Garret FitzGerald was born in Ballsbridge
, in 1926, into a very politically active family. His mother Mabel McConnell Fitzgerald
was involved in politics and it was through her that his father became political. He had three older brothers, Desmond
(1911–1987), Pierce (1914–1986), and Fergus (1920–1983).
Although a senior figure on the pro-treaty side of Ireland's political divide, FitzGerald senior had remained friendly with anti-Treaty republicans
, such as Belfast man Seán MacEntee
, a minister in de Valera
's government and father-in-law of Conor Cruise O'Brien
. The families of Patrick McGilligan
and Ernest Blythe
, were also frequent visitors to the FitzGerald household. FitzGerald's mother, the former Mabel Washington McConnell, was a nationalist
and republican of Ulster Protestant
descent, although later in life she converted to Catholicism.
Her son would later describe his political objective as the creation of a pluralist Ireland where the northern Protestants of his mother's family tradition and the southern Catholics of his father's could feel equally at home.
FitzGerald was educated at the Jesuit Belvedere College
and University College Dublin
(UCD), from which he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts honours degree
in history, French and Spanish in 1946, later returning to complete a PhD in economics which he obtained in 1968; his doctoral thesis
was published the following year, titled Planning in Ireland
. He was deeply interested in the politics of the Spanish Civil War
and World War II
. A bright student who counted among his contemporaries in UCD, his future political rival, Charles Haughey
, who also knew Joan O'Farrell (1923–1999), a Liverpool
-born fellow student,
whom FitzGerald married in 1947. Their children were John
, Mary, and Mark.
Following his university education, in 1947 he started working with Aer Lingus
, the state airline of Ireland, and became an authority on the strategic economic planning of transport. During this time he wrote many newspaper articles, was the Irish correspondent for British magazine The Economist
and was encouraged to write on National Accounts
and economics by the features editor[who?]
in the Irish Times
. He remained with Aer Lingus until 1958; the following year, after undertaking a study of the economics of Irish industry at Trinity College Dublin
, he became a lecturer in economics at UCD.
Early political life
FitzGerald was eager to enter politics, and it was suggested by several members of Fianna Fáil
, including Charles Haughey and Michael Yeats
, that he should join that party.[b]
Ultimately, FitzGerald, made his entry into party politics under the banner of Fine Gael. He attached himself to the liberal wing of Fine Gael, which rallied around the Just Society programme written by Declan Costello
. FitzGerald was elected to Seanad Éireann, for the Industrial and Commercial Panel
in 1965 and soon built up his political profile. FitzGerald was elected to Dáil Éireann at the 1969 general election
, for the Dublin South-East
the same year he obtained his PhD for a thesis later published under the title "Planning in Ireland". He became an important figure almost immediately in the parliamentary party and his liberal ideas were seen as a counterweight to the conservative leader, Liam Cosgrave
. Difference in political outlook, and FitzGerald's ambitions for the Fine Gael leadership resulted in profound tensions
between the two men. In his leadership address to the 1972 Fine Gael Ardfheis
in Cork,
Cosgrave referred to the 'mongrel foxes' who should be rooted out of the party, a reference seen by many as an attack on FitzGerald's efforts to unseat him as leader.
Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1973–1977
After the 1973 general election
, Fine Gael came to power in a coalition government with the Labour Party
, with Liam Cosgrave as Taoiseach. FitzGerald hoped
that he would take over as Minister for Finance, particularly after a good performance in a pre-election debate with the then Minister for Finance George Colley
. However, the position went to Richie Ryan
, with FitzGerald becoming Minister for Foreign Affairs
. It was a case of history repeating itself as FitzGerald's father had held that post in a government led by Liam Cosgrave's father W. T. Cosgrave
, fifty years earlier. His appointment to Iveagh House
(the headquarters of the Department of Foreign Affairs
) would have a huge effect on FitzGerald's own career and the future of Fine Gael. Cosgrave was suspicious of FitzGerald's liberal ideas and believed that he had designs on the leadership. During his period at Foreign Affairs, FitzGerald developed a good relationship with Liam Cosgrave and all the tension that had existed between them in opposition disappeared.
The Minister's role had changed substantially since his father's day. Ireland was no longer a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
, but had in 1973 joined the European Economic Community
(EEC), the organisation which would later become the European Union
(EU). FitzGerald, firmly ensconced as Foreign Minister, was free from any blame due to other Ministers' mishandling of the economy. If anything, his tenure at the Department of Foreign Affairs helped him to eventually achieve the leadership of the party. His innovative views, energy and fluency in French won him – and through him, Ireland – a status in European affairs far exceeding the country's size and ensured that the first Irish Presidency of the European Council in 1975 was a noted success.
