Connected to mainland Europe until 8,000 years ago, Great Britain has been inhabited by modern humans for around 30,000 years. In 2011, the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most-populous island
in Indonesia and Honshu
The earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion
: Ἀλβιών) or insula Albionum
, from either the Latin albus
meaning "white" (possibly referring to the white cliffs of Dover
, the first view of Britain from the continent) or the "island of the Albiones
The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle
(384–322 BC), or possibly by Pseudo-Aristotle
, in his text On the Universe
, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two very large islands in it, called the British Isles, Albion and Ierne
The first known written use of the word Britain was an ancient Greek transliteration
of the original P-Celtic term in a work on the travels and discoveries of Pytheas that has not survived. The earliest existing records of the word are quotations of the periplus by later authors, such as those within Strabo's Geographica
, Pliny's Natural History
and Diodorus of Sicily's Bibliotheca historica
. Pliny the Elder
(AD 23–79) in his Natural History
records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion; but at a later period, all the islands, of which we shall just now briefly make mention, were included under the name of 'Britanniæ.'"
The name Britain
descends from the Latin name for Britain, Britannia
, the land of the Britons. Old French Bretaigne
(whence also Modern French Bretagne
) and Middle EnglishBretayne
. The French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Breoten, Bryten, Breten
(also Breoton-lond, Breten-lond
). Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together. It is derived from the travel writings of Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule
Derivation of Great
A 1490 Italian reconstruction of the relevant map of Ptolemy
who combined the lines of roads and of the coasting expeditions during the first century of Roman occupation. Two great faults, however, are an eastward-projecting Scotland and none of Ireland seen to be at the same latitude of Wales, which may have been if Ptolemy used Pytheas' measurements of latitude.
Whether he did so is a much debated issue. This "copy" appears in blue below.
referred to the larger island as great Britain
(μεγάλη Βρεττανία megale Brettania
) and to Ireland as little Britain
(μικρὰ Βρεττανία mikra Brettania
) in his work Almagest
In his later work, Geography
(c. 150 AD), he gave the islands the names Alwion
, and Mona
(the Isle of Man
suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest
The name Albion
appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain
, after which Britain
became the more commonplace name for the island.
After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain
was used as a historical term only. The term Great Britain
was first used officially in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily
, daughter of Edward IV of England
, and James
, son of James III of Scotland
, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee". While promoting a possible royal match in 1548, Lord Protector Somerset
said that the English and Scots were, "like as twoo brethren of one Islande of great Britaynes again." In 1604, James VI and I
styled himself "King of Great Brittaine, France and Ireland".
Modern use of the term Great Britain
can refer to either all islands in Great Britain, the largest island, or the political grouping of countries.
There is no clear distinction, even in government documents: the UK government yearbooks have used both Britain
and United Kingdom
On the Internet, .uk
is the country code top-level domain
for the United Kingdom. A .gb
top-level domain was used to a limited extent, but is now deprecated; although existing registrations still exist (mainly by government organizations and email providers), the domain name registrar will not take new registrations.
Political definition of Great Britain (dark green)
Politically, Great Britain
refers to the whole of England
but not Northern Ireland
; it includes islands, such as the Isle of Wight
, the Isles of Scilly
, the Hebrides
and the island groups of Orkney
, that are part of England, Wales, or Scotland. It does not include the Isle of Man
and the Channel Islands
Roman and medieval period
Prima Europe tabula
. A "copy" of Ptolemy
's 2nd-century map of Roman Britain. See notes to image above.
The Romans conquered most of the island (up to Hadrian's Wall
in northern England) and this became the Ancient Roman
province of Britannia
. In the course of the 500 years after the Roman Empire fell, the Britons of the south and east of the island were assimilated or displaced by invading Germanic
, and Jutes
, often referred to collectively as Anglo-Saxons
). At about the same time, Gaelic
tribes from Ireland invaded the north-west, absorbing both the Picts
of northern Britain, eventually forming the Kingdom of Scotland in the 9th century. The south-east of Scotland was colonised by the Angles and formed, until 1018, a part of the Kingdom of Northumbria
. Ultimately, the population of south-east Britain came to be referred to as the English people
, so-named after the Angles.
