Foundation for Defense of Democracies
Foundation for Defense of Democracies
Its political leanings have been described variously as nonpartisan,hawkish
FDD holds events throughout the year, including its annual Washington Forum, briefings on Capitol Hill, expert roundtables for public officials, diplomats, and military officers, book releases, and panel discussions and debates within the policy community.
FDD publishes research on foreign policy and security issues, focusing on subjects such as nuclear-non proliferation, cyber threats, sanctions, illicit finance, and policy surrounding North Korea
, the war in Afghanistan
, and other areas of study.
History and mission
FDD was founded shortly after the September 11 attacks
In the initial documents filed for tax-exempt status in Internal Revenue Service
, the FDD stated its mission "was to provide education to enhance Israel's image in North America and the public's understanding of issues affecting Israeli-Arab relations".
Later documents described the mission as "to conduct research and provide education on international terrorism and related issues".
On its website, FDD describes itself as a "a non-profit, non-partisan 501(c)3 policy institute", with focus "on foreign policy and national security that combines policy research, democracy and counterterrorism education, strategic communications and investigative journalism in support of its mission to promote pluralism, defend democratic values and fight the ideologies that drive terrorism".
According to Dennis Jett
, FDD "offers hardly any information on where its money comes from and where it goes".
Money contributed to the FDD during first decade of its activity, based on calculations made by Christopher Bail, expanded by 442%.
In 2011, news website ThinkProgress
published FDD's Form 990
that revealed where FDD funding came from, from 2001 to 2004. Top donors included:
Other notable donors who gave lesser money during the same period were:
FDD's Schedule A
documents filed by the end of the 2011 tax year, indicates that the organization from 2008 to 2011 was funded more than $20,000,000,
and the top three donors were:
In 2018, AP
reported that the United Arab Emirates
has wired $2,500,000 to the FDD through Elliott Broidy
and George Nader
, to host a conference amidst Qatar diplomatic crisis
about the country's role as a state-sponsor of terrorism.
FDD stated that it does not accept money from foreign governments, adding that "[a]s is our funding policy, we asked if his funding was connected to any foreign governments or if he had business contracts in the Gulf. He assured us that he did not".
states that the FDD high-profile conference of 23 May 2017 was in line with UAE's policy at the time, which officially alleged that Qatar finances Islamist groups, adding that emails leaked shortly after show that UAE's Ambassador Yousef Al Otaiba
had a "cosy relationship" with the FDD, and had reviewed the remarks made by Robert Gates
at the convention.
Additionally, it is known that as of 2016, FDD has received donations from the following institutions:
Iran's government officially threatened FDD and its CEO Mark Dubowitz, enacting sanctions against the CEO, and implicitly threatening the think tank with force from the Iranian state's "security apparatus," as implied in Tehran's own official announcement.
The Syria Project
For years, Syria
has been a focus of FDD's research because of its alignment with Iran and support for organizations such as Hezbollah
In 2012, as the Arab Spring
spread to Syria, FDD launched "The Syria Project" to support dissident efforts in removing Syrian president Bashar al-Assad
from power.[third-party source needed]
In that effort, FDD facilitated a Skype call between dissidents and U.S. journalists in 2012
and produced multiple studies and memos urging U.S. officials to act.[third-party source needed]
Long War Journal
Long War Journal is a FDD project dedicated to reporting the Global War on Terror
launched by the United States and its allies following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Under the direction of FDD senior fellows Bill Roggio
and Thomas Joscelyn, this website covers stories about countries such as Afghanistan
, and Iraq
and follows the actions of al Qaeda
and its affiliates.[third-party source needed]
According to the Columbia Journalism Review
, "Roggio's greatest service, then, may be the way he picks up where the mainstream press leaves off, giving readers a simultaneously more specific and holistic understanding of the battlefield".
European Foundation for Democracy
Former staff include:
Board of directors
As of 2005, members of FDD's board of directors were:
The following people served as advisors to FDD as of 2005:
Arun Kundnani, adjunct professor at New York University
, in a review of FDD publication Homegrown Terrorists in the US and UK
argues that as a work "typical of many in its approach and conclusions", it does not provide empirical evidence
for assumptions it makes and neglects contradicting data as a result of an influence by politics of the publisher and funders, and bias in favor of knowledge claims
The International Relations Center
features a report on the foundation on its "Right Web" website, a program of the think tank Institute for Policy Studies
which, according to its mission statement, seeks to "check the militaristic
drift of the country". The report states that "although the FDD is an ardent critic of terrorism, it has not criticized actions taken by Israel against Palestinians that arguably fall into this category".
