For the river known in Mandarin as Heilong Jiang, see Amur River
Heilongjiang has significant agricultural production,
and raw materials, such as timber, oil and coal.
"Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River
, which is the Chinese name for the more well known western name, Amur
. The one-character abbreviation is 黑
). The Manchu
name of the region is Sahaliyan ula
(literally, "Black River"), from which the name of Sakhalin
is derived, and the Mongolian
name with the same meaning is Qaramörin
. It is sometimes spelt "Heilungkiang", especially in older English texts.
Saint Sofia Church
Ancient Chinese records and other sources state that Heilongjiang was inhabited by people such as the Sushen
, the Mohe
, and the Khitan
. Mongolic Donghu people
lived in Inner Mongolia
and the western part of Heilongjiang.
Some names are Manchu or Mongolian.
The eastern portion of Heilongjiang was ruled by the kingdom of Balhae
between the 7th and 10th centuries. The Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
that subsequently ruled much of north China arose within the borders of modern Heilongjiang.
Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces on a 1734 French map
Heilongjiang as an administrative entity was created in 1683, during the Kangxi
era of the Manchu Qing Dynasty
, from the northwestern part of the Jilin
This Heilongjiang Province only included the western part of today's Heilongjiang Province, and was under the supervision of the General of Heilongjiang (Sahaliyan Ula i Jiyanggiyūn) (the title is also translated as the Military Governor of Heilongjiang; jiyanggiyūn
is the Manchu reading of the Chinese word 將軍 jiāngjūn
; "military leader, general" and is cognate with Japaneseshōgun
), whose power extended, according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk
, as far north as the Stanovoy Mountains
. The eastern part of what's today Heilongjiang remained under the supervision of the General of Jilin (Girin i Jiyanggiyūn), whose power reached the Sea of Japan
. These areas deep in Manchuria
were closed off to Han Chinese
The seal of Heilongjiang General
The original seat of the Military Governor of Heilongjiang, as established in 1683, was in Heilongjiang City (also known as Aigun
, or, in Manchu
, Saghalien Ula), located on the Amur River. However, already in 1690 the seat of the governor was transferred to Nenjiang
(Mergen) on the Nen River
, and, in 1699, further south to Qiqihar
. According to modern historians, the moves may have been driven by supply considerations: Nenjiang and Qiqihar are connected by a convenient waterway (Nen River) with southern Manchuria, whereas accessing Aigun (Heihe) would require either sailing all the way down the Sungari River
until its confluence with the Amur and then up the Amur to Heihe, or using a portage
over the Lesser Xing'an Mountains between the Nen River valley and the Amur valley. An additional advantage of Qiqihar may have been its location at the junction of a northbound road (to Nenjiang) and a westbound one (to Mongolia), enabling its garrison to defend both against the Russians and the Ölöt Mongols
Little Qing Military presence existed north of Aigun. According to the 18th- and early-20th-century European sources, and the reports of the Russians in the 1850s, the farthest Qing "advance guard" post was at Ulusu-Modon (Ulussu-Mudan) (Chinese
: 乌鲁苏穆丹), near the Amur River's famous S-shaped meander. (The post was actually on the left bank of the river, lost to the Russians in 1860.)
In 1945, Japanese forces in Manchuria were defeated by the Soviet Army
. During the Chinese Civil War
, Soviet forces aided the Chinese communists. Heilongjiang became the first province to be completely controlled by the communists and Harbin
the first major city to be controlled by them.
At the beginning of communist rule, Heilongjiang included only the western portion of the present-day province, and had its capital at Qiqihar. The remaining area was the province of Songjiang
; its capital was Harbin. In 1954, these two provinces were merged into present-day Heilongjiang. During the Cultural Revolution
, Heilongjiang was also expanded to include Hulunbuir League
and some other areas previously in Inner Mongolia
; this has since mostly been reversed.
A humid continental climate
) predominates in the province, though areas in the far north are subarctic
Winters are long and bitter, with an average of −31 to −15 °C (−24 to 5 °F) in January, and summers are short and warm to very warm with an average of 18 to 23 °C (64 to 73 °F) in July. The annual average rainfall is 400 to 700 millimetres (16 to 28 in), concentrated heavily in summer. Clear weather is prevalent throughout the year, and in the spring, the Songnen Plain
and the Sanjiang Plain
provide abundant sources of wind energy.
The province's largest cities include Harbin
, and Heihe
Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for some locations in Heilongjiang province of China
A road and highway proposal was accepted in 2006; the project plans to develop 38,000 kilometres (24,000 miles) of new roads and expand Heilongjiang's total road network to 2,300,000 kilometres (1,400,000 miles).