Germanic speakers referred to Britons as Welsh
. This term came to be applied exclusively to the inhabitants of what is now Wales, but it also survives in names such as Wallace
and in the second syllable of Cornwall
, a name the Britons used to describe themselves, is similarly restricted in modern Welsh to people from Wales, but also survives in English in the place name of Cumbria
. The Britons living in the areas now known as Wales, Cumbria and Cornwall were not assimilated by the Germanic tribes, a fact reflected in the survival of Celtic languages
in these areas into more recent times.
At the time of the Germanic invasion of Southern Britain, many Britons emigrated to the area now known as Brittany
, where Breton
, a Celtic language closely related to Welsh and Cornish
and descended from the language of the emigrants, is still spoken. In the 9th century, a series of Danish assaults on northern English kingdoms led to them coming under Danish control (an area known as the Danelaw
). In the 10th century, however, all the English kingdoms were unified under one ruler as the kingdom of England when the last constituent kingdom, Northumbria, submitted to Edgar
in 959. In 1066, England was conquered by the Normans
, who introduced a Norman
-speaking administration that was eventually assimilated. Wales came under Anglo-Norman control in 1282, and was officially annexed to England in the 16th century.
Early modern period
On 20 October 1604 King James
, who had succeeded separately to the two thrones of England and Scotland, proclaimed himself "King of Great Brittaine, France
, and Ireland".
When James died in 1625 and the Privy Council of England
was drafting the proclamation of the new king, Charles I, a Scottish peer, Thomas Erskine, 1st Earl of Kellie
, succeeded in insisting that it use the phrase "King of Great Britain", which James had preferred, rather than King of Scotland and England (or vice versa).
While that title was also used by some of James's successors, England and Scotland each remained legally separate countries, each with its own parliament, until 1707, when each parliament passed an Act of Union
to ratify the Treaty of Union
that had been agreed the previous year. This created a single kingdom with one parliament with effect from 1 May 1707. The Treaty of Union specified the name of the new all-island state as "Great Britain", while describing it as "One Kingdom" and "the United Kingdom". To most historians, therefore, the all-island state that existed between 1707 and 1800 is either "Great Britain" or the "Kingdom of Great Britain".
View of Britain's coast from northern France
Great Britain lies on the European continental shelf, part of the Eurasian Plate
and off the north-west coast of continental Europe
, separated from this European mainland by the North Sea
and by the English Channel
, which narrows to 34 km (18 nmi; 21 mi) at the Straits of Dover
It stretches over about ten degrees of latitude
on its longer, north–south axis and covers 209,331 km2
(80,823 sq mi), excluding the much smaller surrounding islands.
The North Channel
, Irish Sea
, St George's Channel
and Celtic Sea
separate the island from the island of Ireland
to its west.
The island is since 1993 joined, via one structure, with continental Europe: the Channel Tunnel
, the longest undersea rail tunnel in the world. The island is marked by low, rolling countryside in the east and south, while hills and mountains predominate in the western and northern regions. It is surrounded by over 1,000 smaller islands
. The greatest distance between two points is 968.0 km (6011
mi) (between Land's End
and John o' Groats
), 838 miles (1,349 km) by road.
The English Channel
is thought to have been created between 450,000 and 180,000 years ago by two catastrophic glacial lake outburst floods
caused by the breaching of the Weald-Artois Anticline
, a ridge that held back a large proglacial lake
, now submerged under the North Sea.
Around 10,000 years ago, during the Devensian glaciation
with its lower sea level
, Great Britain was not an island, but an upland region of continental northwestern Europe, lying partially underneath the Eurasian ice sheet. The sea level was about 120 metres (390 ft) lower than today, and the bed of the North Sea was dry and acted as a land bridge, now known as Doggerland
, to the Continent. It is generally thought that as sea levels gradually rose after the end of the last glacial period of the current ice age, Doggerland reflooded cutting off what was the British peninsula from the European mainland by around 6500 BC.
