As a result of the obstruction of the airflow in the glottis, the glottal vibration either stops or becomes irregular with a low rate and sudden drop in intensity.
- Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a plosive.
- Its place of articulation is glottal, which means it is articulated at and by the vocal cords (vocal folds).
- It has no phonation, as there is no airflow through the glottis.  It is voiceless, however, in the sense that it is produced without vibration of the vocal cords.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central–lateral dichotomy does not apply.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
In the traditional Romanization
of many languages, such as Arabic, the glottal stop is transcribed with an apostrophe, ⟨ʼ⟩, which is the source of the IPA character ⟨ʔ⟩. In many Polynesian languages
that use the Latin alphabet
, however, the glottal stop is written with a rotated apostrophe, ⟨ʻ⟩ (called ‘okina
), which is commonly used to transcribe the Arabic ayin
as well (also ⟨ʽ⟩) and is the source of the IPA character for the voiced pharyngeal fricative
⟨ʕ⟩. In Malay
the glottal stop is represented by the letter ⟨k⟩, in Võro
In the graphic representation of most Philippine languages
, the glottal stop has no consistent symbolization. In most cases, however, a word that begins with a vowel-letter (e.g. Tagalog aso
, "dog") is always pronounced with an unrepresented glottal stop before that vowel (as in Modern German
). Some orthographies use a hyphen instead of the reverse apostrophe if the glottal stop occurs in the middle of the word (e.g. Tagalog pag-ibig
, "love"; or Visayan gabi-i
, "night"). If it occurs in the end of a word, the last vowel is written with a circumflex accent
(known as the pakupyâ
) if both a stress and a glottal stop occur in the final vowel (e.g. basâ
, "wet") or a grave accent
(known as the paiwà
) if the glottal stop occurs at the final vowel, but the stress occurs at the penultimate syllable (e.g. batà
Some Canadian indigenous languages
, especially some of the Salishan languages
, have adopted the phonetic symbol ʔ itself as part of their orthographies. In some of them, it occurs as a pair of uppercase and lowercase characters, Ɂ and ɂ
The numeral 7 or question mark
is sometimes substituted for ʔ and is preferred in some languages such as Squamish
– whose alphabet is mostly unique from other Salish languages – contrastly uses the comma
⟨,⟩ to represent the glottal stop, though it is optional.
In 2015, two women in the Northwest Territories
challenged the territorial government over its refusal to permit them to use the ʔ character in their daughters' names: Sahaiʔa, a Chipewyan
name, and Sakaeʔah, a Slavey
name (the two names are actually cognates). The territory argued that territorial and federal identity documents were unable to accommodate the character. The women registered the names with hyphens instead of the ʔ, while continuing to challenge the policy.
Use of the glottal stop is a distinct characteristic of the Southern Mainland Argyll
dialects of Scottish Gaelic
. In such a dialect, the standard Gaelic phrase Tha Gàidhlig agam
("I speak Gaelic"), would be rendered Tha Gàidhlig a'am
In English, the glottal stop occurs as an open juncture
(for example, between the vowel sounds in uh-oh!
) and allophonically in t-glottalization
. In British English
, the glottal stop is most familiar in the Cockney
pronunciation of "butter" as "bu'er". Additionally, there is the glottal stop as a null onset
for English, in other words, it is the non-phonemic glottal stop occurring before isolated or initial vowels (for example, representing uh-oh!
, [ˈʌʔoʊ] and [ˈʔʌʔoʊ] are phonemically identical to /ˈʌ.oʊ/).
Often a glottal stop happens at the beginning of vowel phonation
after a silence.
Although this segment
is not a phoneme
in English, it occurs phonetically in nearly all dialects of English, as an allophone
of /t/ in the syllable coda. Speakers of Cockney, Scottish English
and several other British dialects also pronounce an intervocalic /t/ between vowels as in city
. In Received Pronunciation
, a glottal stop is inserted before a tautosyllabic
voiceless stop: stoʼp, thaʼt, knoʼck, waʼtch, also leaʼp, soaʼk, helʼp, pinʼch.
The table below demonstrates how widely the sound of glottal stop is found among the world's spoken languages
- ^ a b Umeda N., "Occurrence of glottal stops in fluent speech", J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 64, no. 1, 1978, pp. 88-94.