There are 60 rail lines of around 5,300 kilometres (3,300 miles) including a section of the Asia-Europe Continental Bridge. The Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway
, completed in 2012, stretches from Harbin, Heilongjiang's capital, to Dalian
in Liaoning province via Changchun
comprising 23 stops. It is expected to transport 37 million passengers per year by 2020 and 51 million by 2030.
Tongjiang-Nizhneleninskoye railway bridge
The Chinese portion of the bridge was finished in July 2016.
In December 2016, work began on the Russian portion of the bridge. Completion of structural link between the two sides of the bridge was completed in March 2019.
Opening to rail traffic has been repeatedly delayed, with the December 2019 estimate being "the end of 2020",
and then 3rd quarter of 2021.
(Additional information regarding the last prefecture can be found at Greater Khingan
- ^ a b New district established after census: Shuangcheng (Shuangcheng CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
- ^ a b The stats are reorganized after Yichun reorganization in July 2019.
- ^ Jiagedaqi Administrative Zone is a special urban area jurisdiction that is de jure part of Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia but, currently de facto under Daxing'anling Prefecture control.
- ^ Dongning County is currently known as Dongning CLC after census.
- ^ Fuyuan County is currently known as Fuyuan CLC after census.
- ^ Mohe County is currently known as Mohe CLC after census.
Heilongjiang Province People's Government
List of Secretaries of the CPC
- Zhang Qilong (张启龙; 1949–1950)
- Zhao Dezun (赵德尊; 1950–1953)
- Feng Jixin (冯纪新; 1953–1954)
- Ouyang Qin (欧阳钦; 1954–1965)
- Pan Fusheng (潘复生; 1965–1971)
- Wang Jiadao (汪家道; 1971–1974)
- Liu Guangtao (刘光涛; 1977)
- Yang Yichen (杨易辰; 1977–1983)
- Li Li'an (李力安; 1983–1985)
- Sun Weiben (孙维本; 1985–1994)
- Yue Qifeng (岳岐峰; 1994–1997)
- Xu Youfang (徐有芳; 1997–2003)
- Song Fatang (宋法棠; 2003–2005)
- Qian Yunlu (钱运录; 2005–2008)
- Ji Bingxuan (吉炳轩; 2008–2013)
- Wang Xiankui (王宪魁; March 2013 – April 2017)
- Zhang Qingwei (张庆伟; April 2017 – incumbent)
List of Governors:
- Yu Yifu (于毅夫; 1949–1952)
- Zhao Dezun (赵德尊; 1952–1953)
- Chen Lei (陈雷; 1953–1954)
- Han Guang (韩光; 1954–1956)
- Ouyang Qin (欧阳钦; 1956–1958)
- Li Fanwu (李范五; 1958–1966)
- Pan Fusheng (潘复生; 1967–1971)
- Wang Jiadao (汪家道; 1971–1974)
- Liu Guangtao (刘光涛; February 1977 – December 1977)
- Yang Yichen (杨易辰; December 1977 – 1979)
- Chen Lei (陈雷; 1979–1985)
- Hou Jie (侯捷; 1985–1989)
- Shao Qihui (邵奇惠; 1989–1994)
- Tian Fengshan (田凤山; 1994–2000)
- Song Fatang (宋法棠; 2000–2003)
- Zhang Zuoji (张左己; 2003 – December 2007)
- Li Zhanshu (栗战书; December 2007 – August 2010)
- Wang Xiankui (王宪魁; August 2010 – March 2013)
- Lu Hao (陆昊; March 2013 – March 2018)
- Wang Wentao (王文涛; March 2018 – incumbent)
Herding in Heilongjiang is centered upon horses and cattle; the province has the largest number of milk cows and the highest production of milk among all the province-level divisions of China.
is of great importance in Heilongjiang, and the Daqing oilfields
are an important source of petroleum for China. Coal, gold, and graphite
are other important minerals to be found in Heilongjiang. Heilongjiang also has great potential for wind power
, with potential capacity for 134 gigawatts of power production.
Heilongjiang is part of northeast China
, the country's traditional industrial base. Industry is focused upon coal, petroleum, lumber, machinery, and food. Due to its location, Heilongjiang is also an important gateway for trade with Russia
. Since a wave of privatization led to the closure of uncompetitive factories in the 1990s, Manchuria has suffered from stagnation. As a result, the government has started the Revitalize Northeast China
campaign to deal with this problem, promoting the private sectors as the preferred method of economic reform
At least five miners were killed after a coal mine fire in Heilongjiang it was reported on 21 September 2008.
