using the glottis
as their primary articulation
. Many phoneticians consider them, or at least the glottal fricative, to be transitional states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have, while some[who?]
do not consider them to be consonants at all. However, glottal consonants behave as typical consonants in many languages. For example, in Literary Arabic
, most words are formed from a root C-C-C
consisting of three consonants, which are inserted into templates such as /CaːCiC/ or /maCCuːC/. The glottal consonants /h/ and /ʔ/ can occupy any of the three root consonant slots, just like "normal" consonants such as /k/ or /n/.
In many languages, the "fricatives" are not true fricatives
. This is a historical usage of the word. They instead represent transitional states of the glottis (phonation
) without a specific place of articulation, and may behave as approximants
. [h] is a voiceless transition. [ɦ] is a breathy-voiced
transition, and could be transcribed as [h̤]. Lamé
is one of very few languages that contrasts
voiceless and voiced glottal fricatives.
Because the glottis is necessarily closed for the glottal stop, it cannot be voiced. So-called voiced glottal stops are not full stops, but rather creaky voiced glottal approximants
that may be transcribed [ʔ̞]. They occur as the intervocalic allophone of glottal stop in many languages. Gimi
contrasts /ʔ/ and /ʔ̞/, corresponding to /k/ and /ɡ/ in related languages.
Last edited on 26 December 2020, at 09:53
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