In 2017 Bari Weiss
of the New York Times
reported on dissent within the organization over the pro-Trump
orientation it adopted following the 2016 elections, which included at least two employees leaving.
Christopher A. Bail, professor of sociology, public policy and data science at Duke University
, describes FDD as an "anti-Muslim
fringe organization" that has tried to establish itself as a legitimate authority on Islam and terrorism by tactically using "ethnic experts" —i.e. pundits with Middle Eastern background who were not Muslim— because they advocate views contrary to the mainstream perspective of the Muslim community in the United States, but look like and talk like Muslims.
- ^ "Charity Navigator - IRS Data for Foundation for Defense of Democracies". Charity Navigator. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
- ^ "Charity Navigator - Rating for Foundation for Defense of Democracies". Charity Navigator. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
- ^ a b c d Schaffer, Aaron; Pecquet, Julian (15 November 2019), "Anti-Iran advocacy group FDD registers to lobby", Al-Monitor, archived from the original on 16 November 2019, retrieved 15 April 2020
- ^ Richter, Paul (March 14, 2012). "Chinese bank pulls out of Pakistan-Iran pipeline project". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2013-03-01. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- ^ NPR Staff (October 10, 2012). "Better To Elect Islamists Than Have Dictators?". NPR. Archived from the original on 2013-03-25. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- ^ Guttman, Nathan (January 1, 2013). "Laying Groundwork for Life After Syria's Assad". Forward. Archived from the original on 2013-04-03. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- ^ "Foreign Policy Experts Examine Democracies in the Mideast". C-SPAN. Archived from the original on 2013-06-09. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- ^ Flaccus, Gillian (November 22, 2012). "2 of 4 terror suspects were new Islamic converts". The Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2013-06-07. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- ^ Lee, Carol. "white house blindsided by iranian foreign minister zarif's appearance". cnbc.com. Archived from the original on 2019-09-20. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
- ^ Wilson, Mark. "How Trump trips up his own Afghanistan peace efforts". politico.com. Archived from the original on 2019-09-14. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
- ^ "He Was a Tireless Critic of the Iran Deal. Now He Insists He Wanted to Save It". The New York Times. 2018-05-13. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-05-14. Retrieved 2018-05-14.
- ^ Morgan, Wesley (May 9, 2019). "McMaster blasts former colleagues as 'danger to the Constitution'". Politico.
- ^ Foster, Peter (February 24, 2013). "Obama's new head boy". The Telegraph (UK). Archived from the original on 2013-02-28. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- ^ "Most Favored Democracy". The American Conservative. Archived from the original on 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- ^ Jonsson, Patrik (June 11, 2009). "Shooting of two soldiers in Little Rock puts focus on 'lone wolf' Islamic extremists". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 2013-04-06. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- ^ "Foundation for Defense of Democracies". onthinktanks.org. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
- ^ "FDD | Issues". FDD. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
- ^ For example, see the following sources:
- Ahmad, Muhammad Idrees (2014), Road to Iraq: The Making of a Neoconservative War, Edinburgh University Press, p. 179, ISBN 9780748693054, The [Israel] lobby has insulated itself with a network of satellite institutions and alliances all invested in cultivating the view that Israeli and US interests are identical... It consists of... think thanks such as WINEP, JINSA, AEI, CSP, the Saban Center for Middle East Policy, FDD, and the defence/national security programmes of the Hudson Institute and the Heritage Foundation...
- Seliktar, Ofira; Rezaei, Farhad (2018), Iran, Israel, and the United States: The Politics of Counter-Proliferation Intelligence, Rowman & Littlefield, p. 168, ISBN 9781498569767, The Israel lobby stalwarts—the WINEP, the FDD, the Israel Project, the Jewish National Security Affairs (JINSA), CSP, and UANI, among others—produced a considerable number of reports, policy papers, articles, and op-eds, and their reprasantatives regularly testified before Congress.
- Mearsheimer, John J.; Stephen, Walt (2007), The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pp. 128–130, ISBN 978-0-374-17772-0, The [Israel] lobby's drift to the right has been reinforced by the emergence of the neoconservatives... The think tanks and advocacy groups most closely associated with these neoconservatives are the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), the Center for Security Policy (CSP), the Hudson Institute, the Foundation for Defense of Democracies (FDD), the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA), the Middle East Forum (MEF), the Project for a New American Century (PNAC), and the Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP). Virtually all neoconservatives are strongly committed to Israel, a point they emphasize openly and unapologetically.
