), or consonant lengthening
(from Latin geminatio
"doubling", itself from gemini
), is an articulation of a consonant
for a longer period of time than that of a singleton consonant.
It is distinct
. Gemination is represented in many writing systems by a doubled letter
and is often perceived as a doubling of the consonant.
Some phonological theories use "doubling" as a synonym for gemination, others describe two distinct phenomena.
Consonant length is a distinctive feature
in certain languages, such as Arabic
, Classical Hebrew
. Other languages, such as the English language
, do not have phonemic
consonant geminates. Vowel length
is distinctive in more languages than consonant length.
Consonant gemination and vowel length are independent in languages like Arabic, Japanese, Finnish and Estonian; however, in languages like Italian, Norwegian
, vowel length and consonant length are interdependent. For example, in Norwegian and Swedish, a geminated consonant is always preceded by a short vowel, while an ungeminated consonant is preceded by a long vowel. A clear example are the Norwegian words "tak" ("ceiling or roof" of a building, pronounced with a long /ɑː/), and "takk" ("thanks", pronounced with a short /ɑ/).
In terms of consonant duration, Berber and Finnish are reported to have a 3 to 1 ratio,
compared with around 2 to 1 (or lower) in Japanese,
Italian, and Turkish.
Gemination of consonants is distinctive in some languages and then is subject to various phonological constraints that depend on the language.
In some languages, like Italian, Swedish, Faroese
, and Luganda
, consonant length and vowel length depend on each other. A short vowel within a stressed syllable almost always precedes a long consonant or a consonant cluster, and a long vowel must be followed by a short consonant. In Classical Arabic
, a long vowel was lengthened even more before permanently-geminate consonants
In other languages, such as Finnish
, consonant length and vowel length are independent of each other. In Finnish, both are phonemic; taka
/taka/ "back", takka
/takːa/ "fireplace" and taakka
/taːkːa/ "burden" are different, unrelated words. Finnish consonant length is also affected by consonant gradation
. Another important phenomenon is sandhi
, which produces long consonants at word boundaries when there is an archiphonemic glottal stop
|otaʔ se| > otas se
In addition, in some Finnish compound words, if the initial word ends in an e
, the initial consonant of the following word is geminated: jätesäkki
"trash bag" [jætesːækːi], tervetuloa
"welcome" [terʋetːuloa]. In certain cases, a v
after a u
is geminated by most people: ruuvi
"screw" /ruːʋːi/, vauva
"baby" [ʋauʋːa]. In the Tampere
dialect, if a word receives gemination of v
, the u
is often deleted (ruuvi
[ʋaʋːa]), and lauantai
"Saturday", for example, receives a medial v
[lauʋantai], which can in turn lead to deletion of u
The difference between singleton and geminate consonants varies within and across languages. Sonorants
show more distinct geminate-to-singleton ratios while sibilants
have less distinct ratios. The bilabial
geminates are generally longer than velar
The reverse of gemination reduces a long consonant to a short one, which is called degemination
. It is a pattern in Baltic-Finnic consonant gradation
that the strong grade (often the nominative
) form of the word is degeminated into a weak grade (often all the other cases) form of the word: taakka
(burden, of the burden). As a historical restructuring at the phonemic level
, word-internal long consonants degeminated in Western Romance
languages: e.g. Spanish /ˈboka/ "mouth" vs. Italian /ˈbokːa/, which continue Latin geminate /kː/.
indicates gemination with a diacritic (ḥaraka
) shaped like a lowercase Greek omega
or a rounded Latin w
, called the شَدَّة
: ّ . Written above the consonant that is to be doubled, the shadda
is often used to disambiguate
words that differ only in the doubling of a consonant where the word intended is not clear from the context. For example, in Arabic, Form I
verbs and Form II
verbs differ only in the doubling of the middle consonant of the triliteral root in the latter form, e. g.
(with full diacritics: دَرَسَ
) is a Form I verb meaning to study
, whereas درّس
(with full diacritics: دَرَّسَ
) is the corresponding Form II verb, with the middle r
consonant doubled, meaning to teach
, each consonant has a geminate counterpart, and gemination is lexically contrastive. The distinction between single and geminate consonants is attested in medial position as well as in absolute initial and final positions.
