Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama
, Japanese: [ɸɯ̥kɯꜜjama]
; born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist
, political economist
, and writer. Fukuyama is known for his book The End of History and the Last Man
(1992), which argues that the worldwide spread of liberal democracies
and free-market capitalism
of the West
and its lifestyle may signal the end point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and become the final form of human government. However, his subsequent book Trust: Social Virtues and Creation of Prosperity
(1995) modified his earlier position to acknowledge that culture cannot be cleanly separated from economics. Fukuyama is also associated with the rise of the neoconservative
from which he has since distanced himself.
Francis Fukuyama was born in the Hyde Park
neighborhood of Chicago
, Illinois, United States. His paternal grandfather fled the Russo-Japanese War
in 1905 and started a shop on the west coast before being interned
in the Second World War.
His father, Yoshio Fukuyama
(福山喜雄), a second-generation Japanese American
, was trained as a minister in the Congregational Church
, received a doctorate in sociology
from the University of Chicago
, and taught religious studies.
His mother, Toshiko Kawata Fukuyama (河田敏子), was born in Kyoto
, Japan, and was the daughter of Shiro Kawata (河田嗣郎), founder of the Economics Department of Kyoto University
and first president of Osaka City University
Francis grew up in Manhattan
as an only child, had little contact with Japanese culture, and did not learn Japanese.
His family moved to State College, Pennsylvania
, in 1967.
Francis Fukuyama participating in a night owl session in Tbilisi
The End of History and the Last Man
Fukuyama is best known as the author of The End of History and the Last Man
, in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy
after the end of the Cold War
and the fall of the Berlin Wall
in 1989. The book was an expansion on ideas expressed in an earlier article, "The End of History?" published in The National Interest.
In the article, Fukuyama predicted the soon global triumph of political and economic liberalism:
What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.
— Francis Fukuyama, "The End of History?", The National Interest, No.16 (Summer 1989)
According to Fukuyama, one of the main critiques of The End of History
was of his aggressive stance towards postmodernism
. Postmodern philosophy had, in Fukuyama's opinion, undermined the ideology behind liberal democracy, leaving the western world in a potentially weaker position.
The fact that Marxism and fascism had proven untenable for practical use while liberal democracy still thrived was reason enough to embrace the hopeful attitude of the Progressive era, as this hope for the future was what made a society worth struggling to maintain. Postmodernism, which, by this time, had become embedded in the cultural consciousness, offered no hope and nothing to sustain a necessary sense of community, instead relying only on lofty intellectual premises.
The Origins of Political Order
In the 2011 book, Fukuyama describes what makes a state stable. It uses comparative political history
to develop a theory of the stability of a political system
. According to Fukuyama, an ideal political order needs a modern and effective state, the rule of law governing the state and be accountable.
Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Present Day
The 2014 book is the second book on political order, following the 2011 book The Origins of Political Order.
In this book, Fukuyama covers events taking place since the French Revolution and shed light on political institutions and their development in different regions.
After tracing how a modern and effective government was developed in the U.S., Fukuyama asserts that it is experiencing political decay.
Fukuyama believes that political decay can be seen in the deterioration of bureaucracies, special interest groups capturing the legislature, and inevitable but cumbersome judicial processes challenging all types of government action.
Fukuyama has written a number of other books, among them Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity
and Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution
. In the latter, he qualified his original "end of history" thesis, arguing that since biotechnology increasingly allows humans to control their own evolution
, it may allow humans to alter human nature
, thereby putting liberal democracy at risk.
One possible outcome could be that an altered human nature could end in radical inequality. He is a fierce enemy of transhumanism
, an intellectual movement asserting that posthumanity
is a desirable goal.
In another work, The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, Fukuyama explores the origins of social norms, and analyses the current disruptions in the fabric of our moral traditions, which he considers as arising from a shift from the manufacturing to the information age. This shift is, he thinks, normal and will prove self-correcting, given the intrinsic human need for social norms and rules.
In 2006, in America at the Crossroads
, Fukuyama discusses the history of neoconservatism, with particular focus on its major tenets and political implications. He outlines his rationale for supporting the Bush administration, as well as where he believes it has gone wrong.