FitzGerald's policy towards church-state relations, however, brought him into confrontation with the Roman Catholic church, whose "special position" in the Republic had been enshrined in the Constitution
until the Referendum
of December 1972. FitzGerald in 1973 met the Cardinal Secretary of State
, Agostino Casaroli
, and proposed to further modify the Republic's Constitution to remove laws with overtly Catholic foundations, such as the bans on divorce and contraception, as well as to relax the public stigmas in Northern Ireland towards mixed religious marriages and integrated education. Casaroli at first seemed receptive, and the Government formally submitted the proposal to the Vatican
. FitzGerald's vision caused great consternation among the church's hierarchy, however, and in 1977, Pope Paul VI
personally met with FitzGerald to tell him that "Ireland was a Catholic country – perhaps the only one left – and it should stay that way. Laws should not be changed in any way that would make the country less Catholic."
Leadership of Fine Gael
In 1977, the National Coalition
of Fine Gael and Labour suffered a disastrous electoral defeat in the general election
. Liam Cosgrave resigned as party leader and FitzGerald was chosen by acclamation to succeed him.
In his new role as Leader of the Opposition
and party leader, he set about modernising and revitalising Fine Gael. He immediately appointed a General-Secretary to oversee all of this, a tactic copied from Fianna Fáil. Under FitzGerald, Fine Gael experienced a rapid rise in support and popularity. After the November 1982 election, it held only five seats fewer than Fianna Fáil (their closest-ever margin until 2011; at times Fianna Fáil was almost twice as large), with Fine Gael in the Oireachtas
larger than Fianna Fáil, which had been the dominant force in Irish politics for 40 years.
First term as Taoiseach, 1981–1982 By the time of the 1981 general election
, Fine Gael had a party machine that could easily match Fianna Fáil's.
The party won 65 seats and formed a minority coalition government with the Labour Party and the support of several Independent TDs. FitzGerald was elected Taoiseach, on 30 June 1981. To the surprise of many FitzGerald excluded Richie Ryan, Richard Burke
and Tom O'Donnell
, former Fine Gael stalwarts, from the cabinet.
Two fundamental problems faced FitzGerald during his first period: Northern Ireland
and the worsening economic situation. A protest march in support of the H-Block hunger strikers
in July 1981, was harshly dealt with by FitzGerald. On one occasion where he met with relatives of the hunger strikers, he refused to meet the family of Bobby Sands
, an MP
for Fermanagh and South Tyrone
of the Provisional IRA
hunger strikers, and the first to die on this strike, along with the sister of Raymond McCreesh
, who had died on 21 May. During the meeting, two of Thomas McElwee
's sisters, Mary and Nora, broke down and left the meeting. Mary McElwee stated to the media outside that "he's doing nothing, he's asking for suggestions". FitzGerald then ordered Gardaí to remove the families from the meeting. FitzGerald's response was, in the words of Eamonn Sweeney, to "lay all the blame for the hunger strikers on the republican movement and to suggest an immediate unilateral end to their military campaign".
The economic crisis was also much worse than FitzGerald had feared. Fine Gael had to jettison its plans for tax cuts in the run-up to the election and a draconian mid-year budget was introduced almost immediately. The July Budget seemed exceptionally austere for a government dependent on Independent TDs support.
However, the second budget introduced by John Bruton led to the Government's defeat in the Dáil on the evening of 27 January 1982.
In light of this loss of supply
, FitzGerald went to Áras an Uachtaráin
to request an immediate dissolution of the Dáil from the President, Patrick Hillery
. When he got there, he was informed that a series of telephone calls had been made by senior opposition figures (and some Independent TDs), including the Opposition leader (and ex-Taoiseach) Charles Haughey, Brian Lenihan
and Sylvester Barrett
demanding that the President refuse the dissolution, as he was constitutionally allowed to do when it was advised by a Taoiseach who has "ceased to retain the support of a majority in Dáil Éireann." Had Hillery done so, it would have forced FitzGerald's resignation as Taoiseach and enabled the Dáil to nominate someone else for the post—presumably Haughey. Hillery is said to have angrily rejected such pressure, regarding it as gross misconduct. He granted FitzGerald the dissolution.[c]
In the subsequent general election
in February 1982, Fine Gael lost only two seats but was out of power. However, a third general election
within eighteen months in November 1982, resulted in FitzGerald being returned as Taoiseach for a second time, heading a Fine Gael–Labour coalition with a working majority.