Its GDP has been rising steadily since 2003, growing 37% from 2003 to 2007. The value of the private economy reached RMB234 billion in 2006 and accounted for 37.6 percent of the GDP. In that year, the tax revenue from private enterprises hit RMB20.5 billion.
Private enterprises in Heilongjiang led the overall economic growth of the province. Many leading private enterprises have begun to emerge. The province's three major private enterprises, namely the Heilongjiang Sunflower Medicine Ltd, Qitaihe Yidaxin Coal Co., and Heilongjiang Yiyang Group, each contributed more than RMB100 million in tax revenue
in 2007.
During the first decade of this century, many private investors were involved in large construction projects in Heilongjiang. In 2006, 928 large projects absorbed private capital of RMB5 million each, and 101 projects attracted RMB100 million each within the province. In line with the central government's policy to revitalize the Northeast, Heilongjiang also restructured its six pillar industries, namely equipment manufacturing, petrochemicals, food processing, energy, pharmaceuticals, and forest
and timber processing
In 2017, Heilongjiang's nominal GDP was 1.62 trillion yuan (ca. US$240 billion), with an annual growth rate of 12.2%. Its per capita GDP was 42,699 yuan (US$6,324). In 2006 the per capita disposable income
of urban residents in Heilongjiang reached 11,581 yuan (US$1,667), a rise of 13% from the previous year. The per capita net income of rural residents in the province reached 4,856 yuan (US$700), a rise of 17.5% from 2007.
Economic and technological development zones
New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
Daqing New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was constructed in April 1992 and was then approved as a national high-tech zone by the State Council later that year. Its initial zone area is 208.54 km2
, and it recently expanded the area by 32.45 km2
- Heihe Border Economic Cooperation Area
- Harbin Economic and Technological Development Zone
- Harbin New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
Harbin High-tech Zone was set up in 1988 and was approved by the State Council as a national development zone in 1991. It has a total area of 34 km2
in the centralized parks, subdivided into Nangang, Haping Road and Yingbin Road Centralized Parks. The Nangang Centralized Park is designated for the incubation of high-tech projects and research and development base of enterprises as well as tertiary industries such as finance, insurance, services, catering, tourism, culture, recreation and entertainment, where the headquarters of major well-known companies and their branches in Harbin are located; the Haping Road Centralized Park is a comprehensive industrial basis for the investment projects of automobile and automobile parts manufacturing, medicines, foodstuffs, electronics, textile; the Yingbin Road Centralized Park is mainly for high-tech incubation projects, high-tech industrial development.
Sino-Russia Dongning-Piurtaphca Trade Zone
Sino-Russia Dongning-Piurtaphca Trade Zone was approved by the State Council in 2000 and was completed in 2005. The zone has a planned area of 275.4 hectares. The Chinese part of the zone has a 22-hectare trade center with four subsidiary areas, A, B, C, and D, in which more than 6,000 stalls are already set up, mainly dealing with clothes, household appliances, food, construction materials, etc.
Border Economic Cooperation Area
Suifenhe Border Economic Cooperation District (Suifenhe BECD) is located in the north of Suifenhe City, and borders Russia to the east. Suifenhe BECD is the largest among the three state-level border-trade zones of Heilongjiang, in terms of investor numbers. Suifenhe BECD has a convenient transport network. The Binzhou-Suifenhe Railway, which connects the Russian Far East Railway, is an important port for export. The railway distance between Suifenhe and Harbin is 548 km (341 mi). Buguranikinai, the corresponding Russian port city, is 21 km (13 mi) away.
Heilongjiang's culture is part of a culture of Northeast China
that is relatively homogeneous across this region, known in Mandarin Chinese as "Dongbei" (the northeast).
Heilongjiag Daily Press Group
The long, cold winter is the backdrop for its famed ice sculpture
exhibitions. In 2007 already the 8th Ice and Snow World opened to visitors in Harbin. More than 2,000 ice sculptures
were on display at the annual event.
Wudalianchi Lakes are a series of five lakes formed between 1719 and 1721 when volcanic eruption shaped one section of a tributary of the Amur
into five interconnected lakes. The second lake in particular is renowned for its irregular geological sights. Lake Jingbo
, in Ning'an
County, is a section of the Mudan River
that has been narrowed and shaped by volcanic eruption into a series of sights, including the Diaoshuilou Falls
Colleges and universities
Heilongjiang is in the forefront of promoting winter sports and winter-featured sports industry in China.