- ini "say"
- inni "those in question"
- akal "earth, soil"
- akkal "loss"
- imi "mouth"
- immi "mother"
- ifis "hyena"
- ifiss "he was quiet"
- tamda "pond, lake, oasis"
- tamedda "brown buzzard, hawk"
In addition to lexical geminates, Berber also has phonologically-derived and morphologically-derived geminates . Phonologically-derived geminates can surface by concatenation (e.g. [fas sin] "give him two!") or by complete assimilation (e.g. /rad = k i-sli/ [rakk isli] "he will touch you"). The morphological alternations include imperfective gemination, with some Berber verbs forming their imperfective stem by geminating one consonant in their perfective stem (e.g. [ftu] "go! PF", [fttu] "go! IMPF"), as well as quantity alternations between singular and plural forms (e.g. [afus] "hand", [ifassn] "hands").
, geminates are expressed in writing with consonant repetition or the groups tn, tm, tl and tll, such as innecessari
"unnecessary", which is pronounced [inːəsəˈsaɾi] or ètnic (ethnic) setmana (week), atleta (athlete), rotllo (roll) etc. in careful speech. Gemination is not represented if it is purely phonetic, such as the assimilation
occurring in tot bé
/ˈtot ˈbe/ → [ˈtob ˈbe] "all good". Since the repetition of the letter l
generates the digraph ll
, which represents the phoneme /ʎ
/, the geminate /ll/ is represented as two l
s separated by a punt volat
or centered dot (l·l
- col·legi "school"
- varicel·la "chickenpox"
- mil·lenari "millenary"
has a three-way consonant length distinction. For instance:
- bunde [b̥ɔnə] "bottoms"
- bundne [b̥ɔnnə] "bound" (pl.)
- bundene [b̥ɔnn̩nə] "the bottoms"
The word bundene can phonemically be analyzed as /bɔnənə/, with the middle schwa being assimilated to [n].
, not */bæɡːɪdʒ/. However, phonetic gemination does occur marginally.
Gemination is found across words and across morphemes when the last consonant in a given word and the first consonant in the following word are the same fricative
, or stop
- b: subbasement [ˌsʌbˈbeɪsmənt]
- d: midday [ˈmɪd.deɪ]
- f: life force [ˈlaɪfˈfors]
- g: egg girl [ˈɛɡ.ɡɝl]
- k: bookkeeper [bʊk̚kiː.pə(ɹ)]
- l: guileless [ˈɡaɪl.ləs]
- m: calm man [ˌkɑːmˈmæn] or roommate[ˈrum.meɪt] (in some dialects) or prime minister [ˌpɻaɪmˈmɪnɪstəɹ]
- n: evenness [ˈiːvənnəs]
- p: lamppost [ˈlæmp̚poʊst] (cf. lamb post, compost)
- r: fire road [ˈfaɪəɹ.ɹoʊd]
- s: misspell [ˌmɪsˈspɛl] or this saddle [ðɪsˈsædəl]
- sh: fish shop [ˈfɪʃ.ʃɒp]
- t: cattail [ˈkæt̚teɪl]
- v: live voter [ˈlaɪv.vəʊtə(ɹ)]
, however, this does not occur. For instance:
orange juice [ˈɒrɪndʒ.dʒuːs]
In most instances, the absence of this doubling does not affect the meaning, though it may confuse the listener momentarily. The following minimal pairs
represent examples where the doubling does
affect the meaning in most accents:
- ten nails versus ten ales
- this sin versus this inn
- five valleys versus five alleys
- his zone versus his own
- dog-eat-dog versus doggy-dog
- unnamed [ʌnˈneɪmd] versus unaimed [ʌnˈeɪmd]
- forerunner [ˈfɔːrˌrənər] versus foreigner[ˈfɔːrənər] (only in some varieties of General American)
In some dialects gemination is also found for some words when the suffix -ly follows a root ending in -l or -ll, as in:
In some varieties of Welsh English
, the process takes place indiscriminately between vowels, e.g. in money
[ˈmɜn.niː] but it also applies with graphemic duplication (thus, orthographically dictated), e.g. butter
, consonant length is usually not distinctive, but in certain exceptional cases it can be, such as the pair courons
[kuʁɔ̃] vs courrons
[kuʁːɔ̃]. Gemination also occurs in case of schwa
In Ancient Greek
, consonant length was distinctive, e.g., μέλ
ω [mélɔː] "I am of interest" vs. μέλλ
ω [mélːɔː] "I am going to". The distinction has been lost in the standard
and most other varieties
, with the exception of Cypriot
(where it might carry over from Ancient Greek or arise from a number of synchronic and diachronic assimilatory processes, or even spontaneously), some varieties of the southeastern Aegean, and Italy
Gemination is common in Hindi
. It is found in words of both Indic and Arabic origin, but not in those of Persian origin:
- pattā पत्ता – "leaf"
- abbā अब्बा – "father"
- dajjāl दज्जाल – "anti-Christ"
- dabbā डब्बा – "box"
- munnā – "young boy/baby"
- gaddā – "mattress"
For aspirated consonants, the geminate is formed by combining the corresponding non-aspirated consonant followed by its aspirated counterpart. There are few examples where an aspirated consonant is truly doubled.
