Recording of a Garifuna speaker
It is a member of the Arawakan
language family but an atypical one since it is spoken outside the Arawakan language area, which is otherwise now confined to the northern parts of South America, and because it contains an unusually high number of loanwords
, from both Carib languages
and a number of European languages
because of an extremely tumultuous past involving warfare, migration and colonization.
The language was once confined to the Antillean islands of St. Vincent
, but its speakers, the Garifuna people, were deported en masse by the British in 1797 to the north coast of Honduras
from where the language and Garifuna people has since spread along the coast south to Nicaragua and north to Guatemala
Parts of Garifuna vocabulary are split between men's speech and women's speech
, and some concepts have two words to express them, one for women and one for men. Moreover, the terms used by men are generally loanwords from Carib while those used by women are Arawak
Garifuna is spoken in Central America
, especially in Honduras
(146,000 speakers),
but also in Guatemala
(20,000 speakers), Belize
(14,100 speakers), Nicaragua
(2,600 speakers), and the US
, particularly in New York City
, where it is spoken in Queens
and the Bronx
By the 1980s, the influx of Central Americans made languages including Garifuna begin having a presence in Houston
The first feature film in the Garifuna language, Garifuna in Peril
, was released in 2012.
The Garinagu (singular Garifuna
) are a mix of West/Central African, Arawak
, and Carib
ancestry. Though they were captives removed from their homelands, these people were never documented as slaves. The two prevailing theories are that they were the survivors of two recorded shipwrecks or they somehow took over the ship on which they came. The more Western and Central African-looking people were transferred by the British from Saint Vincent to islands in the Bay of Honduras
Their linguistic ancestors, Carib people
, who gave their name to the Caribbean, once lived throughout the Lesser Antilles
, and although their language is now extinct
there, ethnic Caribs still live on Dominica
, Saint Lucia
, and Saint Vincent
. The Caribs had conquered the previous population of the islands, Arawakan peoples
like the Taino
and Palikur peoples
. During the conquest, which was conducted primarily by men, the Carib married Arawakan women. Children were raised by their mothers speaking Arawak, but as boys came of age, their fathers taught them Carib
, a language still spoken in mainland South America. When European missionaries
described the Island Carib people in the 17th century, they recorded two unrelated languages: Carib spoken by the men and Arawak spoken by the women. However, while the boys acquired Carib vocabulary, after a few generations, they retained the Arawakan grammar of their first language. Thus, Island Carib
, as spoken by men, was genetically either a mixed language
or a relexified
language. Over the generations, men substituted fewer Arawak words, and many Carib words diffused to the women so the amount of distinctly male vocabulary diminished until both genders spoke Arawak, with an infusion of Carib vocabulary and distinct words in only a handful of cases.
- 45% Arawak (Igneri)
- 25% Carib (Kallínagu)
- 15% French
- 10% English
- 5% Spanish or English technical terms
Comparison to Carib
Relatively few examples of diglossia
remain in common speech. It is possible for men and women to use different words for the same concept such as au ~ nugía
for the pronoun "I", but most such words are rare and often dropped by men. For example, there are distinct Carib and Arawak words for "man" and "women", four words altogether, but in practice, the generic term mútu
"person" is used by both men and women and for both men and women, with grammatical gender agreement on a verb, adjective, or demonstrative, distinguishing whether mútu
refers to a man or to a woman (mútu lé
"the man", mútu tó
There remains, however, a diglossic distinction in the grammatical gender
of many inanimate nouns, with abstract words generally being considered grammatically feminine by men and grammatically masculine by women. Thus, the word wéyu
may mean either concrete "sun" or abstract "day"; with the meaning of "day", most men use feminine agreement, at least in conservative speech, while women use masculine agreement. The equivalent of the abstract impersonal pronoun
in phrases like "it is necessary" is also masculine for women but feminine in conservative male speech.
The forms au
are of Cariban
origin, and the others are of Arawakan origin.
Plural of nouns
- isâni "child" – isâni-gu "children"
- wügüri "man" – wügüri-ña "men"
- hiñaru "woman" – hiñáru-ñu "women"
- itu "sister" – ítu-nu "sisters"
The plural of Garífuna is Garínagu.
- ibágari "life"
- n-ibágari "my life"
- b-ibágari "your (singular) life"
- l-ibágari "his life"
- t-ibágari "her life"
- wa-bágari "our life"
- h-ibágari "your (plural) life"
- ha-bágari "their life"
- n-alîha-ña "I am reading"
- b-alîha-ña "you (singular) are reading"
- l-alîha-ña "he is reading"
- t-alîha-ña "she is reading"
- wa-lîha-ña "we are reading"
- h-alîha-ña "you (plural) are reading"
- ha-lîha-ña "they are reading"
The conjugation of the verb alîha "to read" in the simple present tense:
- alîha-tina "I read"
- alîha-tibu "you (singular) read"
- alîha-ti "he reads"
- alîha-tu "she reads"
- alîha-tiwa "we read"
- alîha-tiü "you (plural) read"
- alîha-tiñu "they (masculine) read"
- alîha-tiña "they (feminine) read"
There are also some irregular verbs.
From "3" upwards, the numbers of Garifuna are exclusively of French
origin and are based on the vigesimal
which, in today's French, is apparent at "80":
- 1 = aban
- 2 =biñá, biama, bián
- 3 = ürüwa (< trois)
- 4 = gádürü (< quatre)
- 5 = seingü (< cinq)
- 6 = sisi (< six)
- 7 = sedü (< sept)
- 8 = widü (< huit)
- 9 = nefu (< neuf)
- 10 = dîsi (< dix)
- 11 = ûnsu (< onze)
- 12 = dûsu (< douze)
- 13 = tareisi (< treize)
- 14 = katorsu (< quatorze)
- 15 = keinsi (< quinze)
- 16 = dîsisi, disisisi (< "dix-six" → seize)
- 17 = dîsedü, disisedü (< dix-sept)
- 18 = dísiwidü (< dix-huit)
- 19 = dísinefu (< dix-neuf)
- 20 = wein (< vingt)
- 30 = darandi (< trente)
- 40 = biama wein (< 2 X vingt → quarante)
- 50 = dimí san (< "demi cent" → cinquante)
- 60 = ürüwa wein (< "trois-vingt" → soixante)
- 70 = ürüwa wein dîsi (< "trois-vingt-dix" → soixante-dix)
- 80 = gádürü wein (< quatre-vingt)
- 90 = gádürü wein dîsi (< quatre-vingt-dix)
- 100 = san (< cent)
- 1,000 = milu (< mil)
- 1,000,000 = míñonu (< engl. million?)
The use of French borrowings rather than Carib or Arawak terms is unclear, but may have to do with their succinctness, as numbers in indigenous American languages, especially those above ten, tend to be longer and more cumbersome.
[o] and [e] are allophones of /ɔ/ and /ɛ/.
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Last edited on 31 March 2021, at 16:02
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