Group of 77 - Wikipedia
Group of 77
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of 134 developing countries, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.[1] There were 77 founding members of the organization headquartered in Geneva, but it has since expanded to 134 member countries according to the organization.[2] China does not consider itself to be a member, nor did it when it was generally regarded as a developing country. However, the country supports and financially contributes to G77, and official statements are made with China. Guinea holds the chairmanship as of 2021.
Group of 77
AbbreviationG77
Named afterNumber of founding Member States
Formation15 June 1964; 56 years ago
Founded atGeneva, Switzerland
TypeIntergovernmentalvoting bloc
PurposeTo provide a forum for developing nations to promote their economic interests
HeadquartersUnited Nations Headquarters
MethodsCollective bargaining, lobbying, reports and studies
FieldsInternational politics
Membership (2019)
134 Member States
Chair of the Group of 77
The Co-operative Republic of Guyana
AffiliationsUnited Nations
WebsiteG77.org
The group was founded on 15 June 1964, by 77 non-aligned nations in the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).[3] The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun under the leadership of Raul Prebisch who had previously worked at ECLA.[4] There are Chapters of the Group of 77 in Geneva (UN), Rome (FAO), Vienna (UNIDO), Paris (UNESCO), Nairobi (UNEP) and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C. (International Monetary Fund and World Bank).
Policies
The group was credited with a common stance against apartheid and for supporting global disarmament.[5] It has been supportive of the New International Economic Order.[5][6] It has been subject to criticism for its lacklustre support, or outright opposition, to pro-environmental initiatives, which the group considers secondary to economic development and poverty-eradication initiatives.[5][7][8]
Members
Group of 77 countries as of 2013
As of 2020, the group comprises all of the UN member states (along with the U.N. observer State of Palestine), excluding the following countries:
  1. Members of the Council of Europe, except for Azerbaijan.
  2. Members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, except for Chile and Colombia.
  3. Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area, except for Tajikistan.
  4. Two Pacific microstates: Palau and Tuvalu.
Current founding members
[9]
  1.  Afghanistan
  2.  Algeria
  3.  Argentina
  4.  Benin[a]
  5.  Bolivia
  6.  Brazil
  7.  Burkina Faso[b]
  8.  Burundi
  9.  Cambodia
  10.  Cameroon
  11.  Central African Republic
  12.  Chad
  13.  Chile
  14.  Colombia
  15.  Congo
  16.  DR Congo
  17.  Costa Rica
  18.  Dominican Republic
  19.  Ecuador
  20.  Egypt[c]
  21.  El Salvador
  22.  Ethiopia
  23.  Gabon
  24.  Ghana
  25.  Guatemala
  26.  Guinea
  27.  Haiti
  28.  Honduras
  29.  India
  30.  Indonesia
  31. Iran
  32.  Iraq
  33.  Jamaica
  34.  Jordan
  35.  Kenya
  36.  Kuwait
  37. Laos
  38.  Lebanon
  39.  Liberia
  40.  Libya
  41.  Madagascar
  42.  Malaysia
  43.  Mali
  44.  Mauritania
  45.  Morocco
  46.  Myanmar[d]
  47.    Nepal
  48.  Nicaragua
  49.  Niger
  50.  Nigeria
  51.  Pakistan
  52.  Panama
  53.  Paraguay
  54.  Peru
  55.  Philippines
  56.  Rwanda
  57.  Saudi Arabia
  58.  Senegal
  59.  Sierra Leone
  60.  Somalia
  61.  Sri Lanka[e]
  62.  Sudan
  63. Syria
  64. Tanzania[f]
  65.  Thailand
  66.  Togo
  67.  Trinidad and Tobago
  68.  Tunisia
  69.  Uganda
  70.  Uruguay
  71. Venezuela
  72. Vietnam
  73.  Yemen
  1. ^ Joined as Dahomey.
  2. ^ Joined as Upper Volta.
  3. ^ Joined as the United Arab Republic.
  4. ^ Joined as Burma.
  5. ^ Joined as Ceylon.
  6. ^ Joined as the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
Other current members
  1.  Angola
  2.  Antigua and Barbuda
  3.  Azerbaijan
  4.  Bahamas
  5.  Bahrain
  6.  Bangladesh
  7.  Barbados
  8.  Belize
  9.  Bhutan
  10.  Botswana
  11. Brunei Darussalam
  12.  China[a]
  13. Cabo Verde
  14.  Comoros
  15. Côte D'Ivoire
  16.  Cuba
  17.  Djibouti
  18.  Dominica
  19.  Equatorial Guinea
  20.  Eritrea
  21.  Eswatini[b]
  22.  Fiji
  23. The Gambia
  24.  Grenada
  25.  Guinea-Bissau
  26.  Guyana
  27.  Kiribati
  28.  Lesotho
  29.  Malawi
  30.  Maldives
  31.  Marshall Islands
  32.  Mauritius
  33. Federated States of Micronesia
  34.  Mongolia
  35.  Mozambique
  36.  Namibia
  37.  North Korea
  38.  Nauru
  39.  Oman
  40.  Palestine
  41.  Papua New Guinea
  42.  Qatar
  43.  Saint Kitts and Nevis
  44.  Saint Lucia
  45.  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  46.  Samoa
  47.  São Tomé and Príncipe
  48.  Seychelles
  49.  Singapore
  50.  Solomon Islands
  51.  South Africa
  52.  South Sudan
  53.  Suriname
  54.  Tajikistan
  55.  East Timor
  56.  Tonga
  57.  Turkmenistan
  58.  United Arab Emirates
  59.  Vanuatu
  60.  Zambia
  61.  Zimbabwe
  1. ^ Officially considered as a member by the organization, yet not by China itself
  2. ^ Joined as Swaziland.