In 2008, Fukuyama published the book Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States
, which resulted from research and a conference funded by Grupo Mayan to gain understanding on why Latin America, once far wealthier than North America, fell behind in terms of development in only a matter of centuries. Discussing this book at a 2009 conference, Fukuyama outlined his belief that inequality within Latin American nations is a key impediment to growth. An unequal distribution of wealth, he stated, leads to social upheaval, which then results in stunted growth.
His most recent book, published in 2018, is Identity: The Demand for Dignity and the Politics of Resentment.
In a New York Times
article from February 2006, Fukuyama, in considering the ongoing Iraq War
, stated: "What American foreign policy needs is not a return to a narrow and cynical realism, but rather the formulation of a 'realistic Wilsonianism' that better matches means to ends."
In regard to neoconservatism, he went on to say: "What is needed now are new ideas, neither neoconservative nor realist, for how America is to relate to the rest of the world – ideas that retain the neoconservative belief in the universality of human rights, but without its illusions about the efficacy of American power and hegemony to bring these ends about."
Fukuyama began to distance himself from the neoconservative agenda of the Bush administration
, citing its excessive militarism and embrace of unilateral armed intervention, particularly in the Middle East. By mid 2004, Fukuyama had voiced his growing opposition to the Iraq War
and called for Donald Rumsfeld
's resignation as Secretary of Defense
At an annual dinner of the American Enterprise Institute in February 2004, Dick Cheney
and Charles Krauthammer
declared the beginning of a unipolar
era under American hegemony
. "All of these people around me were cheering wildly,"
Fukuyama remembers. He believes that the Iraq War was being blundered. "All of my friends had taken leave of reality."
He has not spoken to Paul Wolfowitz
(previously a good friend) since.
Fukuyama declared he would not be voting for Bush,
and that the Bush administration had made three mistakes:
- Overstating the threat of Islamic extremism to the US
- Failing to foresee the fierce negative reaction to its "benevolent hegemony". From the very beginning showing a negative attitude toward the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations and not seeing that it would increase anti-Americanism in other countries
- Misjudging what was needed to bring peace in Iraq and being overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of western values could be applied to Iraq and the Middle East in general.
Fukuyama believes the US has a right to promote its own values in the world, but more along the lines of what he calls "realistic Wilsonianism
", with military intervention only as a last resort and only in addition to other measures. A latent military force is more likely to have an effect than actual deployment. The US spends 43% of global military spending
but Iraq shows there are limits to its effectiveness.
The US should instead stimulate political and economic development and gain a better understanding of what happens in other countries. The best instruments are setting a good example and providing education and, in many cases, money. The secret of development, be it political or economic, is that it never comes from outsiders, but always from people in the country itself. One thing the US proved to have excelled in during the aftermath of World War II
was the formation of international institutions. A return to support for these structures would combine American power with international legitimacy, but such measures require a lot of patience. This is the central thesis of his 2006 work America at the Crossroads
In a 2006 essay in The New York Times Magazine
strongly critical of the invasion, he identified neoconservatism with Leninism
. He wrote that neoconservatives "believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will. Leninism was a tragedy in its Bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the United States. Neoconservatism, as both a political symbol and a body of thought, has evolved into something I can no longer support."
Fukuyama announced the end of the neoconservative moment and argued for the demilitarization of the War on Terrorism
[W]ar is the wrong metaphor for the broader struggle, since wars are fought at full intensity and have clear beginnings and endings. Meeting the jihadist challenge is more of a "long, twilight struggle" [quoting John F. Kennedy's inaugural address
] whose core is not a military campaign but a political contest for the hearts and minds of ordinary Muslims around the world.
I'm voting for Barack Obama this November for a very simple reason. It is hard to imagine a more disastrous presidency than that of George W. Bush. It was bad enough that he launched an unnecessary war and undermined the standing of the United States throughout the world in his first term. But in the waning days of his administration, he is presiding over a collapse of the American financial system and broader economy that will have consequences for years to come. As a general rule, democracies don't work well if voters do not hold political parties accountable for failure. While John McCain
is trying desperately to pretend that he never had anything to do with the Republican Party, I think it would be a travesty to reward the Republicans for failure on such a grand scale.
