Palestinian Authority was established after the signing of the Oslo Accords. The PLO Political Department remains in Tunis.
Tunisia consistently has played a moderating role in the negotiations for a comprehensive Middle East peace. In 1993, Tunisia was the first Arab country to host an official Israeli delegation as part of the Middle East peace process and maintained an Interests Section until the outbreak in 2000 of the Intifada. Israeli citizens of Tunisian descent may travel to Tunisia on their Israeli passports.
CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
 Armenia15 July 2002
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 July 2002.
 Azerbaijan1 July 1998[9]See Azerbaijan-Tunisia relations
  • Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Tunisia were established on July 1, 1998. [9]
  • Relations between Azerbaijan and Tunisia have been developed within the framework of international organizations, including the UN and OIC.[9]
  • Azerbaijan is accredited to the Republic of Tunisia through its ambassador in the Kingdom of Morocco.[9]
 China
  • China has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Beijing.
 India
See India–Tunisia relations
  • India has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in New Delhi.
 IranSee Iran–Tunisia relations
In May, 2005, Tunisia signed with Iran an agreement for cooperation in air, sea, and road transportation. It was signed on the visit of Tunisian minister Abderrahim Zouari to Iran.[10]
  • Iran has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Tehran.
 Israel
See Israel–Tunisia relations
Tunisia is an enemy of Israel.
 Japan
Tunisia and Japan have a visa agreement, Tunisian people traveling to Japan and Japanese people traveling to Tunisia do not need a visa, as long as their stay do not exceed 3 months. Japan also supports Tunisia, with equipment and money donations. Both countries had friendly relations since Tunisia's independence in 1956. Since 2015, Tunisia and Japan are allies under the Major non-NATO ally agreement.
  • Japan has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Lebanon
Tunisia and Lebanon share historical and civilizational ties. In June, 2010, the Tunisian Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi and his Lebanese counterpart Mr. Saad Hariri chaired a Tunisian-Lebanese working session. Both countries want to energize the process for the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. In addition, Tunisia reaffirmed its support of Lebanon.[11]
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Beirut.
 Pakistan
See Pakistan–Tunisia relations
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Islamabad.
 QatarSee Qatar–Tunisia relations
Qatar is among the largest Arab investors in Tunisia.[12] Relations between Qatar and Tunisia improved immensely between 2011 and 2013, when Ennahda Movement-affiliated candidate Hamadi Jebali was declared Prime Minister of Tunisia in the 2011 Tunisian Constituent Assembly elections. Cooperation in all fields gradually started picking up traction; for instance, the two governments signed ten bilateral agreements in 2012.[13] One of the agreements involved the Qatar Armed Forces enlisting Tunisian military personnel within its ranks.[14]
  • Qatar has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Doha.
 Saudi Arabia
See Saudi Arabia–Tunisia relations
In July 2010, a Tunisian-Saudi non-double taxation agreement was signed in Tunis, by Finance Minister Ridha Chalghoum and his Saudi counterpart Ibrahim Bin Abdulaziz Al-Assaf. The two ministers said this convention will certainly help boost trade exchanges between Tunisia and Saudi Arabia, stimulate investments, and favour exchange of expertise between the two countries.
In particular, it will further the Tunisian-Saudi Investment and Development Bank "STUSID Bank" in developing financial co-operation and the contribution of the Saudi Fund for Development (SFD) to boost the development process in Tunisia. The minister highlighted the importance of drawing on the two countries' expertise in the tax and customs field and set up a joint action plan to strengthen co-operation.[15]
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.
 South Korea
March 1969
  • South Korea has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Seoul.
 Syria
The 11th session of the Tunisian-Syrian High Joint Committee met in Tunis in May 2010. The two countries share experience and information on such issues as housing, shipping, and tourism.[16]
  • Syria has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Damascus.
 Turkey
1956[17]See Tunisia–Turkey relations
 United Arab Emirates
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • UAE has an embassy in Tunis.
Europe
CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
 Albania
Both countries have a number of bilateral agreements.[20][21] Both countries are full members of the Union for the Mediterranean.