Great Britain has been subject to a variety of plate tectonic
processes over a very extended period of time. Changing latitude and sea levels have been important factors in the nature of sedimentary sequences, whilst successive continental collisions have affected its geological structure
with major faulting and folding being a legacy of each orogeny
(mountain-building period), often associated with volcanic
activity and the metamorphism of existing rock sequences. As a result of this eventful geological history, the island shows a rich variety of landscapes
The oldest rocks in Great Britain are the Lewisian gneisses
, metamorphic rocks found in the far north west of the island and in the Hebrides
(with a few small outcrops elsewhere), which date from at least 2,700 My
ago. South of the gneisses are a complex mixture of rocks forming the North West Highlands
Highlands in Scotland. These are essentially the remains of folded sedimentary rocks
that were deposited between 1,000 My and 670 My ago over the gneiss on what was then the floor of the Iapetus Ocean
In the current era the north of the island is rising as a result of
the weight of Devensian ice being lifted. Counterbalanced, the south and east is sinking, generally estimated at 1 mm (1
inch) per year, with the London area sinking at double this partly due to the continuing compaction
of the recent clay deposits.
is popularly known as "Britain's favourite bird".
is modest, as a result of factors including the island's small land area, the relatively recent age of the habitats developed since the last glacial period
and the island's physical separation from continental Europe
, and the effects of seasonal variability.
Great Britain also experienced early industrialisation
and is subject to continuing urbanisation
, which have contributed towards the overall loss of species.
(Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) study from 2006 suggested that 100 species have become extinct in the UK during the 20th century, about 100 times the background extinction rate
. However, some species, such as the brown rat
, red fox
, and introduced grey squirrel
, are well adapted to urban areas.
make up 40% of the mammal species
These include squirrels
and the recently reintroduced European beaver
There is also an abundance of European rabbit
, European hare
, European mole
and several species of bat
Carnivorous mammals include the red fox
, Eurasian badger
, Eurasian otter
and elusive Scottish wildcat
Various species of seal
are found on or around British shores and coastlines. The largest land-based wild animals today are deer
. The red deer
is the largest species, with roe deer
and fallow deer
also prominent; the latter was introduced by the Normans
. Sika deer
and two more species of smaller deer, muntjac
and Chinese water deer
, have been introduced, muntjac becoming widespread in England and parts of Wales while Chinese water deer are restricted mainly to East Anglia. Habitat loss has affected many species. Extinct large mammals
include the brown bear
, grey wolf
and wild boar
; the latter has had a limited reintroduction in recent times.
There is a wealth of birdlife
, with 619 species recorded,
of which 258 breed on the island or remain during winter.
Because of its mild winters for its latitude, Great Britain hosts important numbers of many wintering species, particularly waders
Other well known bird species include the golden eagle
, grey heron
, common kingfisher
, common wood pigeon
, house sparrow
, European robin
, grey partridge
, and various species of crow
There are six species of reptile
on the island; three snakes
and three lizards
including the legless slowworm
. One snake, the adder
, is venomous but rarely deadly. Amphibians
present are frogs
There are also several introduced species of reptile and amphibian.
In a similar sense to fauna, and for similar reasons, the flora consists of fewer species compared to much larger continental Europe.
The flora comprises 3,354 vascular plant
species, of which 2,297 are native and 1,057 have been introduced.
The island has a wide variety of trees
, including native species of birch
Other trees have been naturalised, introduced especially from other parts of Europe (particularly Norway) and North America. Introduced trees include several varieties of pine, chestnut
, as well as cherry plum
and pear trees
The tallest species are the Douglas firs
; two specimens have been recorded measuring 65 metres or 212 feet.
The Fortingall Yew
is the oldest tree in Europe.
There are at least 1,500 different species of wildflower
Some 107 species are particularly rare or vulnerable and are protected by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981
. It is illegal to uproot any wildflowers without the landowner's permission.
