The Grand Mufti
(also called Chief Mufti
, State Mufti
and Supreme Mufti
) is the head of regional muftis
, Islamic jurisconsults
, of a state. The office originated in the early modern era in the Ottoman empire
and has been later adopted in a number of modern countries.
Grand Mufti of various countries:
Muftis are Islamic jurists qualified to issue a nonbinding opinion (fatwa
) on a point of Islamic law
). In the 15th century, muftis of the Ottoman empire, who had acted as independent scholars in earlier times, began to be integrated into a hierarchical bureaucracy of religious institutions and scholars. By the end of the 16th century, the government-appointed mufti of Istanbul came to be recognized under the title Shaykh al-Islam
) as the Grand Mufti in charge of this hierarchy. The Ottoman Grand Mufti performed a number of functions, including advising the sultan on religious matters, legitimizing government policies, and appointing judges. After the dissolution the Ottoman Empire the office of the Grand Mufti has been adopted in a number of countries across the Muslim world, often serving the role of providing religious support for government policies.
The Grand Mufti is generally an individual appointed by the state, although the office has collective or elective character in some modern countries.
Further information: Mufti
Muftis are Muslim religious scholars who issue legal opinions (fatwas
) interpreting Sharia
The Ottoman Empire
began the practice of giving official recognition and status to a single mufti, above all others, as the Grand Mufti.:5
The Grand Mufti of Istanbul
had, since the late 16th century, come to be regarded as the head of the religious establishment.
He was thus not only pre-eminent but bureaucratically responsible for the body of religious-legal scholars and gave legal rulings on important state policies such as the dethronement of rulers.
This practice was subsequently borrowed and adapted by Egypt
from the mid-19th century.:5
From there, the concept spread to other Muslim states, so that today there are approximately 16 countries with sizable Muslim populations which have a Grand Mufti.:85
The relationship between the Grand Mufti of any given state and the state's rulers can vary considerably, both by region and by historical era.
The State Mufti of Brunei
is nominated by the Sultan.
Throughout the era of British colonialism, the British retained the institution of Grand Mufti in some Muslim areas under their control and accorded the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem
the highest political stature in Palestine. During World War I
(1914–1918), there were two competing Grand Muftis of Jerusalem, one endorsed by the British and one by the Ottoman Empire
. When Palestine was under British rule, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was a position appointed by the British Mandate
authorities. In the Palestinian National Authority
, the administrative
organization established to govern
parts of the West Bank
and Gaza Strip
, the Grand Mufti is appointed by the president.
Malaysia has a unique system of collective mufti. Nine of the fourteen Malaysian states have their own constitutional monarchy
; nine are ruled by their own constitutional monarch while the country is led by a monarch elected from the nine. These nine monarchs have authority over religious matters within their own states: therefore, each of these nine states have their own mufti who usually controls the Islamic Council or Islamic Department of the state. At the national level, a National Council of Fatwa (Majlis Fatwa Kebangsaan) has been formed under the Department of Islamic Advancement of Malaysia (Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia or JAKIM). JAKIM appoints five Muftis for the five states which do not have monarchs. The muftis of the nine monarchical states, together with the five officials appointed by JAKIM in the National Council of Fatwā, collectively issue fatāwā at the national level.
In the Mughal Empire
, the Grand Mufti of India was a state official.
List of Grand Muftis
The list includes the names of currently appointed Grand Muftis who will take office on an appointed date and appointed by a governing committee.
List of former Grand Muftis
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- ^ a b c d Vogel, Frank E. (2000). Islamic Law and the Legal System of Saudí: Studies of Saudi Arabia. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004110625.
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- ^ Hoda Al-Saleh (1 October 2018). مفتي موريتانيا يتحدث للعربية.نت عن "خطر وحظر الإخوان [The Mufti of Mauritania speaks to Al Arabiya about "the danger and banning of the Brotherhood"] (in Arabic). Al Arabiya. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020. With these words, the Grand Mufti of Mauritania, Ahmed Ould al-Murabit
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- ^ "MEDIA STATEMENT ON KEY CHANGES TO SENIOR RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP IN MUIS". Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura (Press release). On 1 Mar 2020, Ustaz Dr Mohamed Fatris Bakaram will step down and Ustaz Dr Nazirudin Mohd Nasir will be appointed as Mufti of the Republic of Singapore. The appointment of the Mufti is made by the President of Singapore in consultation with the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore.
- ^ "New Mufti appointed as MUIS sees changes to senior religious leadership". CNA. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
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- ^ "Noted Barelvi cleric Azhari Miyan dies". The Times of India. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- ^ "Thousands throng funeral of noted Barelvi cleric; traffic blocked for eight hours". The Times of India. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
Last edited on 26 January 2021, at 20:30
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