, or Ḥaḍrami Arabic
, is a variety of Arabic
spoken by the Hadhrami people
) living in the Hadhramaut
. It is also spoken by many emigrants, who migrated from the Hadhramaut to the Horn of Africa
), East Africa
, and Mozambique
), Southeast Asia
) and, recently, to the other Arab states of the Persian Gulf
The dialect in many towns and villages in the Wādī
(valley) and the coastal region is characterised by its ج
/-yodization, changing the Classical Arabic
/ to the approximant ي
]. That resembles some Eastern Arabian and Gulf dialects, including the dialects of Basra in Iraq
other Arab Emirates
. In educated speech, ج
is realised as a voiced palatal plosive [ɟ
] or affricate [dʒ
] in some lexical items which are marked [+ religious] or [+ educated] (see ق
/ reflex is pronounced as a voiced velar [ɡ
] in all lexical items throughout the dialect. In some other Arabic dialects, /q
/ is realised as a voiceless uvular plosive [q
] in certain marked lexemes [+ religious], [+ educational]: /qurʔaːn/ “Qur’an”. With the spread of literacy and contact with speakers of other Arabic dialects
, future sociolinguistic research may reveal whether using the uvular /q
/ in certain lexemes and retaining the velar /ɡ
/ for others will occur.
/ and ذ
/ are made in Wādī
, but ض
/ and ظ
/ are both pronounced ظ
]. The Coast merges all the pairs into the stops د
] and [dˤ
In non-emphatic environments, /aː/ is realised as an open front (slightly raised) unrounded [æ
]. Thus, /θaːniː/ "second," which is normally realised with an [ɑː
]-like quality in the Gulf dialects, is realised with an [æː
The dialect is characterised by not allowing final consonant clusters to occur in final position. Thus, Classical Arabic /bint/ "girl" is realised as /binit/. In initial positions, there is a difference between the Wādī and the coastal varieties. The coast has initial clusters in /bɣaː/ "he wants," /bsˤal/ "onions" and /briːd/ "mail (n.)," but Wādī realises the second and third words as /basˤal/ and /bariːd/, respectively.
When the first person singular comes as an independent subject pronoun, it is marked for gender:
/anaː/ for masculine and /aniː/ for feminine. As an object pronoun, it comes as a bound morpheme
: /-naː/ for masculine and /-niː/ for feminine. The first person subject plural is naḥnā
The first person direct object plural is /naħnaː/ rather than the /-naː/ of many dialects. Thus, the cognate of the Classical Arabic /dˤarabanaː/ "he hit us" is /ðˤarab naħnaː/.
Stem VI, tC1āC2aC3
, can be umlauted
, thus changing the pattern vowel ā
. That leads to a semantic change, as in /tʃaːradaw/ "they ran away suddenly" and /tʃeːradaw/ "they shirk, try to escape."
Intensive and frequentative verbs are common in the dialect. Thus /kasar/ "to break" is intensified to /kawsar/, as in /koːsar fi l-lʕib/ "he played rough." It can be metathesized to become frequentative, as in /kaswar min iðˤ-ðˤaħkaːt/ "he made a series (lit. breaks) of giggles or laughs."
The syntax has many similarities to other Peninsular Arabic
dialects. However, the dialect contains a number of unique particles used for co-ordination, negation
, and other sentence types. Examples in coordination include /kann, laːkan/ "but, nevertheless, though," /maː/ (Classical Arabic /ammaː/) "as for…," and /walla/ "or."
Like many other dialects, apophonic or ablaut
passive (as in /kutib/ "it was written") is not very common, and Is mainly confined to clichés and proverbs from other dialects, including Classical Arabic.
The particle /qad/ developed semantically in the dialect to /kuð/ or /ɡuð/ "yet, already, almost, nearly" and /ɡad/ or /ɡid/ "maybe, perhaps."
- ^ "Arabic, Hadrami Spoken". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-08-08.
- ^ Al-Saqqaf, Abdullah Hassan (15 January 2006). "The Linguistics of Loanwords in Hadrami Arabic". International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 9 (1): 75–93. doi:10.1080/13670050608668631. S2CID 145299220.
Last edited on 15 March 2021, at 10:17
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