A vote in 2002 nominated various wildflowers to represent specific counties.
These include red poppies
and many more.
There are also many species of algae
across the island.
There are many species of fungi
-forming species, and the mycobiota is less poorly known than in many other parts of the world. The most recent checklist of Basidiomycota (bracket fungi, jelly fungi, mushrooms and toadstools, puffballs, rusts and smuts), published in 2005, accepts over 3600 species.
The most recent checklist of Ascomycota (cup fungi and their allies, including most lichen-forming fungi), published in 1985, accepts another 5100 species.
These two lists did not include conidial
fungi (fungi mostly with affinities in the Ascomycota but known only in their asexual state) or any of the other main fungal groups (Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and Zygomycota). The number of fungal species known very probably exceeds 10,000. There is widespread agreement among mycologists that many others are yet to be discovered.
Largest urban areas
In the Late Bronze Age, Britain was part of a culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age
, held together by maritime trading, which also included Ireland, France, Spain and Portugal. In contrast to the generally accepted view
originated in the context of the Hallstatt culture
, since 2009, John T. Koch
and others have proposed that the origins of the Celtic languages are to be sought in Bronze Age Western Europe, especially the Iberian Peninsula.
Koch et al.'s proposal has failed to find wide acceptance among experts on the Celtic languages.
All the modern Brythonic languages (Breton, Cornish, Welsh) are generally considered to derive from a common ancestral language termed Brittonic
, Common Brythonic
, Old Brythonic
, which is thought to have developed from Proto-Celtic
or early Insular Celtic
by the 6th century AD.
Brythonic languages were probably spoken before the Roman invasion at least in the majority of Great Britain south of the rivers Forth
, though the Isle of Man
later had a Goidelic language, Manx
. Northern Scotland mainly spoke Pritennic
, which became Pictish
, which may have been a Brythonic language. During the period of the Roman occupation of Southern Britain
(AD 43 to c. 410), Common Brythonic borrowed a large stock of Latin
words. Approximately 800 of these Latin loan-words have survived in the three modern Brythonic languages. Romano-British
is the name for the Latinised form of the language used by Roman authors.
is spoken in the present day across the island, and developed from the Old English
brought to the island by Anglo-Saxon settlers
from the mid 5th century. Some 1.5 million people speak Scots
—which was indigenous language of Scotland and has become closer to English over centuries.
An estimated 700,000 people speak Welsh
an official language in Wales
In parts of north west Scotland, Scottish Gaelic
remains widely spoken. There are various regional dialects of English, and numerous languages spoken by some immigrant populations.
The Church of Scotland
, a form of Protestantism
with a Presbyterian
system of ecclesiastical polity
, is the third most numerous on the island with around 2.1 million members.
Introduced in Scotland by clergyman John Knox
, it has the status of national church in Scotland. The monarch of the United Kingdom is represented by a Lord High Commissioner
is the fourth largest and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley
It gained popularity in the old mill towns of Lancashire
, also amongst tin miners in Cornwall
The Presbyterian Church of Wales
, which follows Calvinistic Methodism
, is the largest denomination in Wales
. There are other non-conformist
minorities, such as Baptists
, the United Reformed Church
(a union of Congregationalists
and English Presbyterians
The first patron saint
of Great Britain was Saint Alban
He was the first Christian martyr dating from the Romano-British
period, condemned to death for his faith and sacrificed to the pagan gods
In more recent times, some have suggested the adoption of St Aidan
as another patron saint of Britain.
From Ireland, he worked at Iona
amongst the Dál Riata and then Lindisfarne
where he restored Christianity to Northumbria
The political definition of Great Britain – that is, England, Scotland and Wales combined – includes a number of offshore islands such as the Isle of Wight
which are not part of the geographical island of Great Britain. Those three countries combined have a total area of 234,402 km2
(90,503 sq mi).
- ^ ISLAND DIRECTORY, United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
- ^ "Great Britain's tallest mountain is taller". Ordnance Survey Blog. 18 March 2016.