Second term as Taoiseach, 1982–1987
FitzGerald (left) at the official opening of the Wang
facility in Plassey Technological Park, Limerick
Deep economic recession dominated FitzGerald's second term as well as his first. The pursuit of 'fiscal rectitude' to reduce a high national debt required a firmer control of public spending than Labour found easy to accept. The harmonious relationship the Taoiseach developed with his Tánaiste
, Dick Spring
, successfully avoided a collapse of the coalition for more than four years, despite tensions between other Ministers, and enabled the Government to survive. Fine Gael wanted to revive the economy by controlling public spending and imposing cutbacks to reduce the public budget deficit.
The measures proposed by FitzGerald's Minister for Finance, Alan Dukes
, were completely unacceptable to the Labour Party which was under enormous pressure from its support base to maintain public services. The two parties in Government found themselves in a stalemate position. They stopped the financial crisis from worsening but could not take the decisive action that would generate economic growth. With negligible economic growth and large scale unemployment, the FitzGerald Government was deeply unpopular with the public. The Fianna Fáil opposition added to the woes of the Government by taking a decidedly opportunistic and populist line in opposing every suggested reform and cutback.
As Taoiseach for a second time, FitzGerald advocated a liberalisation of Irish society, to create what he called the non-sectarian nation of "Tone
". His attempt to introduce divorce was defeated in a 1986 referendum, although he did liberalise Ireland's contraception laws.
A controversial Pro-Life Amendment
(anti-abortion clause), which was stated to recognise the 'Right to Life of the Unborn, with due regard to the Equal Right to Life of the Mother' was added to the Irish constitution
, against FitzGerald's advice, in a national referendum.
FitzGerald set up the New Ireland Forum
in 1983, which brought together representatives of the constitutional political parties in the Republic and the nationalist SDLP
from Northern Ireland. Although the Unionist parties declined his invitation to join, and the Forum's conclusions proposing various forms of association between Northern Ireland and the Republic were rejected outright by British prime minister Margaret Thatcher
, the Forum provided the impetus for the resumption of serious negotiations between the Irish and British governments, which culminated in the Anglo-Irish Agreement
of November 1985. This agreement provided for a mechanism by which the Republic of Ireland could be consulted by the British Thatcher government regarding the governance of Northern Ireland,
and was bitterly opposed by Unionists in Northern Ireland, whose MPs all resigned their seats in the British Parliament
in protest. New elections were required to be held in Northern Ireland, in which the unionists lost the seat of (Newry and Armagh
) to Seamus Mallon
of the SDLP. During this period, on 15 March 1984, he was also invited to address a joint session of the US Congress, the fourth Irish leader to do so.[d]
His government had also passed the Extradition Act 1987, which ended the long-standing defence against extradition
of suspects who could plead that an act of violence in Northern Ireland or Britain was a political offence.
While the Agreement was repudiated and condemned by Unionists, it was said to become the basis for developing trust and common action between the governments, which in time would ultimately bring about the Downing Street Declaration
of 1993, and the subsequent republican and loyalist
Infighting and declining support
In 1986, FitzGerald attempted to reshuffle his cabinet but certain ministers, including notably Barry Desmond
, refused to move from his Health and Social Welfare portfolio. The eventual outcome of the cabinet changes further undermined FitzGerald's authority. The new Progressive Democrats
party was launched at the same time by Desmond O'Malley, out of the divisions within Fianna Fáil. Ironically, it struck an immediate chord with many disenchanted Fine Gael supporters who had tired of the failure to fully address the economic crisis and who yearned for a coherent rightwing policy from FitzGerald. Seeing its support base under attack from the right only strengthened the resolve of FitzGerald's Fine Gael colleagues to break with the Labour Party approach, despite their leader's close empathy with that party.
Stymied by economic crisis, FitzGerald tried to rescue some of his ambitions to reform the State and he proposed, in the middle of 1986, a referendum to change the Constitution to allow for divorce. The proposed amendment
was mired in controversy and the many accompanying legal changes needed were not clearly presented. Haughey skilfully opposed the referendum along with the Roman Catholic Church and landed interests worried about property rights. The defeat of the referendum sealed the fate of the Government.
