Integrated steel mill in the Netherlands. The two massive towers are blast furnaces
Transportation and construction along with their upstream manufacturing supply businesses have been the bulk of heavy industry throughout the industrial age, along with some capital-intensive manufacturing. Traditional examples from the mid-19th century through the early 20th included steelmaking
manufacturing, machine tool building
, and the heavier types of mining
. From the late 19th century through the mid-20th, as the chemical industry
and electrical industry
developed, they involved components of both heavy industry and light industry, which was soon also true for the automotive industry
and the aircraft industry
. Modern shipbuilding
(since steel replaced wood) is considered heavy industry. Large systems are often characteristic of heavy industry such as the construction
and large dams
during the post–World War II era, and the manufacture/deployment of large rockets
and giant wind turbines
through the 21st century.
Large components such as ship turbochargers are also characteristic of heavy industry.
As part of economic strategy
In 20th-century communist states
, the planning of the economy
often focused on heavy industry as an area for large investments, even to the extent of painful opportunity costs
on the production–possibility frontier
(classically, "lots of guns and not enough butter"). This was motivated by fears of failing to maintain military parity with foreign capitalist powers
. For example, the Soviet Union's industrialization in the 1930s
, with heavy industry as the favored emphasis, sought to bring its ability to produce trucks, tanks, artillery, aircraft, and warships up to a level that would make the country a great power
under Mao Zedong
pursued a similar strategy, eventually culminating in the Great Leap Forward
of 1958–1960, an attempt to rapidly industrialize and collectivize
Heavy industry is also sometimes a special designation in local zoning
laws. This allows industries with heavy impacts (on environment, infrastructure, and employment) to be sited with forethought. For example, the zoning restrictions for landfills
usually take into account the heavy truck traffic that will exert expensive wear
on the roads leading to the landfill.
Greenhouse gas emissions
As of 2019
heavy industry emits about 22% of global greenhouse gas emissions
: high temperature heat for heavy industry being about 10% of global emissions.
- ^ Teubal, Morris (1973). "Heavy and Light Industry in Economic Development". The American Economic Review. 63 (4): 588–596. ISSN 0002-8282.
- ^ Wade, Robert (2003-11-30). Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization (With a New introduction by the author ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11729-4.
- ^ Walder, Andrew G. (2015-04-06). "5, 8". China Under Mao. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-28670-2.
- ^ Naughton, Barry J. (2006-10-27). The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-64064-0.
- ^ Committee, British Association Glossary (1952). "Some Definitions in the Vocabulary of Geography, IV". The Geographical Journal. 118 (3): 345–346. doi:10.2307/1790321. ISSN 0016-7398.
- ^ Roberts, David (2019-10-10). "This climate problem is bigger than cars and much harder to solve". Vox. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
Last edited on 12 April 2021, at 17:19
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