- ^ 2011 Census: Population Estimates for the United Kingdom. In the 2011 census, the population of England, Wales and Scotland was estimated to be approximately 61,370,000; comprising 60,800,000 on Great Britain, and 570,000 on other islands. Retrieved 23 January 2014
- ^ "Ethnic Group by Age in England and Wales". www.nomisweb.co.uk. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- ^ "Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011"(PDF). www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- ^ "Islands by land area, United Nations Environment Programme". Islands.unep.ch. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- ^ "The Countries of the UK". Office of National Statistics. 6 April 2010. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- ^ "says 803 islands which have a distinguishable coastline on an Ordnance Survey map, and several thousand more exist which are too small to be shown as anything but a dot". Mapzone.ordnancesurvey.co.uk. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- ^ "Population Estimates" (PDF). National Statistics Online. Newport, Wales: Office for National Statistics. 24 June 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- ^ See Geohive.com Country data Archived 21 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine; Japan Census of 2000; United Kingdom Census of 2001. The editors of List of islands by population appear to have used similar data from the relevant statistics bureaux, and totalled up the various administrative districts that make up each island, and then done the same for less populous islands. An editor of this article has not repeated that work. Therefore this plausible and eminently reasonable ranking is posted as unsourced common knowledge.
- ^ "Who, What, Why: Why is it Team GB, not Team UK?". BBC News. 14 August 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- ^ Oliver, Clare (2003). Great Britain. Black Rabbit Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-58340-204-7.
- ^ O'Rahilly 1946
- ^ 4.20 provides a translation describing Caesar's first invasion, using terms which from IV.XX appear in Latin as arriving in "Britannia", the inhabitants being "Britanni", and on p30 "principes Britanniae" (i.e., "chiefs of Britannia") is translated as "chiefs of Britain".
- ^ Cunliffe 2002, pp. 94–95
- ^ "Anglo-Saxons". BBC News. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
- ^ a b c Snyder, Christopher A. (2003). The Britons. Blackwell Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-631-22260-6.
- ^ "... ἐν τούτῳ γε μὴν νῆσοι μέγιστοι τυγχάνουσιν οὖσαι δύο, Βρεττανικαὶ λεγόμεναι, Ἀλβίων καὶ Ἰέρνη, ...", transliteration "... en toutôi ge mên nêsoi megistoi tynchanousin ousai dyo, Brettanikai legomenai, Albiôn kai Iernê, ...", Aristotle: On Sophistical Refutations. On Coming-to-be and Passing Away. On the Cosmos., 393b, pages 360–361, Loeb Classical Library No. 400, London William Heinemann LTD, Cambridge, Massachusetts University Press MCMLV
- ^ Book I.4.2–4, Book II.3.5, Book III.2.11 and 4.4, Book IV.2.1, Book IV.4.1, Book IV.5.5, Book VII.3.1
- ^ Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia Book IV. Chapter XLI Latin text and English translation, numbered Book 4, Chapter 30, at the Perseus Project.
- ^ O Corrain, Donnchadh, Professor of Irish History at University College Cork (1 November 2001). "Chapter 1: Prehistoric and Early Christian Ireland". In Foster, R F (ed.). The Oxford History of Ireland. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280202-6.
- ^ Cunliffe, Barry (2012). Britain Begins. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 4, ISBN 978-0-19-967945-4.
- ^ Βρεττανική. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
- ^ Strabo's Geography Book I. Chapter IV. Section 2 Greek text and English translation at the Perseus Project.
- ^ Strabo's Geography Book IV. Chapter II. Section 1 Greek text and English translation at the Perseus Project.
- ^ Strabo's Geography Book IV. Chapter IV. Section 1 Greek text and English translation at the Perseus Project.
- ^ Marcianus Heracleensis; Müller, Karl Otfried; et al. (1855). "Periplus Maris Exteri, Liber Prior, Prooemium". In Firmin Didot, Ambrosio (ed.). Geographi Graeci Minores. 1. Paris: editore Firmin Didot. pp. 516–517. Greek text and Latin Translation thereof archived at the Internet Archive.