In a 2018 interview with New Statesman
, when asked about his views on the resurgence of socialist
politics in the United States and the United Kingdom, he responded:
It all depends on what you mean by socialism. Ownership of the means of production – except in areas where it's clearly called for, like public utilities – I don't think that's going to work. If you mean redistributive programmes that try to redress this big imbalance in both incomes and wealth that has emerged then, yes, I think not only can it come back, it ought to come back. This extended period, which started with Reagan and Thatcher, in which a certain set of ideas about the benefits of unregulated markets took hold, in many ways it's had a disastrous effect. At this juncture, it seems to me that certain things Karl Marx said are turning out to be true. He talked about the crisis of overproduction… that workers would be impoverished and there would be insufficient demand.
In 2020, Fukuyama became the chair of the editorial board for American Purpose,
a magazine established in 2020 to promote three central ideas. First, it wants to promote liberal democracy
in the United States. Second, it seeks to understand and opine on the challenges to liberal democracy in other countries. Third, it wants to "offer criticism and commentary on history and biography, high art and pop culture, science and technology."
Fukuyama has also perceived Joe Biden's victory in the 2020 presidential election as the result of the Western system's ability to correct mistakes.
- Between 2006 and 2008, Fukuyama advised Muammar Gaddafi as part of the Monitor Group, a consultancy firm based in Cambridge, MA.
- In August 2005, Fukuyama co-founded The American Interest, a bimonthly magazine devoted to the broad theme of "America in the World". He served as chairman of the editorial board until his resignation. In a published letter posted on his public Medium page on July 27, 2020, Fukuyama cited a disagreement with the publisher's decision to terminate Jeff Gedmin as editor-in-chief. Fukuyama also indicated other changes underway at the publication as an additional reason for his resignation.
- Fukuyama was a member of the RAND Corporation's Political Science Department from 1979 to 1980, 1983 to 1989, and 1995 to 1996. He is now a member of the Board of Trustees.
- Fukuyama was a member of the President's Council on Bioethics from 2001 to 2004.
- Fukuyama is a Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS).
- Fukuyama was on the steering committee for the Scooter Libby Legal Defense Trust. Fukuyama is a long-time friend of Libby. They served together in the State Department in the 1980s.
- Fukuyama is a member of the Board of Counselors for the Pyle Center of Northeast Asian Studies at the National Bureau of Asian Research.
- Fukuyama is on the board of Global Financial Integrity.
- Fukuyama is a member of the Inter-American Dialogue.
- Fukuyama is the chair of the editorial board for American Purpose, a magazine established in 2020.
Fukuyama is a part-time photographer. He also has an interest in early-American furniture
, which he reproduces by hand.
Another hobby of Fukuyama's is sound recording and reproduction
. He explained, "These days I seem to spend as much time thinking about gear as I do analyzing politics for my day job."
Since the mid-1990s, Fukuyama has been building his own Personal Computers.
Fukuyama is married to Laura Holmgren, whom he met when she was a UCLA
graduate student after he started working for the RAND Corporation.
He dedicated his book Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity
to her. They live in California, with their three children, Julia, David, and John.
He is the first cousin to crime novelist Joe Ide
. Fukuyama helped him get his first book published.
Scholarly works (partial list)
The Soviet Union and Iraq since 1968, Rand research report, 1980
- The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press, 1992. ISBN 0-02-910975-2
- Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-910976-0
- The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order. Free Press. 1999. ISBN 0-684-84530-X
- Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2002. ISBN 0-374-23643-7
- State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-8014-4292-3
- America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-300-11399-4 US edition
After the Neo Cons: Where the Right went Wrong. London: Profile Books. 2006. ISBN 1-86197-922-3 UK edition
- Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States (editor). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-536882-6
- The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2011. ISBN 978-1-846-68256-8
- Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Present Day. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2014. ISBN 978-0-374-22735-7
- Identity: The Demand for Dignity and the Politics of Resentment, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2018.
