From the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD, the Fezzan was home to the Garamantian Empire
, a city state which operated the Trans-Saharan trade routes between the Carthaginians
—and later the Roman Empire
—and the Sahelian
states of West
and Central Africa
. During the 13th and 14th century, portions of the Fezzan were part of the Kanem Empire
, while the Ottoman
rulers of North Africa
asserted their control over the region in the 17th century. Ghat and its inhabitants were described in great detail by the English traveller James Richardson in his journeys across the Libyan Sahara of 1845–1846.
Beginning in 1911, Ghat and the Fezzan were occupied by Italy. Berber
and Arab adherents to a militant Sufi
religious order, the Sanusiya
, resisted early Italian attempts at conquest, and Italy's control of the region was precarious until at least 1923, with the rise of the Italian Fascist
regime. To defend their positions, the Italians built the Fortress of Ghat
that dominates the city from the hill of Koukemen. This fort is still standing, and is a tourist attraction of the city.
Ghat has a hot desert climate
(Köppen climate classification BWh
) typical of the Fezzan
, a Libyan region lying in the heart of the Sahara Desert
. Averages high temperatures exceed 40 °C (104 °F) during summer for 3 months (June, July, August) and averages high temperatures remain above 20 °C (68 °F) during the coldest month of the year. Winter days are very warm, sunny and dry. Annual precipitation averages only 8 mm (0.32 in) making the location one of the driest places on Earth. The sky is always clear and bright throughout the year. Nevertheless, in June 2019 there were heavy downpours which caused great damage to the town. Thousands of residents were stranded and few were reported dead or missing.
In the 2000s Ghat, as a garrison town, was the site of shootouts between Libyan security forces and al-Qaeda
The Fezzan campaign
and border proximity were the regional components that included Ghat in the Libyan Civil War
. On September 25, 2011 fighting moved onto Ghat where the last remnants of pro-Gaddafi loyalists in Fezzan were claimed[by whom?]
to be stationed.
NTC forces moved in, and took control of Ghat airport, located north of the city.
By the next day, the NTC had control of the city itself and Tinkarine border crossing with Algeria. As of 2015, the city is controlled by independent Tuareg forces.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ghat
- ^ "Wolfram-Alpha: Making the world's knowledge computable". www.wolframalpha.com.
- ^ Der Spiegel, 2011 Aug 23
- ^ TRAVELS IN THE GREAT DESERT OF SAHARA, IN THE YEARS OF 1845 AND 1846 CONTAINING A NARRATIVE OF PERSONAL ADVENTURES, DURING A TOUR OF NINE MONTHS THROUGH THE DESERT, AMONGST THE TOUARICKS AND OTHER TRIBES OF SAHARAN PEOPLE; INCLUDING A DESCRIPTION OF THE OASES AND CITIES OF GHAT, GHADAMES, AND MOURZUK BY JAMES RICHARDSON Project Gutenberg Release Date: July 17, 2007 [EBook #22094] Last Updated: April 7, 2018
- ^ "Thousands stranded in flood-ravaged Ghat, southwestern Libya". www.libyaobserver.ly.
- ^ "Climat Ghat: Température moyenne Ghat, diagramme climatique pour Ghat - Climate-Data.org". fr.climate-data.org.
- ^ Warren, Alex (24 August 2011). "Libya: what about the south?". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- ^ Spencer, Richard (25 September 2011). "Dumped in the desert ... Gaddafi's yellowcake stockpile". The Telegraph. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- ^ "فيديو: السيطرة على مطار غات الدولي". Libya TV. Archived from the original on 2011-10-07.
Jami Bey, "Ghat and its Surroundings", The Geographical Journal
Vol. 34, No. 2 Aug. 1909, pp. 171–173
Last edited on 19 April 2021, at 15:38
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