- ^ Tierney, James J. (1959). "Ptolemy's Map of Scotland". The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 79: 132–148. doi:10.2307/627926. JSTOR 627926.
- ^ Ptolemy, Claudius (1898). "Ἕκθεσις τῶν κατὰ παράλληλον ἰδιωμάτων: κβ', κε'" (PDF). In Heiberg, J.L. (ed.). Claudii Ptolemaei Opera quae exstant omnia. vol.1 Syntaxis Mathematica. Leipzig: in aedibus B. G. Teubneri. pp. 112–113.
- ^ Ptolemy, Claudius (1843). "Book II, Prooemium and chapter β', paragraph 12" (PDF). In Nobbe, Carolus Fridericus Augustus (ed.). Claudii Ptolemaei Geographia. vol.1. Leipzig: sumptibus et typis Caroli Tauchnitii. pp. 59, 67.
- ^ Freeman, Philip (2001). Ireland and the classical world. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-292-72518-8.
- ^ Nicholls, Andrew D., The Jacobean Union: A Reconsideration of British Civil Policies Under the Early Stuarts, 1999. p. 5.
- ^ UK 2005: The Official Yearbook of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. London: Office for National Statistics. 29 November 2004. pp. vii. ISBN 978-0-11-621738-7. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Great Britain: England, Wales, and Scotland considered as a unit. The name is also often used loosely to refer to the United Kingdom.
Great Britain is the name of the island that comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, although the term is also used loosely to refer to the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom is a political unit that includes these countries and Northern Ireland. The British Isles is a geographical term that refers to the United Kingdom, Ireland, and surrounding smaller islands such as the Hebrides and the Channel Islands.
- ^ Brock, Colin (2018), Geography of Education: Scale, Space and Location in the Study of Education, London: Bloomsbury, The political territory of Northern Ireland is not part of Britain, but is part of the nation 'The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland' (UK). Great Britain comprises England, Scotland and Wales.
- ^ Britain, Oxford English Dictionary, Britain:/ˈbrɪt(ə)n/ the island containing England, Wales, and Scotland. The name is broadly synonymous with Great Britain, but the longer form is more usual for the political unit.
- ^ Britain 2001:The Official Yearbook of the United Kingdom, 2001 (PDF). London: Office for National Statistics. August 2000. pp. vii. ISBN 978-0-11-621278-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2011.
- ^ UK 2002: The Official Yearbook of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (PDF). London: Office for National Statistics. August 2001. pp. vi. ISBN 978-0-11-621738-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2007.
- ^ HL Deb 21 October 2004 vol 665 c99WA Hansard
- ^ "Who's who? Meet Northern Ireland's Olympic hopefuls in Team GB and Team IRE". www.BBC.co.uk. BBC News. 28 July 2012.
- ^ a b "Key facts about the United Kingdom". Direct.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 15 November 2008. Retrieved 11 October 2008.
- ^ Ademuni-Odeke (1998). Bareboat Charter (ship) Registration. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 367. ISBN 978-90-411-0513-4.
- ^ Ghosh, Pallab (7 February 2014). "Earliest footprints outside Africa discovered in Norfolk". BBC News. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- ^ Gräslund, Bo (2005). "Traces of the early humans". Early humans and their world. London: Routledge. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-415-35344-1.
- ^ Edwards, Robin & al. "The Island of Ireland: Drowning the Myth of an Irish Land-bridge?" Accessed 15 February 2013.
- ^ Lacey, Robert. Great Tales from English History. New York: Little, Brown & Co, 2004. ISBN 0-316-10910-X.
- ^ Ellis, Peter Berresford (1974). The Cornish language and its literature. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7100-7928-2.