- The End of History?, The National Interest, Summer 1989
- Women and the Evolution of World Politics, Foreign Affairs October 1998
- Immigrants and Family Values, The Immigration Reader 1998. ISBN 1-55786-916-2
- Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, The Atlantic Monthly, May 1999
- Social capital and civil society, paper prepared for delivery at the International Monetary Fund Conference on Second Generation Reforms, October 1, 1999
- The neoconservative moment, The National Interest, Summer 2004
- After neoconservatism, The New York Times Magazine, February 19, 2006
- Supporter's voice now turns on Bush, The New York Times Magazine, March 14, 2006
- Why shouldn't I change my mind?, Los Angeles Times, April 9, 2006
- The Fall of America, Inc. Newsweek, October 13, 2008
- The New Nationalism and the Strategic Architecture of Northeast Asia Asia Policy January 2007
- Left Out, The American Interest, January 2011
- Is China Next?, The Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2011
- The Future of History; Can Liberal Democracy Survive the Decline of the Middle Class?, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2012
- What is Governance? Governance (journal), March 2013
- Against Identity Politics - The New Tribalism and the Crisis of Democracy Foreign Affairs, September/October 2018
- Liberalism and Its Discontents - The challenges from the left and the right. American Purpose, October 2020
- ^ "The Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University". Fsi.stanford.edu. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- ^ Thies, Clifford (June 24, 2011) The End of Hystery? Francis Fukuyama's Review of The Constitution of Liberty, Mises Institute
- ^ "Interview with Ex-Neocon Francis Fukuyama: "A Model Democracy Is not Emerging in Iraq"". Spiegel Online. March 22, 2006. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
- ^ a b "Francis Fukuyama". Stanford Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies.
- ^ a b "Francis Fukuyama to lead the Ford Dorsey Master's in International Policy Program". Stanford News. July 21, 2019. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
- ^ "Francis Fukuyama – International Forum for Democratic Studies Research Council Member". National Endowment for Democracy. Archived from the original on July 8, 2014. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- ^ "Francis Fukuyama | Reporters without borders". RSF. September 9, 2018.
- ^ Moss, Stephen (May 23, 2011). "Francis Fukuyama: 'Americans are not very good at nation-building'". the Guardian. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
- ^ a b Wade, Nicholas (April 2, 2002). "A Dim View of a 'Posthuman Future'". The New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f g Wroe, Nicholas (May 11, 2002). "History's pallbearer". The Guardian. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
- ^ Fukuyama, Francis (October 7, 1999). "Fukuyama 101". Think Tank (Interview). Interviewed by Ben Wattenberg. Washington, DC: PBS. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
- ^ a b "Ford-Grilliparzer". Encyclopedia of World Biography. 6 (2nd ed.). Detroit, MI: Gale Research. 1998. ISBN 978-0-7876-2546-7. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f "Francis Fukuyama". The Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University. Stanford University. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
- ^ Dahrendorf (1990) Reflections on the revolution in Europe p. 37
Luciano Canfora La grande illusione del capitalismo eterno preface to Ercolani, Paolo La storia infinita. Marx, il liberalismo e la maledizione di Nietzsche quotation:
Quanto detto sin qui può forse bastare a non prendere sul serio saggi troppo fortunati (ma già quasi avviati al dimenticatoio) come La fine della storia del nippo-statunitense Fukuyama. Libro che, comunque, è stato ampiamente stroncato per le sciocchezze che contiene: e non già da tardi epigoni del marxismo-leninismo, ma da filosofi 'liberal' come Dahrendorf, il quale ha anche avuto il buon senso di elencare gli errori di fatto (tali da mettere in forse il conseguimento della "maturità classica"!) che il troppo fortunato libretto contiene.
- ^ Wroe, Nicholas (May 10, 2002). "History's Pallbearer". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group.
- ^ 'Francis Fukuyama, "Reflections on the End of History, Five Years Later", History and Theory 34, 2: "World Historians and Their Critics" (May 1995): 43.
- ^ 'Francis Fukuyama, "Reflections on the End of History, Five Years Later", History and Theory 34, 2: World Historians and Their Critics (May 1995): 36.