- Ashwarya, Sujata (2017), India-Iran Relations: Progress, Problems and Prospects, Routledge, p. 179, ISBN 9781351987073, In a 155-page report “US Non-proliferation Strategy for the Changing Middle East,” co-authored by the head of a right-wing pro-Israel lobby group, the Foundation for Defence of Democracies (FDD), Mark Dubowitz, states that...
- ^ a b c Jett, Dennis (2017), The Iran Nuclear Deal: Bombs, Bureaucrats, and Billionaires C., Springer, pp. 83–86, ISBN 9783319598222
- ^ a b c d e Judis, John B. (18 August 2015), "The Little Think Tank That Could: Inside the small, pro-Israel outfit leading the attack on Obama's Iran deal", Slate, archived from the original on 18 August 2015, retrieved 15 April 2020
- ^ Marusek, Sarah (2017), "Inventing terrorists: the nexus of intelligence and Islamophobia" (PDF), Critical Studies on Terrorism, 11 (1): 65–87, doi:10.1080/17539153.2017.1351597, S2CID 148693782
- ^ Ahmad, Muhammad Idrees. (2014). The Road to Iraq : the Making of a Neoconservative War. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-9304-7. OCLC 888747321.
- ^ Mearsheimer, John J. (4 September 2007). The Israel lobby and U.S. foreign policy. Walt, Stephen M., 1955-. New York. ISBN 978-0-374-17772-0. OCLC 144227359.
- ^ Seliktar, Ofira. Iran, Israel, and the United States : the politics of counter-proliferation intelligence. Rezaei, Farhad. Lanham, Maryland. ISBN 978-1-4985-6975-0. OCLC 1030485498.
- ^ "Un documentaire interdit sur le lobby pro-israélien aux États-Unis". Orient XXI (in French). 2018-11-02. Retrieved 2020-07-07.
- ^ Marusek, Sarah (2018-01-02). "Inventing terrorists: the nexus of intelligence and Islamophobia" (PDF). Critical Studies on Terrorism. 11 (1): 65–87. doi:10.1080/17539153.2017.1351597. ISSN 1753-9153. S2CID 148693782.
- ^ Bail, Christopher (2015), Terrified: How Anti-Muslim Fringe Organizations Became Mainstream, Princeton University Press, pp. 73–75, ISBN 978-0-691-15942-3
- ^ "Form 990" (PDF). ThinkProgress. Archived(PDF) from the original on 2014-12-05. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Clifton, Eli (19 July 2011). "EXCLUSIVE: Documents Shed Light On Those Underwriting The Foundation For Defense Of Democracies". ThinkProgress. Archived from the original on 2014-11-06. Retrieved 2014-11-06.
- ^ a b c d Eli Clifton (2013-06-08). "Home Depot founder's quiet $10 million right-wing investment". Salon. Archived from the original on 2019-01-26. Retrieved 2019-02-07.
- ^ a b Butler, Desmond; LoBianco, Tom; Klapper, Bradley; Day, Chad; Lardner, Richard (26 March 2018), "Witness in Mueller probe aided UAE agenda in Congress", The Associated Press, retrieved 10 January 2020
- ^ Hanieh, Adam (2018), Money, Markets, and Monarchies: The Gulf Cooperation Council and the Political Economy of the Contemporary Middle East, Cambridge University Press, p. 247, ISBN 9781108429146
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Cronin, David; Marusek, Sarah; Miller, David (2016), The Israel Lobby and the European Union (PDF), Glasgow: Public Interest Investigations, ISBN 978-0-9570274-7-3 – via University of Bath
- ^ Ali, Wajahat; Clifton, Eli; Duss, Matthew; Fang, Lee; Keyes, Scott; Shakir, Faiz (August 2011), "Fear, Inc.: The Roots of the Islamophobia Network in America" (PDF), Center for American Progress, p. 21, archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2020
- ^ "Factsheet: European Foundation for Democracy", The Bridge Initiative, Georgetown University, 5 December 2019, archived from the original on 13 April 2020, retrieved 1 April 2020
- ^ Kundnani, Arun (2014), "Radicalisation: The Journey of a Concept", in Baker-Beall, Christopher; Heath-Kelly, Charlotte; Jarvis, Lee (eds.), Counter-Radicalisation: Critical Perspectives, Routledge, p. 23, ISBN 978-1-317-68039-0
- ^ "Iran sanctions Washington-based FDD for role in intensifying 'US economic terrorism'". Mehr News Agency. 2019-08-24. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
- ^ "Foreign Ministry Blacklists 'Foundation for Defence of Democracies'". Islamic Republic of Iran: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. August 24, 2019.
