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Governorates of Egypt
See also: Subdivisions of Egypt and Economic Regions of Egypt
For administrative purposes, Egypt is divided into twenty-seven governorates (محافظةmuḥāfaẓah; Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [moˈħɑfzˤɑ]; genitive case: muḥāfaẓat  [moˈħɑfzˤet]; plural: محافظاتmuḥāfaẓāt [moħɑfˈzˤɑːt]).[1] Egyptian governorates are the top tier of the country's jurisdiction hierarchy. A governorate is administered by a governor, who is appointed by the President of Egypt and serves at the president's discretion. Most governorates have a population density of more than one thousand per km2, while the three largest have a population density of less than two per km2.
Overview
Governorates are either fully "urban" or a mixture of "urban" and "rural." The official distinction between "urban" and "rural" is reflected in the lower tiers: that is, fully urban governorates have no regions (markaz), as the markaz is, natively, a conglomeration of villages. Moreover, governorates may comprise just one city, as in the case of Cairo Governorate or Alexandria Governorate. Hence, these one-city governorates are only divided into districts (urban neighborhoods). Cairo Governorate consists of 41 districts; Alexandria Governorate consists of 7.
Two new governorates were created in April 2008: Helwan and 6th of October.[2] In April 2011, however, the 6th of October and Helwan governorates were again incorporated into the Cairo and Giza Governorates, respectively.[3]Luxor was created in December 2009, to be the 29th governorate of Egypt, but with the abolition of the 6th of October and Helwan governorates, the number of governorates has decreased to 27.[4]
History
Before the 1952 Egyptian revolution, state penetration of the rural areas was limited by the power of local notables. Under Nasser, land reform reduced those notables' socioeconomic dominance, and the peasants were incorporated into cooperatives which transferred mass dependence from landlords to the government. The extension of officials into the countryside permitted the regime to bring development and services to the village. The local branches of the ruling party, the Arab Socialist Union (ASU), fostered a certain peasant political activism and coopted the local notables — in particular the village headmen — and checked their independence from the regime.[5]
State penetration did not retreat under Sadat and Mubarak. The earlier effort to mobilize peasants and deliver services disappeared as the local party and cooperative withered, but administrative controls over the peasants remained intact. The local power of the old families and the headmen revived but more at the expense of peasants than of the state. The district police station balanced the notables, and the system of local government (the mayor and council) integrated them into the regime.[5]
Until 1979, local government enjoyed limited power in Egypt's highly centralized state. Under the central government, there were twenty-six governorates, which were subdivided into regions (conglomeration of villages; named in Arabic: مركزmarkaz  "center", plural: مراكزmarākiz), each of which was further subdivided into towns or villages.[5] At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, and mayors, respectively. Governors were appointed by the president, and they, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers. The coercive backbone of the state apparatus ran downward from the Ministry of Interior through the governors' executive organs to the district police station and the village headman.[5]
Sadat took several measures to decentralize power to the provinces and towns. Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of 1979, which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces. The elected councils acquired, at least formally, the right to approve or disapprove the local budget. In an effort to reduce local demands on the central treasury, local government was given wider powers to raise local taxes. Local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, and the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, and these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level. Under Mubarak, decentralization and local autonomy became more of a reality, and local policies often reflected special local conditions. Thus, officials in Upper Egypt often bowed to the powerful Islamic movement there, while those in the port cities struck alliances with importers."[5]
List of Governorates of Egypt
Egyptian governorates[6] [7]
No. on
map
NameArea (km2)Population (2015)Population (2019)Population density (2015)Capital
2Alexandria2,3004,812,1865,299,7182,092Alexandria