- ^ "England/Great Britain: Royal Styles: 1604-1707". Archontology.org. 13 March 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- ^ HMC 60, Manuscripts of the Earl of Mar and Kellie, vol.2 (1930), p. 226
- ^ "accessed 14 November 2009". Eosnap.com. Archived from the original on 30 May 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- ^ United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Island Directory Tables "Islands By Land Area". Retrieved from http://islands.unep.ch/Tiarea.htm on 13 August 2009
- ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition + corrections" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1971. p. 42 [corrections to page 13]. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
- ^ Gupta, Sanjeev; Collier, Jenny S.; Palmer-Felgate, Andy; Potter, Graeme (2007). "Catastrophic flooding origin of shelf valley systems in the English Channel". Nature. 448 (7151): 342–5. Bibcode:2007Natur.448..342G. doi:10.1038/nature06018. PMID 17637667. S2CID 4408290. Lay summary – NBC News (18 July 2007).
- ^ "Vincent Gaffney, "Global Warming and the Lost European Country"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- ^ "The Robin – Britain's Favourite Bird". BritishBirdLovers.co.uk. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- ^ "Decaying Wood: An Overview of Its Status and Ecology in the United Kingdom and Europe"(PDF). FS.fed.us. Retrieved 15 August 2011. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ a b c d e "A Short History of the British Mammal Fauna". ABDN.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 11 February 2006. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ a b Else, Great Britain, 85.
- ^ "The Fallow Deer Project, University of Nottingham". Nottingham.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- ^ "The British List" (PDF). British Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- ^ "Birds of Britain". BTO.org. 16 July 2010. Retrieved on 16 February 2009.
- ^ "Duck, Geese and Swan Family". NatureGrid.org.uk. Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. Retrieved on 16 February 2009.
- ^ "Birds". NatureGrid.org.uk. Archived from the original on 30 June 2009. Retrieved on 16 February 2009.
- ^ "The Adder's Byte". CountySideInfo.co.uk. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ "Species Identification". Reptiles & Amphibians of the UK.
- ^ "Plants of the Pacific Northwest in Western Europe". Botanical Electric News. Retrieved on 23 February 2009.
- ^ Frodin, Guide to Standard Floras of the World, 599.
- ^ a b "Checklist of British Plants". Natural History Museum. Retrieved on 2 March 2009.
- ^ "Facts About Britain's Trees". WildAboutBritain.co.uk. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved on 2 March 2009.
- ^ "The Fortingall Yew". PerthshireBigTreeCountry.co.uk. Retrieved on 23 February 2009.
- ^ a b "Facts and Figures about Wildflowers". WildAboutFlowers.co.uk. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved on 23 February 2009.
- ^ "Endangered British Wild Flowers". CountryLovers.co.uk. Archived from the original on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 23 August 2009. Retrieved on 23 February 2009.
- ^ "County Flowers of Great Britain". WildAboutFlowers.co.uk. Archived from the original on 27 April 2009. Retrieved on 23 February 2009.
- ^ "People and Plants: Mapping the UK's wild flora" (PDF). PlantLife.org.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2007. Retrieved on 23 February 2009.
- ^ "British Wildflower Images". Map-Reading.co.uk. Retrieved on 23 February 2009.
- ^ "List of British Wildlfowers by Common Name". WildAboutBritain.co.uk. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved on 23 February 2009.
- ^ "British Plants and algae". Arkive.org. Archived from the original on 12 August 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009. Retrieved on 23 February 2009.
- ^ Legon & Henrici, Checklist of the British & Irish Basidiomycota
- ^ Cannon, Hawksworth & Sherwood-Pike, The British Ascomycotina. An Annotated Checklist
- ^ "2011 Census - Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- ^ a b Eska, Joseph F. (December 2013). "Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2013.12.35". Bryn Mawr Classical Review. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- ^ Aberystwyth University - News. Aber.ac.uk. Retrieved on 17 July 2013.