 Bulgaria1956
 Croatia1993-01-30
  • Croatia is accredited to Tunisia from its embassy in Rabat, Morocco and maintains an honorary consulate in Tunis.
  • Tunisia is accredited to Croatia from its embassy in Vienna, Austria and maintains an honorary consulate in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the Union for the Mediterranean.
 Cyprus
1999
 Denmark
 Finland1956-06-08
 France
See France–Tunisia relations
Tunisia and France retain a special relationship due to their history, geographic location, and economic relationship. In France there is a sizeable Tunisian diaspora, and the French language is widely used in Tunisia. Business and government connections are extensive and mutually maintained. Ranked by country, France receives the largest amount of Tunisian exports, and France is number-one regarding Tunisian imports also. In recent years many French companies have re-localized production to Tunisia.
 Germany
  • Germany has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Berlin.
 Greece
See Greece–Tunisia relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Athens.
 Italy
See Italy–Tunisia relations
  • Italy has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Rome, a consulate-general in Palermo and consulates in Genoa, Milan and Naples.
 Malta
  • Both countries established official diplomatic relations soon after Malta's independence.
  • Malta has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Valletta.
  • Both countries are full members of the Union for the Mediterranean.
  • Maltese and Tunisian Arabic are very similar languages. The two countries share very rich historical links.
 Poland
  • Poland has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Romania
1963
 Russia
1956See Russia–Tunisia relations
  • Russia has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Moscow.
 Serbia
  • Serbia has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Belgrade.
 Spain
See Spain–Tunisia relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Madrid.
 SwedenSee Sweden–Tunisia relations
  • Sweden has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Stockholm.
 United Kingdom
  • Tunisia has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Tunis.
Oceania
CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
 Australia
  • Australia is accredited to Tunisia from its high commission in Valletta, Malta.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Canberra.
 Vanuatu1 November 1988Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 1, 1988.[25]
Foreign Ambassadors
Footnotes
  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Jacques Baulin, The Arab role in Africa (Penguin 1962) at 118-128.
  3. ^ "Direct maritime transport commences between Tunisia and Morocco" www.magharebia.com - April 4, 2008.
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Algeria
  6. ^ Embassy of Tunisia in the United States
  7. ^ https://www.tn8.tv/politica/479330-nicaragua-estrecha-relaciones-diplomaticas-tunez/
  8. ^​http://www.informepastran.com/index.php/2019/07/03/nicaragua-establece-relaciones-con-tunez/
  9. ^ a b c d "Tunisia". mfa.gov.az. Retrieved 2021-01-24.
  10. ^ "Iran, Tunisia sign deal on transportation cooperation," People's Daily Online, May 16, 2005.
  11. ^ "Tunisia, Lebanon delagations hold working sessions" www.tunisiaonlinenews.com - June 26, 2010.
  12. ^ Youssef Cherif (7 September 2017). "Everyone is taking sides in the Qatar crisis. Here's why these four North African states aren't". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
  13. ^ Youssef Cherif (17 January 2017). "Tunisia's Fledgling Gulf Relations". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
  14. ^ "Qatari Army to enlist Tunisian army units". Voltaire Network. 1 December 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
  15. ^ "Tunisia-Saudi Arabia: Non-double taxation agreement signed" www.zawya.com - July 8, 2010.
  16. ^ "Tunisia-Syria boost bilateral co-operation" www.tunisiaonlinenews.com - May 14, 2010.
  17. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Tunisia".
  18. ^ "Türkiye Cumhuriyeti T.C. Tunus Büyükelçiliği".
  19. ^ "Turkey-Tunisia Economic and Trade Relations".
  20. ^ [3]
  21. ^ [4]
  22. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Tunis
  23. ^ "Danish embassy in Algiers, also accredited to Tunisia (in Danish and French only)". Archived from the original on 2010-04-20. Retrieved 2010-08-15.
  24. ^ "Romanian embassy in Tunis (in French and Romanian only)". Archived from the original on 2009-09-19. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
  25. ^ [5]
  26. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2007.html#ts
See also
Last edited on 2 May 2021, at 15:23
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