27Aswan62,7261,431,4881,532,40023Aswan
22Asyut25,9264,245,2154,587,577164Asyut
3Beheira9,8265,804,2626,404,210591Damanhur
19Beni Suef10,9542,856,8123,288,219261Beni Suef
16Cairo3,0859,278,4419,788,7393,008Cairo
5Dakahlia3,5385,949,0016,679,3681,681Mansoura
6Damietta9101,330,8431,539,0751,462Damietta
15Faiyum6,0683,170,1503,747,942522Faiyum
9Gharbia1,9424,751,8655,146,4112,447Tanta
14Giza13,1847,585,1158,915,164575Giza
13Ismailia5,0671,178,6411,352,548233Ismailia
4Kafr El Sheikh3,4673,172,7533,478,267915Kafr El Sheikh
26Luxor2,409.681,147,0581,296,540476Luxor
1Matruh166,563447,846461,8472.7Marsa Matruh
20Minya32,2795,156,7025,745,212160Minya
10Monufia2,4993,941,2934,441,7171,577Shibin El Kom
21New Valley440,098225,416249,3990.5Kharga
8North Sinai28,992434,781463,97515Arish
7Port Said1,345666,599764,499496Port Said
11Qalyubia1,1245,105,9725,792,0664,543Banha
25Qena10,7983,045,5043,302,894282Qena
23Red Sea119,099345,775372,8622.9Hurghada
12Sharqia4,9116,485,4127,401,7001,321Zagazig
24Sohag11,0224,603,8615,193,052418Sohag
18South Sinai31,272167,426105,9535.4El Tor
17Suez9,002622,859749,65769Suez
Total1,010,40787,963,27698,101,011
Demographics
Main article: Demographics of Egypt
Urban and rural populations
Data taken from CAPMAS:[6]
Governorate% UrbanPopulation (2016)RuralUrban
Alexandria98.84,812,18656,6984,755,488
Aswan42.31,431,488826,543604,945
Asyut26.54,245,2153,119,1121,126,103
Beheira19.55,804,2624,674,3461,129,916
Beni Suef23.22,856,8122,193,871662,941
Cairo100.09,278,44109,278,441
Dakahlia28.25,949,0014,271,4281,677,573
Damietta38.71,330,843815,244515,599
Faiyum22.53,170,1502,456,368713,782
Gharbia30.04,751,8653,324,6301,427,235
Giza58.67,585,1153,138,3104,446,805
Ismailia45.41,178,641643,778534,863
Kafr El Sheikh23.13,172,7532,441,246731,507
Luxor37.81,147,058713,422433,636
Matruh70.6447,846131,841316,005
Minya18.95,156,7024,183,284973,418
Monufia20.63,941,2933,128,460812,833
New Valley48.0225,416117,180108,236
North Sinai60.2434,781173,095261,686
Port Said100.0666,5990666,599
Qalyubia44.75,105,9722,825,0452,280,927
Qena19.73,045,5042,445,051600,453
Red Sea95.1345,77517,062328,713
Sharqia23.16,485,4124,987,7071,497,705
Sohag21.44,603,8613,618,543985,318
South Sinai51.1167,42681,92485,502
Suez100.0622,8590622,859
Total42.787,963,27650,384,18837,579,088
Population density
Egyptian Population Density in pre-2013 administrative divisions[needs update]
Data taken from CAPMAS:.[6] Information for population is in thousands, pop density - persons/km2 and area is in km2.
GovernoratePopulation in thousands (2014-07-01)Pop. Density (Inhabited Area)Pop. Density (Total Area)% Inhabited to TotalInhabited AreaTotal Area
Alexandria4,7612,841.52,070.072.81,675.502,300.00
Aswan1,41213,477.122.50.2104.7762,726.00
Asyut4,1812,656.3161.36.11,574.0025,926.00
Beheira5,720806.3582.172.27,093.849,826.00
Beni Suef2,8122,053.4256.712.51,369.4110,954.00
Cairo9,18448,235.32,976.86.2190.403,085.12
Dakahlia5,8811,662.11,662.1100.03,538.233,538.23
Damietta1,3161,968.71,445.773.4668.47910.26
Faiyum3,1181,680.0513.830.61,856.006,068.00
Gharbia4,6982,418.72,418.7100.01,942.341,942.34
Giza7,4876,286.3567.99.01,191.0013,184.00
Ismailia1,162229.3229.3100.05,066.975,066.97
Kafr El Sheikh3,132903.5903.5100.03,466.693,466.69
Luxor1,1324,992.7469.89.4226.732,409.68
Matruh437111.42.62.43,921.40166,563.00
Minya5,0762,104.8157.37.52,411.6532,279.00
Monufia3,8901,596.91,556.697.52,435.932,499.00
New Valley222205.10.50.21,082.24440,098.00
North Sinai428203.714.87.22,100.8428,992.00
Port Said660499.7490.798.21,320.681,344.96
Qalyubia5,0444,702.14,486.495.41,072.721,124.28
Qena3,0011,724.1277.916.11,740.6310,798.00
Red Sea3414,794.02.90.171.13119,099.13
Sharqia6,4021,343.71,303.697.04,764.284,911.00
Sohag4,5362,845.8411.514.51,593.9211,022.00
South Sinai1669.95.353.716,791.0031,272.00
Suez61568.368.3100.09,002.219,002.21
Total86,8141109.185.97.878272.981010407.87
See also
References
  1. ^ "Governorates of Egypt". Statoids. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  2. ^ Reem Leila. "Redrawing the map". Al Ahram Weekly (On-line). Archived from the original on 2009-08-10. Retrieved 2008-05-19.
  3. ^ "Egypt's PM centralises Helwan and 6 October governorates - Egypt - Ahram Online". english.ahram.org.eg.
  4. ^ "Luxor announced Egypt's 29th governorate". Archived from the original on February 13, 2010. Retrieved 2009-12-08.
  5. ^ a b c d e Metz, ed, Helen Chapin (1990). Egypt: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  6. ^ a b c "Egypt in Figures 2015" (PDF). CAPMAS. Retrieved 2015-08-01.
  7. ^ "Egypt in Figures-Census 2019 - 201937112036_2019 سكان.pdf".
External links
Last edited on 2 March 2021, at 07:02
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