In January 1987, the Labour Party members of the government withdrew from the government over disagreements due to budget proposals. FitzGerald continued as Taoiseach, heading a minority Fine Gael government and proposed the stringent budgetary cutbacks that Labour had blocked for some four years. Fianna Fáil returned to power in March 1987, after Fine Gael were heavily defeated in the 1987 general election
. The Progressive Democrats won some 14 seats mainly from Fine Gael
. Although Haughey did not have an overall majority when it came to a vote the Independent Socialist TD Tony Gregory
voted against FitzGerald but abstained on Haughey, seeing Haughey as the "lesser of two evils". The reason for this was Gregory's opposition to the Anglo-Irish agreement along with his strong personal dislike for FitzGerald. Haughey was elected Taoiseach on the casting vote of the Ceann Comhairle
FitzGerald retired as leader of Fine Gael immediately after the election by the Dáil of Haughey as Taoiseach,
to be replaced by Alan Dukes. His autobiography All in a Life
appeared in 1991, immediately becoming a best-seller. He retired completely from politics at the 1992 general election
. His wife, Joan, predeceased him in 1999 after a long illness.
After that FitzGerald wrote a weekly column every Saturday in the Irish Times
, and lectured widely at home and abroad on public affairs.[e]
He came out of retirement to campaign for a "yes" vote in the second Irish referendum
on the EU's Treaty of Nice
, held in 2002. He held the post of Chancellor of the National University of Ireland
from 1997 to 2009. In March 2000, FitzGerald was on the board of directors of Election.com
, when it conducted the world's first public election ever held over the Internet, the Arizona Democratic primary
; in that primary, voter turnout increased more than 500% over the 1996 primary.[failed verification]
FitzGerald took a leading part in the campaign for a second referendum
on the EU's Treaty of Lisbon
in 2009. He argued for Ireland to continue with European integration. FitzGerald had been scathing of the record of the Fianna Fáil–led Government since 1997, on the economy and the national finances. He was a frequent critic in his Irish Times
column, of the loss of competitiveness that occurred and the inflation caused by the tax cuts and excessive public spending increases of the Celtic Tiger
era. In 2009, FitzGerald received a new ministerial car, the first and only one to be purchased by the state since an economic recession hit Ireland
In 2010, FitzGerald appeared on RTÉ's "Top 40 Irishmen
In early 1999, it was revealed that some six years earlier, Allied Irish Banks
(AIB) and Ansbacher Banks
wrote off debts of almost IR£
200,000 owed by FitzGerald, following the collapse of the aircraft leasing company, Guinness Peat Aviation
(GPA), in which he was a shareholder.
Chairman of AIB at the time, Peter Sutherland
, was also a former director of GPA and had served as Attorney General
under FitzGerald, prior to FitzGerald appointing him as Ireland's member of the European Commission
. The Moriarty Tribunal
investigated this matter,
and compared the treatment by AIB of FitzGerald with their treatment of Charles Haughey.[f]
They found evidence that he had worked to compromise his indebtedness with AIB and no evidence of any wrongdoing.[g]
Illness and death
In a statement, Irish president Mary McAleese
hailed FitzGerald as "a man steeped in the history of the State who constantly strove to make Ireland a better place for all its people".
Taoiseach Enda Kenny paid homage to "a truly remarkable man who made a truly remarkable contribution to Ireland". Henry Kissinger
, the former US secretary of state
who served as an opposite number
to FitzGerald in the 1970s, recalled "an intelligent and amusing man who was dedicated to his country".
His death occurred on the third day of Queen Elizabeth II
's state visit to the Republic of Ireland
, an event designed to mark the completion of the Northern Ireland peace process
that had been "built on the foundations" of FitzGerald's Hillsborough Agreement
with Margaret Thatcher in 1985.
In a personal message, the Queen offered her sympathies and said she was "saddened" to learn of FitzGerald's death.
British prime minister David Cameron
, who was also in Ireland, paid tribute to FitzGerald's "huge contribution to the peace process bringing reconciliation for all that had happened in the past".
On his visit to Dublin, US president Barack Obama
offered condolences on FitzGerald's death; he spoke of "someone who believed in the power of education; someone who believed in the potential of youth; most of all, someone who believed in the potential of peace and who lived to see that peace realised".
The following governments of Ireland were led by FitzGerald:
- ^ Roy Jenkins recalled FitzGerald speaking fluent French at the opening of the European Parliament: "There, I thought, spoke the Ireland of Joyce and Synge and the Countess Markiewicz ... It was he who made me feel provincial."