- pat.thar पत्थर – "stone"
- kat.thā – brown spread on pān
- ad.dhā अद्धा – slang/short for half (ādhā) आधा
- mak.khī मक्खी – "fly"
In Standard Italian
, consonant strengthening is usually written with two consonants and it is distinctive.
For example, bevve
, meaning "he/she drank", is phonemically /ˈbevve/ and pronounced [ˈbevːe]
, while beve
("he/she drinks/is drinking") is /ˈbeve/, pronounced [ˈbeːve]
. Tonic syllables are bimoraic
and are therefore composed of either a long vowel in an open syllable (as in beve
) or a short vowel in a closed syllable (as in bevve
). In varieties with post-vocalic weakening
of some consonants (e.g. /raˈdʒone/ → [raˈʒoːne]
"reason"), geminates are not affected (/ˈmaddʒo/ → [ˈmadːʒo]
Double or long consonants occur not only within words but also at word boundaries, and they are then pronounced but not necessarily written: chi
("who knows") [kisˈsa]
and vado a casa
("I am going home") [ˌvaːdo a kˈkaːsa]
(the latter example refers to central and southern standard Italian). All consonants except /z
/, which is an allophone of /s/ rather than its own phoneme, can be geminated. This word-initial gemination is triggered either lexically by the item preceding the lengthening consonant (e.g. by preposition a
"to, at" in [akˈkaːsa] a casa
"homeward" but not by definite article la
in [laˈkaːsa] la casa
"the house"), or by any word-final stressed vowel ([parˈlɔ fːranˈt͡ʃeːze] parlò francese
's/he spoke French' but [ˈparlo franˈt͡ʃeːze] parlo francese
'I speak French').
makes use of gemination to mark intensity, as in gelek
"many" vs. gellek
"very many" or tijî
"full" vs. tijjî
"cram full, completely full".
, consonant length was distinctive, as in anus
"old woman" vs. annus
"year". Vowel length
was also distinctive in Latin, but was not reflected in the orthography. Geminates inherited from Latin still exist in Italian
, in which [ˈanːo] anno
and [ˈaːno] ano
contrast with regard to /nn/ and /n/ as in Latin. It has been almost completely lost in French
and completely in Romanian
. In West Iberian languages
, former Latin geminate consonants often evolved to new phonemes, including some instances of nasal vowels
and Old Galician
as well as most cases of /ɲ/ and /ʎ/ in Spanish, but phonetic length of both consonants and vowels is no longer distinctive.
, the compounding occurs quite frequently, as in the words haṭṭa (stubbornness), kaṭṭā (platform) or sattā (power). It seems to happen most commonly with the dental and retroflex consonants.
, all consonants have geminate counterparts except for /w, j, ɦ/. Geminates occur only medially.
