Fumaroles may persist for decades or centuries if located above a persistent heat source; or they may disappear within weeks to months if they occur atop a fresh volcanic deposit that quickly cools.
The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes
, for example, was formed during the 1912 eruption of Novarupta
. Initially, thousands of fumaroles occurred in the cooling ash
from the eruption, but over time most of them have become extinct.
Fumaroles emitting sulfurous vapors form surface deposits of sulfur-rich minerals and of fumarole minerals
; places in which these deposits have been mined include:
- ^ "Solfatara". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- ^ a b This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document: "Fumarole". USGS Photo Glossary. Retrieved 2019-02-06.
- ^ Neuendorf, Klaus K. E. (2005). Jackson, Julia A.; Mehl, James P.; Neuendorf, Klaus K. E. (eds.). Glossary of Geology. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 257. ISBN 9780922152766. Retrieved 2015-06-06. fumarole field[:] A group of cool fumaroles.
- ^ Hymon, Steve; Covarrubias, Amanda (2006-04-09). "How Routine Turned to Tragedy at Mammoth". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-05-09.
- ^ Global Volcanism Program, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution
- ^ R.V.Morris, S.W.Squyres, et al. "The Hydrothermal System at Home Plate in Gusev Crater, Mars". Lunar & Planetary Science XXXIX(2008)
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Last edited on 3 March 2021, at 17:03
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