- ^ FitzGerald stated this in an interview with Ursula Halligan on the TV3 programme The Political Party.[full citation needed]
- ^ These events came back to haunt one of the callers, Brian Lenihan, when his differing accounts of his role that night led to his dismissal from Haughey's cabinet in 1990, during his own unsuccessful presidential election campaign.
- ^ Six Irish leaders have addressed joint sessions of the US Congress:[circular reference] Seán T. O'Kelly (1959), Éamon de Valera (1964), Liam Cosgrave (1976), FitzGerald (1984), John Bruton (1996) and Bertie Ahern (2008).
- ^ In a leading article on FitzGerald's death, the Irish Times said that the "extraordinary Irishman who fashioned our future in so many ways" was their longest-serving contributor and columnist, for over 57 years.
- ^ It was commented that "FitzGerald's case involved the effective exhaustion of his assets in order to achieve a settlement" and that, in contrast, "Haughey's assets were retained virtually intact".
- ^ Indeed, the Tribunal heard evidence as to the hardship that FitzGerald went to – to the extent of selling off his family home – to repay the debt to his utmost ability.
- ^ "Garret the Good: A gallant statesman". Irish Examiner. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- ^ "Garret FitzGerald". Oireachtas Members Database. 5 November 1992. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
- ^ "Think tank to put offices on the market". Irish Independent. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
- ^ Cowell, Alan (19 May 2011). "Garret FitzGerald, Ex-Irish Premier, Dies at 85". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
- ^ a b "Obituary: Irish statesman Garret FitzGerald". BBC News. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- ^ a b "Garret FitzGerald". The Economist. 28 May 2011. p. 91. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- ^ Murphy, William (2009). "FitzGerald, (Thomas Joseph) Desmond". In James McGuire; James Quinn (eds.). Dictionary of Irish Biography. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. More pleasing to him was Mabel's conversion to catholicism in 1943.
- ^ FitzGerald, Garret (2014). Just Garret: Tales From the Political Front Line. Liberties Press. p. 391. ISBN 978-1-909718-69-2.
- ^ Murdoch, Alan (14 June 1999). "Obituary: Joan Fitzgerald". The Independent. Retrieved 21 February 2017. Joan O'Farrell: born Liverpool 24 March 1923; married 1947 Garret Fitzgerald (two sons, one daughter); died Dublin 12 June 1999.
- ^ "Garret Fitzgerald". The Telegraph. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- ^ "Zest for life". The Irish Times. 4 February 2006. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
- ^ "The Bar Council of Ireland". Law Library. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- ^ Davison, Phil (20 May 2011). "Obituary: Garret FitzGerald, politician, economist and journalist". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. Archived from the original on 28 May 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- ^ Campbell, John (2014). Roy Jenkins. Random House. p. 522. ISBN 978-1-4481-9244-1.
- ^ "Garret FitzGerald". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
- ^ McNamara, Robert (2003). "Irish Perspectives on the Vietnam War". Irish Studies in International Affairs. 14: 75–94. doi:10.3318/ISIA.2003.14.1.75. JSTOR 30001965.
- ^ a b c d "Dr Garret FitzGerald dies in a Dublin hospital aged 85". Irish Independent. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- ^ "Impact of Ireland on EU policy". European Union. Archived from the original on 31 October 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- ^ Keogh, Dermot (2010). "Ireland, 1972–84". In J. R. Hill; et al. (eds.). A New History of Ireland Volume VII: Ireland, 1921–84. Oxford University Press. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-19-959282-1.
- ^ McDonald, Henry (26 February 2011). "Fianna Fáil trounced as Fine Gael and Labour set to form coalition". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- ^ Sweeney, Eamonn (2010). Down Down Deeper and Down: Ireland in the 70s and 80s. Gill & Macmillan. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-7171-4633-8.
- ^ "All the President's man: How a scandal surrounding a student interview kept Brian Lenihan out of the Ãras". Newstalk. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
- ^ "Noonan attends annual conference of Bilderberg group". The Irish Times. 2 June 2012. Archived from the original on 8 June 2015.
- ^ "Referendum on the right to life of the unborn (1983)" (PDF). Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. p. 32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- ^ Section 3 (Certain offences not to be regarded as political offences) of the Extradition (European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism) Act 1987 (Act No. 1 of 1987). 21 January 1987. Act of the Oireachtas. Irish Statute Book.