, gemination is indicated in writing by double consonants. Gemination often differentiates between unrelated words. As in Italian, Norwegian uses short vowels before doubled consonants and long vowels before single consonants. There are qualitative differences between short and long vowels:
- måte Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈmɔ̀ːtə] / måtte Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈmòtːə] – "method" / "must"
- lete Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈlèːtə] / letteNorwegian pronunciation: [ˈlɛ̀tːə] – "to search" / "to take off"
- sine Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈsìːnə] / sinneNorwegian pronunciation: [ˈsɪ̀nːə] – "theirs" / "anger"
, consonant length is indicated with two identical letters. Examples:
- wanna /ˈvanːa/ – "bathtub"
- Anna /ˈanːa/
- horror /ˈxɔrːɔr/ – "horror"
- hobby /ˈxɔbːɨ/ or /ˈxɔbʲːi/ – "hobby"
Consonant length is distinctive and sometimes is necessary to distinguish words:
- rodziny /rɔˈd͡ʑinɨ/ – "families"; rodzinny /rɔˈd͡ʑinːɨ/ – adjective of "family"
- saki /saki/ – "sacks, bags"; ssaki /sːaki/ – "mammals",
- leki /ˈlɛkʲi/ – "medicines"; lekki /ˈlɛkʲːi/ – "light, lightweight"
Double consonants are common on morpheme borders where the initial or final sound of the suffix is the same as the final or initial sound of the stem (depending on the position of the suffix). Examples:
- przedtem /ˈpʂɛtːɛm/ – "before, previously"; from przed (suffix "before") + tem (archaic "that")
- oddać /ˈɔdːat͡ɕ/ – "give back"; from od (suffix "from") + dać ("give")
- bagienny /baˈgʲɛnːɨ/ – "swampy"; from bagno ("swamp") + ny (suffix forming adjectives)
- najjaśniejszy /najːaɕˈɲɛ̯iʂɨ/ – "brightest"; from naj (suffix forming superlative) + jaśniejszy ("brighter")
in its official script Gurmukhi
uses a diacritic called an áddak ( ੱ ) (ਅੱਧਕ, [ə́dːək]) which is written above the word and indicates that the following consonant is geminate. Gemination is specially characteristic of Punjabi compared to other Indo-Aryan languages like Hindi-Urdu, where instead of the presence of consonant lengthening, the preceding vowel tends to be lengthened. Consonant length is distinctive in Punjabi, for example:
- ਦਸ [d̪əs] – "ten"; ਦੱਸ [d̪əsː] – "tell" (verb)
- ਪਤਾ [pət̪a] – "aware of something"; ਪੱਤਾ [pət̪ːa] – "leaf"
- ਸਤ [sət̪] – "truth" (liturgical); ਸੱਤ [sət̪ː] – "seven"
- ਕਲਾ [kəla] – "art"; ਕੱਲਾ [kəlːa] – "alone"
, consonant length (indicated with two letters, as in ванн
ə] "bathtub") may occur in several situations.
- Word formation or conjugation: длина ([dlʲɪˈna] "length") > длинный ([ˈdlʲinnɨj] "long") This occurs when two adjacent morphemes have the same consonant and is comparable to the situation of Polish described above.
- Assimilation. The spelling usually reflects the unassimilated consonants, but they are pronounced as a single long consonant.
In Spanish there are geminated consonants in Caribbean Spanish when /l/ and /ɾ/ in syllabic coda are assimilated to the following consonant.
Examples of Cuban Spanish:
, geminates are found between vowels: багаття /bɑˈɦɑtʲːɑ/ "bonfire", подружжя/poˈdruʒʲːɑ/ "married couple", обличчя /obˈlɪt͡ʃʲːɑ/ "face". Geminates also occur at the start of a few words: лляний /lʲːɑˈnɪj/ "flaxen", forms of the verb лити "to pour" (ллю /lʲːu/, ллєш/lʲːɛʃ/ etc.), ссати /ˈsːɑtɪ/ "to suck" and derivatives. Gemination is in some cases semantically crucial; for example, манна means "manna" or "semolina" while мана means "delusion".
is unusual in that gemination can occur word-initially, as well as word-medially. For example, kkapa
/kːapa/ "cat", /ɟːaɟːa/ jjajja
"grandfather" and /ɲːabo/ nnyabo
"madam" all begin with geminate consonants.