China
The Group of 77 lists China as one of its members.[2] The Chinese government provides consistent political support to the G77 and has made financial contributions to the Group since 1994, but it does not consider itself to be a member.[10] As a result, official statements of the G77 are delivered in the name of The Group of 77 and China or G77+China.[11]
Former members
  1.  New Zealand signed the original "Joint Declaration of the Developing Countries" in October 1963, but pulled out of the group before the formation of the G77 in 1964 (it joined the OECD in 1973).
  2.  Mexico was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1994. It had presided over the group in 1973–1974, 1983–1984; however, it is still a member of G-24.
  3.  South Korea was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1996.
  4.  Yugoslavia was a founding member; by the late 1990s it was still listed on the membership list, but it was noted that it "cannot participate in the activities of G77." It was removed from the list in late 2003.[citation needed] It had presided over the group from 1985 to 1986. Bosnia and Herzegovina is the only part of former Yugoslavia that is currently in the G77.
  5.  Cyprus was a founding member, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2004.
  6.  Malta was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2004.
  7.  Palau joined the Group in 2002, but withdrew in 2004, having decided that it could best pursue its environmental interests through the Alliance of Small Island States.
  8.  Romania was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2007.
Presiding countries
The following is the chain of succession of the chairmanship of the G77:[12]
Presiding countries of the G77 since 1970. Colors show the number of times a country has held the position. Gray = never, Yellow = once, Orange = twice, Red = three times
Presiding countryYear
 India
1970–1971
 Peru
1971–1972
 Egypt
1972–1973
 Iran1973–1974
 Mexico1974–1975
 Madagascar
1975–1976
 Pakistan
1976–1977
 Jamaica1977–1978
 Tunisia
1978–1979
 India
1979–1980
 Venezuela
1980–1981
 Algeria
1981–1982
 Bangladesh1982–1983
 Mexico1983–1984
 Egypt
1984–1985
 Yugoslavia1985–1986
 Guatemala1987
 Tunisia
1988
 Malaysia1989
 Bolivia
1990
 Ghana
1991
 Pakistan
1992
 Colombia
1993
 Algeria
1994
 Philippines1995
 Costa Rica1996
 Tanzania
1997
 Indonesia
1998
 Guyana1999
 Nigeria2000
 Iran2001
 Venezuela
2002
 Morocco
2003
 Qatar2004
 Jamaica2005
 South Africa
2006
 Pakistan
2007
 Antigua and Barbuda
2008
 Sudan2009
 Yemen
2010
 Argentina2011
 Algeria
2012
 Fiji2013
 Bolivia
2014
 South Africa
2015
 Thailand
2016
 Ecuador
2017
 Egypt
2018
 Palestine2019
 Guyana2020
Group of 24
Main article: Group of 24
G-24 countries.
  Member nations
  Observer nations
The Group of 24 (G-24) is a chapter of the G-77 that was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. Every member of the G-24, except for Mexico, is also a member of the G77.
See also
References
  1. ^ About the Group of 77:Aims
  2. ^ a b "The Member States of the Group of 77". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.
  3. ^ About the Group of 77:Establishment
  4. ^ Prebisch, Raúl; Prebisch, Raul (October 1986). "El desarrollo económico de la América Latina y algunos de sus principales problemas". Desarrollo Económico. 26 (103): 479. doi:10.2307/3466824. hdl:11362/10183. ISSN 0046-001X. JSTOR 3466824.
  5. ^ a b c Satpathy (2005). Environment Management. Excel Books India. p. 30. ISBN 978-81-7446-458-3.
  6. ^ Malgosia Fitzmaurice; David M. Ong; Panos Merkouris (2010). Research Handbook on International Environmental Law. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 567–. ISBN 978-1-84980-726-5.
  7. ^ Jan Oosthoek; Barry K. Gills (31 October 2013). The Globalization of Environmental Crisis. Taylor & Francis. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-1-317-96895-5.
  8. ^ Howard S. Schiffman (3 May 2011). Green Issues and Debates: An A-to-Z Guide. SAGE Publications. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-4522-6626-8.
  9. ^ Signed the "JOINT DECLARATION OF THE SEVENTY-SEVEN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES".
  10. ^ "七十七国集团(Group of 77, G77)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. July 2016. 中国不是77国集团成员,但一贯支持其正义主张和合理要求,与其保持良好合作关系,在经社领域一般以“77国集团加中国”的模式表达共同立场。中国自1994年开始每年向其捐款,2014年起捐款每年5万美元。
  11. ^ "Statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China by H.E. Mr. Horacio Sevilla Borja, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Ecuador to the United Nations, at the opening session of the 4th Prepcom established by General Assembly resolution 69/292: Development of an international legally binding instrument under UNCLOS on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (New York, 10 July 2017)". www.g77.org. Mr. Chair, I have the honour to deliver this statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China.
  12. ^ "Presiding Countries of the Group of 77 in New York". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.
External links
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Last edited on 4 May 2021, at 09:07
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