- ^ "Appendix" (PDF). O'Donnell Lecture. 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- ^ Koch, John (2009). "Tartessian: Celtic from the Southwest at the Dawn of History in Acta Palaeohispanica X Palaeohispanica 9" (PDF). Palaeohispánica : Revista Sobre Lenguas y Culturas de la Hispania Antigua. Palaeohispanica: 339–51. ISSN 1578-5386. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
- ^ Koch, John. "New research suggests Welsh Celtic roots lie in Spain and Portugal". Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- ^ Koch, John T. (2007). An Atlas for Celtic Studies. Oxford: Oxbow Books. ISBN 978-1-84217-309-1.
- ^ Scotland's Census 2011 – Language, All people aged 3 and over. Out of the 60,815,385 residents of the UK over the age of three, 1,541,693 (2.5%) can speak Scots.
- ^ A.J. Aitken in The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press 1992. p.894
- ^ Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg, A statistical overview of the Welsh language, by Hywel M Jones, page 115, 184.108.40.206, England. Published February 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- ^ "Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011". legislation.gov.uk. The National Archives. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
- ^ "Global Anglicanism at a Crossroads". PewResearch.org. 19 June 2008. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ "People here 'must obey the laws of the land'". The Daily Telegraph. London. 9 February 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2010. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ "Cardinal not much altered by his new job". Living Scotsman. Retrieved 15 August 2011. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ "How many Catholics are there in Britain?". BBC. 15 September 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
- ^ "Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census – Current Religion in Scotland". Scotland.gov.uk. 28 February 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2011. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ "The Methodist Church". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ "Methodism in Britain". GoffsOakMethodistChurch.co.uk. Archived from the original on 31 January 2009. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ "Cambridge History of Christianity". Hugh McLeod. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ Dawkins, The Shakespeare Enigma, 343.
- ^ Butler, Butler's Lives of the Saints, 141.
- ^ a b "Cry God for Harry, Britain and... St Aidan". The Independent. London. 23 April 2008. Archived from the original on 31 August 2012. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ a b "United Kingdom – History of the Flag". FlagSpot.net. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ a b "Saints". Brits at their Best. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ "Guide to religions in the UK". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 23 January 2011. Retrieved on 16 August 2011
- ^ a b c "Religion in England and Wales 2011 - Office for National Statistics".
- ^ "From Expulsion (1290) to Readmission (1656): Jews and England" (PDF). Goldsmiths.ac.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2008. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- ^ "Jews in Scotland". British-Jewry.org.uk. Archived from the original on 9 May 2005. Retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- Pliny the Elder (translated by Rackham, Harris) (1938). Natural History. Harvard University Press.
- Ball, Martin John (1994). The Celtic Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-01035-1.
- Butler, Alban (1997). Butler's Lives of the Saints. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-86012-255-5.
- Frodin, D. G. (2001). Guide to Standard Floras of the World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79077-2.
- Spencer, Colin (2003). British Food: An Extraordinary Thousand Years of History. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13110-0.
- Andrews, Robert (2004). The Rough Guide to Britain. Rough Guides Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84353-301-6.
- Dawkins, Peter (2004). The Shakespeare Enigma. Polair Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9545389-4-1.
- Major, John (2004). History in Quotations. Cassell. ISBN 978-0-304-35387-3.
- Else, David (2005). Great Britain. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74059-921-4.
- Kaufman, Will; Slettedahl, Heidi Macpherson (2005). Britain and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History. ABC-Clio. ISBN 978-1-85109-431-8.
- Oppenheimer, Stephen (2006). Origins of the British. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 978-0-7867-1890-0.
- Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7.
- Massey, Gerald (2007). A Book of the Beginnings, Vol. 1. Cosimo. ISBN 978-1-60206-829-2.
- Taylor, Isaac (2008). Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 978-0-559-29667-3.
- Legon, N.W.; Henrici, A. (2005). Checklist of the British & Irish Basidiomycota. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 978-1-84246-121-1.
- Cannon, P.F.; Hawksworth, D.L.; M.A., Sherwood-Pike (1985). The British Ascomycotina. An Annotated Checklist. Commonwealth Mycological Institute & British Mycological Society. ISBN 978-0-85198-546-6.
Last edited on 5 June 2021, at 06:34
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.