For example, it is promoting bandy
as an Olympic sport
Events and leagues
- ^ "Doing Business in China – Survey". Ministry Of Commerce – People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- ^ "Communiqué of the Seventh National Population Census (No. 3)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
- ^ 黑龙江省2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Statistical Communiqué of Heilongjiang on the 2017 National Economic and Social Development] (in Chinese). Heilongjiang Bureau of Statistics. 11 April 2018. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- ^ "Sub-national HDI" (PDF). 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- ^ "Heilongjiang". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
- ^ a b "Heilongjiang and China's Food Security". Stratfor. 5 March 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- ^ Origins of Minority Ethnic Groups in Heilongjiang Archived 2014-03-22 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ 浅谈黑龙江省地名的特点. iqh.net.cn (in Chinese).
- ^ Edmonds, Richard Louis (1985). Northern Frontiers of Qing China and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. University of Chicago, Department of Geography; Research Paper No. 213. p. 6. ISBN 0-89065-118-3.
- ^ Edmonds (1985), pp. 115–117
- ^ Patrick Fuliang Shan, "Taming China's Wilderness: Immigration, Settlement, and the Shaping of the Heilongjiang Frontier, 1900–1931", Ashgate, 2014, ISBN 978-1-4094-6389-4
- ^ Updated Asian map of the Köppen climate classification system
- ^ Proposed bridge to boost bilateral trade, China Daily, 19 June 2007.
- ^ Andrew Higgins (16 July 2016). "An Unfinished Bridge, and Partnership, Between Russia and China". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- ^ "Russia Completes Construction of First-Ever Rail Bridge to China", The Moscow Times, 21 March 2019, retrieved 16 November 2020
- ^ Россия и Китай соединили железнодорожный мост через Амур [Russia and China connected a railway bridge across the Amur] (in Russian), RBK Group, 21 March 2019, retrieved 16 November 2020
- ^ "Railway bridge over Amur river to China will be built by end of 2020, envoy says". TASS. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
- ^ 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs.
- ^ Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print.|url=http://www.sztj.gov.cn/nj2014/indexce.htm Archived 2015-05-12 at the Wayback Machine |date=|accessdate=2015-05-29}}
- ^ Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
- ^ Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
- ^ a b c 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Compiled by 国务院人口普查办公室 [Department of Population Census of the State Council], 国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 [Department of Population and Social Science and Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics]. Beijing: China Statistics Print. 2012. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.
- ^ 李景华 (1990). 马铃薯. Encyclopedia of China. Encyclopedia of China Publishing House. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013.
- ^ "Harbin — the capital city of China's high-quality rice". China Daily. 17 October 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- ^ Zhang, Yuning; Tang, Ningning; Niu, Yuguang; Du, Xiaoze (1 December 2016). "Wind energy rejection in China: Current status, reasons and perspectives". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 66: 322–344. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2016.08.008. ISSN 1364-0321.
- ^ "50 dead in Chinese mining accidents". CNN. Retrieved 27 December 2008.
- ^ 2006年黑龙江省农民人均收入达3552元 增长10.3%. northeast.cn (in Chinese). 18 January 2007. Archived from the original on 13 November 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2007.
- ^ RightSite.asia | Daqing New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- ^ RightSite.asia | Harbin New & Hi-Tech Industrial Zone
- ^ RightSite.asia | Sino-Russia Dongning-Piurtaphca Trade Zone
- ^ RightSite.asia | Suifenhe Border Economic Cooperation District
- ^ 1912年中国人口. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- ^ 1928年中国人口. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- ^ 1936-37年中国人口. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- ^ 1947年全国人口. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009.
- ^ 第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012.
- ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012.
- ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012.
- ^ 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012.
- ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013.
- ^ National Bureau of Population and Social Science and Technology Statistics Division of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司); Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司) (2003). 《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 (in Chinese). Beijing: Publishing House of Minority Nationalities. ISBN 978-7105054251., 2 volumes
- ^ Bukui Mosque, a popular tourist attraction
- ^ "China Expat city Guide". China Expat. 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
- ^ Ice and Snow Festival in Harbin
- ^ DK (2 June 2014). DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: China. Penguin Books. p. 457. ISBN 978-1465430939.
- ^ "2018 World Bandy Championship Men's Group B will be held in Harbin on 27th". Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- ^ Heilongjiang Province Promotes Bandy as Olympic Sport![permanent dead link]
Last edited on 20 June 2021, at 08:19
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.