There are three consonants that cannot be geminated: /j/, /w/ and /l/. Whenever morphological
rules would geminate these consonants, /j/ and /w/ are prefixed with /ɡ/, and /l/ changes to /d/. For example:
- -ye /je/ "army" (root) > ggye /ɟːe/ "an army" (noun)
- -yinja /jiːɲɟa/ "stone" (root) > jjinja /ɟːiːɲɟa/ "a stone" (noun); jj is usually spelt ggy
- -wanga /waːŋɡa/ "nation" (root) > ggwanga /ɡːwaːŋɡa/ "a nation" (noun)
- -lagala /laɡala/ "medicine" (root) > ddagala/dːaɡala/ "medicine" (noun)
, consonant length is distinctive (as is vowel length). Gemination in the syllabary
is represented with the sokuon
, a small tsu
っ for hiragana
in native words and ッ for katakana
in foreign words. For example, 来た (きた, kita
) means "came; arrived", while 切った (きった, kitta
) means "cut; sliced". With the influx of gairaigo
("foreign words") into Modern Japanese, voiced consonants
have become able to geminate as well:
) means "(computer) bug", and バッグ (baggu
) means "bag". Distinction between voiceless
gemination and voiced
gemination is visible in pairs of words such as キット (kitto
, meaning "kit") and キッド (kiddo
, meaning "kid"). In addition, in some variants of colloquial Modern Japanese, gemination may be applied to some adjectives and adverbs (regardless of voicing) in order to add emphasis: すごい (sugoi
, "amazing") contrasts with すっごい (suggoi
amazing"); 思い切り (おもいきり, omoikiri
, "with all one's strength") contrasts with 思いっ切り (おもいっきり, omoikkiri
with all one's strength").
, gemination in word stem
is exclusive to loanwords
. Gemination is indicated by two identical letters as in most languages that have phonemic gemination.
- müderrise [myˈdeɾːise] ([from Arabic, mostly obsolete] "female teacher")
- pizza [piˈzːa] (from Italian)
Loanwords originally ending with a phonemic geminated consonant
are always written and pronounced without the ending gemination as in Arabic.
- hac [hadʒ] (hajj) (from Arabic حج /ħadʒː/ pronounced [ħadʒ])
- hat [hat] (Islamic calligraphy) (from Arabic خط/xatˤː/ pronounced [xatˤ])
Although gemination is resurrected when the word takes a suffix.
- hac becomes hacca [haˈdʒːa] (to hajj) when it takes the suffix "-a" (to, indicating destination)
- hat becomes hattın [haˈtːɯn] (of calligraphy) when it takes the suffix "-ın" (of, expressing possession)
Gemination also occurs when a suffix
starting with a consonant comes after a word that ends with the same consonant.
- el [el] (hand) + -ler [leɾ] ("-s", marks plural) = eller [eˈlːeɾ] (hands). (contrasts with eler, s/he eliminates)
- at [at] (to throw) + -tık [tɯk] ("-ed", marks past tense, first person plural) = attık [aˈtːɯk] (we threw [smth.]). (contrasts with atık, waste)
, compounding is phonologically conditioned
so gemination occurs at words' internal boundaries.
Consider following example:
മേശ + പെട്ടി (mēśa + peṭṭi) – മേശപ്പെട്ടി (mēśappeṭṭi)
has three phonemic lengths; however, the third length is a suprasegmental
feature, which is as much tonal patterning as a length distinction. It is traceable to allophony
caused by now-deleted suffixes, for example half-long linna
"of the city" vs. overlong linna
"to the city".[clarification needed]
Consonant length is phonemic in Finnish
, for example takka
(transcribed with the length sign [ː] or with a doubled letter [ˈtakka]) and taka
[ˈtaka] ("back"). Consonant gemination occurs with simple consonants (hakaa : hakkaa) and between syllables in the pattern (consonant)-vowel-sonorant-stop-stop-vowel (palkka
) but not generally in codas or with longer syllables. (This occurs in Sami languages
and in the Finnish name Jouhkki
, which is of Sami origin.) Sandhi
often produces geminates.
Both consonant and vowel gemination are phonemic, and both occur independently, e.g. Mali, maali, malli, maallinen (Karelian surname, "paint", "model", and "secular").
