Gradual emancipation (United States)
Speech of the Hon. B. Gratz Brown
, of St. Louis
, on the subject of gradual emancipation in Missouri - delivered in the House of Representatives (Missouri) Feb 12, 1857
In the 16th century, Bartolomé de las Casas
advocated ending enslavement. He stated that it was immoral, but there was pressure economically and politically to maintain slavery. Some of those who advocated for change wanted to end the transatlantic slave trade, because of how tortuous it was, but still supported slavery. Others wanted to end slave entirely.
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the US
Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799) and New Jersey (starting 1804)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862ff.
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, 1 Jan 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the US constitution, 18 Dec 1865
Territory incorporated into the US after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment
Every Negro and Mulatto child born within the State after the passing of the Act (1780) would be free upon reaching age twenty-eight."
Once the Pennsylvania residents were freed, they were supposed to be treated the same as indentured servants
who were contracted for four years of service. For instance, they were to receive tools of their trade or other privileges.
Four other Northern self-declared states adopted policies to at least gradually abolish slavery: New Hampshire
in 1783, and Connecticut
and Rhode Island
in 1784. The Republic of Vermont
had limited slavery in 1777, while it was still independent before it joined the United States as the 14th state in 1791. These state jurisdictions thus enacted the first abolition laws in the Americas
By the 1820s, it was made illegal to import enslaved people and all northern states enacted laws for either gradual or complete emancipation.
proposed an amendment to the Constitution for gradual emancipation in 1861 and 1862, culminating with the Second Message to Congress in December 1862. However, he realized that immediate emancipation was what was needed, because there was increasing support for emancipation in the north and slaves helped the Confederates during the war. This led to the Emancipation Proclamation
, which was formalized on January 1, 1863.
The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
was ratified at the end of the war, making slavery illegal in every states and all enslaved people were freed.
- ^ "Slavery and the Making of America . The Slave Experience: Freedom & Emancipation". Thirteen - PBS. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
- ^ a b "Emancipation Movements". Slavery and Remembrance, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
- ^ a b Foner, Eric (2010). The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-19-513755-2.
- ^ a b c "Abolition of Slavery". PHMC - Our Documentary Heritage. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
- ^ "Abolitionism". Oxford African American Studies Center. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
- ^ "Emancipation". Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
- ^ "The Slave Experience: Freedom & Emancipation". PBS - Slavery and the Making of America. Retrieved 2021-05-08.
Last edited on 8 May 2021, at 17:03
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