Al-Abadi was included in Time
magazine's 100 Most Influential People of 2018.
Early life and education
Al-Abadi joined the Dawa Party
Two of his brothers were killed and one was put in prison 1980, 1981, and 1982 for belonging to the Dawa Party. In 1981, his third brother was arrested and spent 10 years in prison.
In 1977, he became in charge of its organization in Britain.
In 1979, he became a member of the party's executive leadership.
In 1983, the government confiscated al-Abadi's passport for conspiring against Iraq's Ba'ath Party
- Director general of a small design and development firm in London specialising in high-technology vertical and horizontal transportation (1993–2003)
- Consultant, in London, in matters relating to transportation (1987–2003)
- Research leader for a major modernization contract in London (1981–1986)
Al-Abadi was awarded a grant from the UK Department of Trade and Industry in 1998.
While working in London in 2001 al-Abadi registered a patent relating to rapid transit systems.
Return to Iraq
In 2003, al-Abadi became skeptical of the Coalition Provisional Authority
(CPA) privatization plan, proposing to Paul Bremer
that they had to wait for a legitimate government to be formed. In October 2003, al-Abadi with all 25 of the interim Governing Council ministers protested to Paul Bremer and rejected the CPA's demand to privatize the state-owned companies and infrastructure prior to forming a legitimate government. The CPA, led by Bremer, fell out with al-Abadi and the Governing Council. The CPA worked around the Governing Council, forming a new government that remained beholden to the CPA to serve until the general elections, prompting more aggressive armed actions by insurgents against US-led coalition personnel.
While al-Abadi was Minister of Communications, the CPA awarded licenses to three mobile operators to cover all parts of Iraq. Despite being rendered nearly powerless by the CPA,
Al-Abadi was not prepared to be a rubber stamp
and introduced more conditions for the licenses. Among them that a sovereign Iraqi government has the power to amend or terminate the licenses and introduce a fourth national license, which caused some friction with the CPA. In 2003, press reports indicated Iraqi officials were under investigation over a questionable deal involving Orascom
, an Egypt-based telecoms company, which in late 2003 was awarded a contract to provide a mobile network to central Iraq. Al-Abadi asserted that there was no illicit dealing in the completed awards.
In 2004, it was revealed that these allegations were fabrications
, and a US Defense Department review found that telecommunications contracting had been illegally influenced in an unsuccessful effort led by disgraced US Deputy Undersecretary of Defense John A. Shaw
and not by Iraqis.
Al-Abadi's name was circulated as a prime ministerial candidate during the formation of the Iraqi government in 2006 during which time Ibrahim al-Jaafari
was replaced by Nouri al-Maliki
as Prime Minister.
In 2008, al-Abadi remained steadfast in his support of Iraqi sovereignty, insisting on specific conditions to the agreement with the U.S. regarding its presence in Iraq.
He is an active member of the Iraq Petroleum Advisory Committee, participating in the Iraq Petroleum Conferences of 2009–2012 organized by Nawar Abdulhadi and Phillip Clarke of The CWC Group .
He was one of several Iraqi politicians supporting a suit against Blackwater
as a result of the 2010 dismissal of criminal charges against Blackwater personnel involved in the 2007 killing of 17 Iraqi civilians.
Al-Abadi was again tapped as a possible Prime Minister during the tough negotiations between Iraqi political blocs after the elections of 2010 to choose a replacement to incumbent PM Nouri al-Maliki
. Again in 2014, he was nominated by Shia political parties as an alternative candidate for Prime Minister.
Prime Minister (2014–2018)
On 24 July 2014, Fuad Masum
became the new president of Iraq. He, in turn, nominated al-Abadi for prime minister on 11 August.
For the appointment to take effect, al-Abadi was required to form a government to be confirmed by Parliament
within 30 days.
Al-Maliki, however, refused to give up his post and referred the matter to the federal court claiming the president's nomination was a "constitutional violation." He said, "The insistence on this until the end is to protect the state."
On 14 August 2014, in the face of growing calls from world leaders and members of his own party, the embattled Prime Minister announced he was stepping down to make way for al-Abadi. The announcement of the leadership transition from al-Maliki to al-Abadi triggered a major realignment of Sunni Arab public opinion away from armed opposition groups and to the Iraqi government, since many Iraqi Sunni Arabs were optimistic that the new government would address their grievances and deliver public goods and services to them.
The Iraqi Parliament approved al-Abadi's new government and his presidential program on 8 September 2014.
In the months after assuming office in September 2014, Abadi made determined efforts to increase Sunni participation in the Iraqi government.
Abadi appointed Khaled al-Obaidi
, a prominent Sunni politician from Mosul
, as his Defense Minister, and the appointment was ratified by the Iraqi parliament after two months.
In mid-December 2014, Abadi forged a new revenue-sharing agreement with the Kurds, under which Baghdad agreed to pay the Kurdish Regional Government one half of all income from Kurdish-controlled oil fields.
To counter the widespread corruption in the army stemming from the Maliki years, Abadi announced that 50,000 "ghost soldiers" had been identified and would be removed from army payrolls.
"Ghost soldiers" were men on army payrolls who never showed up for duty, but paid their officers part of their salaries, thus institutionalizing corruption and hollowing out the armed forces.
Iraqi President Fuad Masum
paid a goodwill visit to Saudi Arabia
in November 2014. In response, Saudi Arabia prepared to reopen its embassy in Baghdad, which had remained closed since the start of the Gulf War
Abadi has also visited Egypt, Jordan, and Turkey to discuss regional strategies to combat militant Islamist forces. Foreign Affairs
magazine has written that after four months in power, Abadi's attempts to resolve Iraq's sectarian strife make his premiership "a welcome change from the schismatic style of his predecessor". As a result of Abadi's reforms, the United States pledged $1.5 billion to train Iraqi forces and announced the sale of F-16
fighter jets, suspended after the 2003 invasion of Iraq
Combating political corruption was an early priority of the al-Abadi administration. In August 2015, al-Abadi unveiled a plan to strengthen the government by, among other things, eliminating security details for senior officials and cutting benefits to specific high-level officials.
Al-Abadi was forced to contend with the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant
as Prime Minister; he was sometimes critical of Barack Obama
and the United States military response to the threat of ISIL.
Furthermore, al-Abadi pivoted closer towards Russia and Iran in order to combat the threat of ISIL and encouraged cooperation between these nations on military operations in the region.
In April, 2016, al-Abadi's difficulties in implementing political reforms led to the storming of the Iraqi parliament by supporters of Shia cleric Muqtada al-Sadr
The protesters breaching the Green Zone
and disrupting the parliament have been described as evidence of Iraq's increasingly dysfunctional political system
and al-Abadi's problems in getting corruption
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Last edited on 10 April 2021, at 13:43
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