In Standard Finnish, consonant gemination of [h] exists only in interjections
, new loan words and in the playful word "hihhuli
", with its origins in the 19th century, and derivatives of that word.
In many Finnish dialects there are also the following types of special gemination in connection with long vowels: the southwestern special gemination ("lounaismurteiden erikoisgeminaatio"), with lengthening of stops + shortening of long vowel, of the type leipää< leippä; the common gemination ("yleisgeminaatio"), with lengthening of all consonants in short, stressed syllables, of the type putoaa > puttoo and its extension (which is strongest in the northwestern Savonian dialects); the eastern dialectal special gemination ("itämurteiden erikoisgeminaatio"), which is the same as the common gemination but also applies to unstressed syllables and certain clusters, of the types lehmiä > lehmmii and maksetaan > maksettaan.
, consonant length is phonemic, e.g. megy [ˈmɛɟ]
, "goes" and meggy
[ˈmɛɟː], "sour cherry".
Most Sami languages
contrast three different degrees of consonant length. These often contrast in different forms within a single inflectional paradigm, as in Northern Sami goarˈrut
"let's sew!" versus goarrut
"to sew, we sew" versus goarut
"you (sg.) sew". Often, progressively longer consonants correspond to a progressively shorter preceding vowel.
, the common ancestor of the Sami languages, there was already a contrast between single and geminate consonants, inherited from Proto-Uralic
. A process called consonant gradation
then lengthened all consonants when they stood at the end of a stressed syllable, if the next syllable was open
. The subsequent loss of final consonants and vowels in the later Sami languages made this process contrastive, resulting in as many as four contrastive lengths (lengthened geminate, unlengthened geminate, lengthened single, unlengthened single). The modern Sami languages have reduced this to three, by merging the unlengthened geminates with the lengthened single consonants.
In written language
, consonant length is often indicated by writing a consonant twice (ss
, and so forth), but can also be indicated with a special symbol, such as the shadda
in Arabic, the dagesh
in Classical Hebrew, or the sokuon
In the International Phonetic Alphabet
, long consonants are normally written using the triangular colon ː
, e.g. penne
[penːe] ("feathers", "pens", also a kind of pasta), though doubled letters are also used (especially for underlying phonemic
forms, or in tone languages to facilitate diacritic marking).
- Catalan uses the raised dot (called an "interpunct") to distinguish a geminated l from a palatal ll. Thus, paral·lel ("parallel") and Llull (Standard Catalan: [pəɾəlˈlɛl], [ʎuʎ]).
- Estonian uses b, d, g for short consonants, and p, t, k and pp, tt, kk are used for long consonants.
- The only digraph in Ganda, ny /ɲ/ is doubled in the same way: nny /ɲː/.
- Hungarian digraphs and trigraphs are geminated by doubling the first letter only, thus the geminate form of sz /s/ is ssz /sː/ (rather than *szsz), and that of dzs /d͡ʒ/ is ddzs /d͡ʒː/.
- In Italian, geminated instances of the sound cluster [kw] (represented by the digraph qu) are always indicated by writing cq, except in the words soqquadro and beqquadro, where the letter q is doubled. The gemination of sounds [ɲ], [ʃ] and [ʎ], (spelled gn, sc(i), and gl(i), respectively) is not indicated because these consonants are always geminated when occurring between vowels. Also the sounds [ts], [dz] (both spelled z) are always geminated when occurring between vowels, yet their gemination is sometimes shown, redundantly, by doubling the z as, e.g., in pizza [ˈpit.t͡sa].
- In Japanese, non-nasal gemination (sokuon) is denoted by placing the "small" variant of the syllable Tsu (っ or ッ) between two syllables, where the end syllable must begin with a consonant. For nasal gemination, precede the syllable with the letter for mora N (ん or ン). The script of these symbols must match with the surrounding syllables.