- ^ J. C. Catford (December 1990) Glottal consonants ... another view. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20.2
- ^ Paul Morrow (March 16, 2011). "The basics of Filipino pronunciation: Part 2 of 3 • accent marks". Pilipino Express. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- ^ Ricardo M.D. Nolasco. Grammar notes on the national language (PDF).[permanent dead link]
- ^ Joan Schoellner & Beverly D. Heinle, ed. (2007). Tagalog Reading Booklet (PDF). Simon & Schister's Pimsleur. pp. 5–6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-27. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
- ^ "Proposal to add LATIN SMALL LETTER GLOTTAL STOP to the UCS" (PDF). 2005-08-10. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- ^ Browne, Rachel (12 March 2015). "What's in a name? A Chipewyan's battle over her native tongue". Maclean's. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- ^ Mastering Hebrew, 1988, ISBN 0812039904, p. xxviii
- ^ Brown, Gillian. 1977:27. Listening to spoken English. London: Longman.
- ^ Kortlandt, Frederik (1993). "General Linguistics & Indo-European Reconstruction" (PDF).
- ^ Thelwall (1990:37)
- ^ a b Watson (2002:17)
- ^ Dendane, Zoubir. (2013). THE STIGMATISATION OF THE GLOTTAL STOP IN TLEMCEN SPEECH COMMUNITY: AN INDICATOR OF DIALECT SHIFT. The International Journal of Linguistics and Literature. Volume 2. 
- ^ Gussenhoven (1992:45)
- ^ Sivertsen (1960:111)
- ^ Roach (2004:240)
- ^ Collinder, Björn (1941). Lärobok i finska språket för krigsmakten. Ivar Häggström. p. 7.
- ^ Ladefoged (2005:139)
- ^ Clark, Yallop & Fletcher (2007:105)
- ^ Yager, Joanne; Burtenhult, Niclas (December 2017). "Jedek: A newly-discovered Aslian variety of Malaysia" (PDF). Linguistic Typology. 21 (3). doi:10.1515/lingty-2017-0012. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-002E-7CD2-7. S2CID 126145797 – via deGruyter.
- ^ Olson et al. (2010:206–207)
- ^ Fonologia e Gramática do Nheengatu – A língua geral falada pelos povos Baré, Warekena e Baniwa Archived 2014-03-07 at the Wayback Machine (in Portuguese)
- ^ João Veloso & Pedro Tiago Martins (2013). O Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP: disponibilização on-line de um corpus dialetal do português (in Portuguese)
- ^ Phonetic symbols for Portuguese phonetic transcription Archived 2014-11-08 at the Wayback Machine In European Portuguese, the "é é" interjection usually employs an epenthetic /i/, being pronounced [e̞ˈje̞] instead.
- ^ It may be used mostly as a general call of attention for disapproval, disagreement or inconsistency, but also serves as a synonym of the multiuse expression "eu, hein!". (in Portuguese) How to say 'eu, hein' in English – Adir Ferreira Idiomas Archived 2013-07-08 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Blevins (1994:492)
- ^ Su sardu limba de Sardigna et limba de Europa, Lucia Grimaldi & Guido Mensching, 2004, CUEC, pp.110-111
- ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:67)
- ^ Edmondson, J.A., Esling, J.H., & Harris, J.G. (2003). Supraglottal cavity shape, linguistic register, and other phonetic features of Somali.
- ^ The hypo-hyperarticulation continuum in Nicaraguan Spanish
- ^ Voiceless stop aspiration in Yucatán Spanish: a sociolinguistic analysis
- ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)
- Blevins, Juliette (1994), "The Bimoraic Foot in Rotuman Phonology and Morphology", Oceanic Linguistics, 33 (2): 491–516, doi:10.2307/3623138, JSTOR 3623138
- Clark, John Ellery; Yallop, Colin; Fletcher, Janet (2007), An introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 9781405130837
- Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
- Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-21411-9
- Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
- Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296
- Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768
- Schane, Sanford A (1968), French Phonology and Morphology, Boston, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, ISBN 0-262-19040-0
- Sivertsen, Eva (1960), Cockney Phonology, Oslo: University of Oslo
- Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266
- Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
- Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-824137-2
Last edited on 28 April 2021, at 23:07
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