- ^ "Queen pays tribute to former Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald". Belfast Telegraph. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- ^ "Joan FitzGerald". The Irish Times. 14 June 1999. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
- ^ "Garret FitzGerald". The Irish Times. 20 May 2011.[dead link]
- ^ "thefreelibrary.com". Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
- ^ Lally, Conor (15 October 2010). "State cars and Garda drivers cost almost €11m over past two years". The Irish Times. Retrieved 6 May 2020. In 2008 11 of the cars were changed at a cost to the exchequer of €510,000. However, since then and because of the recession, only one car has been bought, for former taoiseach Garret FitzGerald in 2009.
- ^ "Newsletter". RPSI. July 2011.
- ^ "AIB and Ansbacher wrote off Fitzgerald's £200,000 debt". RTÉ News. 17 February 1999. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- ^ Moriarty Tribunal (2006). "Other Settlements With Allied Irish Banks' Customers" (PDF). Part I (Report). Stationery Office Books. pp. 48–52. ISBN 0-7557-7459-0. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
- ^ Moriarty Tribunal (2006), p. 52, § 3-66: As in Mr. Haughey's case, there was a substantial discounting or forbearance shown in Dr. Fitzgerald's case. However in contrast with Mr. Haughey's case, Dr. Fitzgerald's case involved the effective exhaustion of his assets in order to achieve a settlement whereas Mr. Haughey's assets were retained virtually intact.
- ^ Moriarty Tribunal (2006), p. 52, § 3-66: In summary it would appear that in compromising his indebtedness with the Bank, Dr. Fitzgerald disposed of his only substantial asset, namely, his family home at Palmerston Road, a property which would now be worth a considerable sum of money.
- ^ McDonald, Henry (5 May 2011). "Garret FitzGerald, former Irish prime minister, seriously ill in hospital". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- ^ "Taoiseach gives details of job creation concept on US mission". The Irish Times. 6 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- ^ "'Irish institution' FitzGerald put on ventilator after falling seriously ill". Irish Examiner. 6 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- ^ "A courageous and visionary taoiseach". The Irish Times. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- ^ Poole, Amanda (20 May 2011). "Queen pays tribute to former Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 8 May 2020. The monarch yesterday joined warm words spoken about the 85-year-old Fine Gael politician after he died at the Mater Hospital in Dublin after suffering from pneumonia.
- ^ "Former Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald dies aged 85". RTÉ News. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- ^ "President hails FitzGerald as Renaissance man". RTÉ News. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2020. President McAleese described him as a man steeped in the history of the State who constantly strove to make Ireland a better place for all its people.
- ^ "Leaders pay tribute to former taoiseach". The Irish Times. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- ^ Donnellan, Eithne (23 May 2011). "Intelligent, wise and amusing man". The Irish Times. Retrieved 7 May 2020. Former US secretary of state Henry Kissinger described Dr Garret FitzGerald as an intelligent and amusing man who was dedicated to his country.
- ^ "A man of great integrity who was devoted to service of State". The Irish Times. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- ^ Carty, Ed; Kelpie, Colm (19 May 2011). "Queen offers sympathies following FitzGerald death". The Independent. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- ^ "Five at Five". News Talk. 19 May 2011. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- ^ "A great leader of the Irish people". The Irish Times. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- ^ Melaugh, Martin (ed.). "CAIN: Issues: Politics: President Obama's speech in Dublin, 23 May 2011". CAIN Web Service. Retrieved 14 May 2020. Let me also express my condolences on the recent passing of former Taoiseach Garrett [sic] Fitzgerald.
- ^ "State Funeral for Garret FitzGerald". RTÉ News. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2020. The funeral mass takes place at 2.30 pm on Sunday, with burial afterwards at Shanganagh Cemetery.
- ^ O'Neill, Gerry (27 May 2011). "Remembering Garret FitzGerald". The Irish Times. Letter to Madam. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
- ^ "Saint Mary's University | 1971–1990". SMU.ca. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- ^ "Keele University" (PDF). Keele.ac.uk. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- ^ "The Heights, Volume LXVIII, Number 10". Boston College Newspapers. 13 April 1987. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- ^ "National University of Ireland" (PDF). NUI.ie. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- ^ "Trinity College Dublin". TCD.ie. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- ^ "Honorary graduates". Ulster.ac.uk. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- ^ "Garret Fitzgerald presented with Honorary Doctorate". Fine Gael. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
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