- ^ Fukuyama, Francis (2011). Origins of political order : from prehuman times to the French revolution (1st paperback ed.). New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 312, 420. ISBN 978-0374-5332-29.
- ^ Fukuyama, Francis. "Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy". Stanford.edu. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- ^ Berman, Sheri (September 11, 2014). "Global Warning". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- ^ Fukuyama, Francis (December 8, 2016). "America in Decay". Foreign Affairs : America and the World. ISSN 0015-7120. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- ^ For a critical analysis of Fukuyama's bioethical argument, see: Jordaan, D. W. (2009). "Antipromethean Fallacies: A Critique of Fukuyama's Bioethics". Biotechnology Law Report. 28 (5): 577–590. doi:10.1089/blr.2009.9915.
- ^ Ryan Weddle (February 18, 2009). "Fukuyama: "Social Agenda" Needed to Combat Poverty in Latin America". Devex. Retrieved February 19, 2009.
- ^ Irving Kristol (1972), On the Democratic Idea in America, New York: Harper.
- ^ Abrams, Elliott; et al. (January 26, 1998). "Letter to President Clinton on Iraq". Archived from the original (PDF) on September 9, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- ^ "Letter to President Bush on the War on Terrorism". Project for the New American Century. Archived from the original on December 30, 2004.
- ^ a b Fukuyama, Francis (February 19, 2006). "After Neoconservatism". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- ^ Francis Fukuyama (June 1, 2004). "The Neoconservative Moment" (PDF). The National Interest. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 10, 2007. Retrieved May 13, 2007.
- ^ "Fukuyama Withdraws Bush Support". Today's Zaman. July 14, 2004. Archived from the original on June 13, 2006. Retrieved May 13, 2007.
- ^ a b c d Bast, Andrew (April 10, 2011). "The Beginning of History". Newsweek. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- ^ Andrew Billen (July 14, 2004). "Why I won't vote for George Bush". The Times. London. Retrieved May 13, 2007.
- ^ "Francis Fukuyama on Neo-Cons, Foreign Policy". NPR. March 1, 2006.
- ^ "The 15 countries with the highest military expenditure in 2009". Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- ^ a b Francis Fukuyama (February 19, 2006). "After Neoconservatism". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved May 13, 2007.
- ^ Francis Fukuyama (November 3, 2008). "Francis Fukuyama". The American Conservative. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
- ^ George Eaton (October 17, 2018). "Francis Fukuyama interview: "Socialism ought to come back"". New Statesman America. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
- ^ Francis Fukuyama (January 24, 2020). "Why red and blue America can't hear each other anymore". The Washington Post. These two phenomena — the Southern realignment and the human propensity to bond with groups — bring us to Klein’s central conclusion about the centrality of race for Trump voters and Republicans who believe their white identity is under threat.
- ^ "About". American Purpose. October 1, 2020. Retrieved October 30, 2020.
- ^ Fukuyama, Francis (December 15, 2020). "Francis Fukuyama on the State of Democracy in 2020 and Beyond". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
- ^ Pilkington, Ed (March 4, 2011). "US firm Monitor Group admits mistakes over $3m Gaddafi deal". Guardian. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- ^ Fukuyama, Francis (July 27, 2020). "Resignation from The American Interest". Medium. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
- ^ Lewis, Neil A. (February 3, 2006). "Defense Fund Raises Money in Libby Case". The New York Times. Retrieved May 13, 2007.
- ^ Pyle Center for Northeast Asian Studies, the National Bureau of Asian Research.
- ^ "American Purpose". American Purpose. Retrieved October 30, 2020.
- ^ Fukuyama, Francis (June 7, 2009). "Making Things Work". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- ^ Fukuyama, Francis (January 26, 2021). "Why Everyone Should Build Their Own PC and Stop Using Macs". American Purpose. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
- ^ Beckerman, Gal (September 28, 2018). "Raised in South Central, Joe Ide Expands the Territory of L.A. Noir". The New York Times. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- ^ Gottlieb, Anthony (July 4, 1999). "The Postindustrial Revolution". The New York Times on the Web.
Last edited on 14 May 2021, at 20:07
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