or state agency
, sometimes an appointed commission
, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government
that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an administration
. There is a notable variety of agency types. Although usage differs, a government agency is normally distinct both from a department or ministry
, and other types of public body established by government
. The functions of an agency are normally executive in character since different types of organizations (such as commissions
) are most often constituted in an advisory role—this distinction is often blurred in practice however, it is not allowed.
A government agency may be established by either a national government or a state government within a federal system. The term is not normally used for an organization created by the powers of a local government body. Agencies can be established by legislation or by executive powers. The autonomy, independence, and accountability of government agencies also vary widely.
Early examples of organizations that would now be termed a government agency include the British Navy Board
, responsible for ships and supplies, which was established
in 1546 by King Henry VIII and the British Commissioners of Bankruptcy
From the 1980s, as part of New Public Management
, several countries including Australia and the United Kingdom developed the use of agencies to improve efficiency in public services.
Administrative law in France refers to autorité administrative indépendante (AAI) or Independent Administrative Authorities. They tend to be prominent in the following areas of public policy;
- Economic and financial regulation
- Information and communication
- Defence of citizens' rights
Independent Administrative Authorities in France may not be instructed or ordered to take specific actions by the government.
Russia has had many government agencies throughout its history. The USSR
had the secretive KGB
. Today, Russian government agencies such as the FSB
, and the GRU
or other masked operators for any missions. Other organizations include Kremlin
and presidential security.
The Government agencies in Sweden are State
controlled organizations who act independently to carry out the policies of the Government of Sweden
. The Ministries
are relatively small and merely policy-making organizations, allowed to control agencies by policy decisions but not by direct orders. This means that while the agencies are subject to decisions made by the Government, Ministers are explicitly prohibited (so-called ban on ministerstyre
) from interfering with the day-to-day operation in an agency or the outcome in individual cases as well.
Agencies in England usually answer to Westminster or the British Government. In Scotland, they usually answer to the Scottish Government
or the Scottish Parliament and in Wales to the National Assembly for Wales.
Some have remits that cover the entire UK and these organizations are funded by and answer to the British Government.
and President of the United States
delegate specific authority to government agencies to regulate
the complex facets of the modern American federal state
. Also, most of the 50 U.S. states
have created similar government agencies. Each of the 50 states' governments is similar to the national government with all but one having a bicameral legislature. The term "government agency" or "administrative agency" usually applies to one of the independent agencies of the United States government
, which exercise some degree of independence from the President's control. Although the heads of independent agencies are often appointed by the government, they can usually be removed only for cause. The heads of independent agencies work together in groups, such as a commission, board or council. Independent agencies often function as miniature versions of the tripartite
federal government with the authority to legislate
(through the issuing, or "promulgation" of regulations
), to adjudicate
disputes, and to enforce
agency regulations (through enforcement personnel). Examples of independent agencies include the Federal Communications Commission
(FCC), Federal Reserve Board
, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC), the National Labor Relations Board
(NLRB) and the Federal Trade Commission
Most federal agencies are created by Congress through statutes
called "enabling acts
" which define the scope of an agency's authority. Because the Constitution
does not expressly mention federal agencies (as it does the three branches), some commentators have called agencies the "headless fourth branch" of the federal government. However, most independent agencies are technically part of the executive branch, with a few located in the legislative branch of government. By enacting the Administrative Procedure Act
(APA) in 1946, Congress established some means to oversee government agency action. The APA established uniform administrative law
procedures for a federal agency's promulgation of rules and adjudication of claims. The APA also sets forth the process for judicial review
of agency action.
- ^ A brief history of the Royal Navy, Royal Navy Museum, accessed at  June 9, 2006,
- ^ Macleavy, J. and O. Gay (2005) The Quango Debate, House of Commons Library Research Paper 05/30, p. 8 accessed at "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-06-19. Retrieved 2006-06-09.
- ^ Cabinet Secretariat, Government of India at , accessed June 30, 2006
Last edited on 10 July 2021, at 18:30
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