- In Swedish and Norwegian, the general rule is that a geminated consonant is written double, unless succeeded by another consonant. Hence hall ("hall"), but halt ("Halt!"). In Swedish, this does not apply to morphological changes (so kall, "cold" and kallt, "coldly" or compounds [so tunnbröd ("flatbread")]. The exception are some words ending in -m, thus hem ["home"] [but hemma ("at home")] and stam ["stem"], but lamm ["lamb", to distinguish the word from lam ("lame")], with a long /a/), as well as adjectives in -nn, so tunn, "thin" but tunt, "thinly" (whilst Norwegian has a rule always prohibiting two "m"s at the end of a word (with the exception being only a handful of proper names, and as a rule forms with suffixes reinsert the second "m", and the rule is that these word-final "m"s always cause the preceding vowel sound to be short (despite the spelling)).
Double letters that are not long consonants
Doubled orthographic consonants do not always indicate a long phonetic consonant.
- In English, for example, the [n] sound of "running" is not lengthened. Consonant digraphs are used in English to indicate the preceding vowel is a short (lax) vowel, while a single letter often allows a long (tense) vowel to occur. For example, "tapping" /tæpɪŋ/ (from "tap") has a short a /æ/, which is distinct from the diphthongal long a /eɪ/ in "taping" /teɪpɪŋ/ (from "tape").
- In Standard Modern Greek, doubled orthographic consonants have no phonetic significance at all.
- Hangul (the Korean alphabet) and its romanizations also use double consonants, but to indicate fortis articulation, not gemination.
- ^ de Vaan, Michiel (2008). Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages. Brill. p. 256.
- ^ Mitterer, Holger (2018-04-27). "The singleton-geminate distinction can be rate dependent: Evidence from Maltese". Laboratory Phonology. Association for Laboratory Phonology. doi:10.5334/labphon.66.
- ^ a b William Ham, Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Geminate Timing, p. 1-18
- ^ a b c Khattab, Ghada; Al-Tamimi, Jalal (2014). "Geminate timing in Lebanese Arabic: The relationship between phonetic timing and phonological structure". Laboratory Phonology. 5 (2): 231–269. doi:10.1515/lp-2014-0009.
- ^ Aoyama, Katsura (2002) . "Quantity contrasts in Japanese and Finnish: Differences in adult production and acquisition" (PDF). Studies in Language Sciences (2): Papers from the Second Annual Conference of the Japanese Society for Language Sciences. Tokyo: Kuroshio: 4. (URL is author's "near final version" draft)
- ^ a b Blust, Robert. (2013). The Austronesian Languages (Rev. ed.). Australian National University.
- ^ Jackson, Geoff and Jenny (1999). An introduction to Tuvaluan. Suva: Oceania Printers.
- ^ Ben Hedia S (2019). Gemination and degemination in English affixation: Investigating the interplay between morphology, phonology and phonetics (pdf). Berlin: Language Science Press. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3232849. ISBN 978-3-96110-188-7.
- ^ Crystal, David (2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, p. 335
- ^ "Raddoppiamenti di vocali e di consonanti". Dizionario italiano d'ortografia e pronunzia (DOP). RAI. 2009. Retrieved November 11, 2009.
- ^ Khatiwada, Rajesh (December 2009). "Nepali". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 39 (3): 373–380. doi:10.1017/S0025100309990181. ISSN 0025-1003.
- ^ Savko, I. E. (2007). "10.3. Произношение сочетаний согласных". Весь школьный курс русского языка (in Russian). Sovremennyy literator. p. 768. ISBN 978-5-17-035009-4. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
- ^ Arias, Álvaro (2019). "Fonética y fonología de las consonantes geminadas en el español de Cuba". Moenia. 25, 465-497
- ^ Asano, Yoshiteru (1994). "Mora-Based Temporal Adjustments in Japanese" (en). Colorad research in linguistics. University of Colorado Boulder. 13. p2 line 29. doi:10.25810/2ddh-9161.
- ^ Kawahara, Shigeto (2006), "A Faithfulness ranking projected from a perceptibility scale: The case of [+ Voice] in Japanese" (PDF), Language, Linguistic Society of America, 82 (3): 536–574, doi:10.1353/lan.2006.0146, p. 538
- ^ Inkelas, Sharon (2014). The Interplay of Morphology and Phonology. Oxford Surveys in Syntax & Morphology. Oxford University Press. p. 10. ISBN 9780199280476.
- ^ "Soqquadro: ma perché? | Accademia della Crusca". www.accademiadellacrusca.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2019-09-01.
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