- ^ "FDD | Mark Dubowitz". FDD. Archived from the original on 2019-01-30. Retrieved 2019-01-30.
- ^ a b "FDD | Iran Program". FDD. Archived from the original on 2019-01-30. Retrieved 2019-01-30.
- ^ "Iran Research". Foundation for Defense of Democracies. Archived from the original on 2012-08-26. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- ^ "Iran Energy Project". Foundation for Defense of Democracies. Archived from the original on 2013-03-16. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- ^ "Iran Human Rights Project". Foundation for Defense of Democracies. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- ^ "Iran - Energy". Foundation for Defense of Democracies. Archived from the original on 2013-01-21. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- ^ Editorial (2009-03-25). "Pain Iran Can Believe In". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2017-10-10. Retrieved 2017-08-03.
- ^ "Remarks by Rep. Howard Berman (D-CA)". Foundation for Defense of Democracies. Archived from the original on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- ^ Editorial (February 1, 2012). "Swift Sanctions on Iran". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2017-10-10. Retrieved 2017-08-03.
- ^ Badran, Tony. "A Syria in minor key". NOW Lebanon. Archived from the original on 2013-01-18. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- ^ "The Syria Project". Foundation for Defense of Democracies. Archived from the original on 2014-11-24. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- ^ Zuka, Muhammad (February 12, 2012). "A Syrian resistance leader's plea to the world". CNN. Archived from the original on 2012-08-27. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- ^ "Project Milestones". Foundation for Defense of Democracies. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- ^ "About". The Long War Journal. Archived from the original on 2013-02-01. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- ^ Mcleary, Paul (March–April 2008). "Blogging the long war: Bill Roggio wants to be your source for conflict coverage". Columbia Journalism Review.
- ^ a b c d e f g Zangana, Haifa (2005), "Colonial Feminists from Washington to Baghdad: Women for a Free Iraq as a case study", Al-Raida Journal, Beirut: Institute for Women's Studies in the Arab World, Lebanese American University, XXII (109–110): 30–40, doi:10.32380/alrj.v0i0.299, ISSN 0259-9953 – Open access material licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
- ^ Kundnani, Arun (2014), "Radicalisation: The Journey of a Concept", in Baker-Beall, Christopher; Heath-Kelly, Charlotte; Jarvis, Lee (eds.), Counter-Radicalisation: Critical Perspectives, Routledge, pp. 21–23, ISBN 9781317680390
- ^ Wilkerson, Lawrence (5 February 2018), "I Helped Sell the False Choice of War Once. It's Happening Again", The New York Times, archived from the original on 5 February 2018, retrieved 15 April 2020
- ^ "About Right Web". RightWeb. Archived from the original on 2013-01-21. Retrieved 2013-01-29.
- ^ "Foundation for Defense of Democracies - Profile - Right Web - Institute for Policy Studies". Rightweb.irc-online.org. Archived from the original on 2012-11-05. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- ^ Weiss, Bari (November 2, 2017). "The Trump Debate Inside Conservative Citadels". The New York Times. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
- ^ Bail, Christopher (2015), Terrified: How Anti-Muslim Fringe Organizations Became Mainstream, Princeton University Press, pp. 70–71, ISBN 978-0-691-15942-3
- ^ Marusek, Sarah (2017), "The Transatlantic Network: Funding Islamophobia and Israeli Settlements", in Massoumi, Narzanin; Mills, Tom; Miller, David (eds.), What is Islamophobia?, Pluto Press, pp. 189–206, ISBN 978-1-7868-0068-8
- ^ Hafez, Farid (2018), "Muslim Civil Society Under Attack: The European Foundation for Democracy's Role in Defaming and Delegitimizing Muslim Civil Society", in Esposito, John L.; Iner, Derya (eds.), Islamophobia and Radicalization: Breeding Intolerance and Violence, Springer, pp. 119–120, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-95237-6_7, ISBN 978-3-319-95237-6
Last edited on 10 May 2021, at 15:31
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.