Hejazi Arabic - Wikipedia
Hejazi Arabic
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Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic (Arabic: حجازي‎‎, romanizedḥijāzī), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia. Strictly speaking, there are two main groups of dialects spoken in the Hejaz region,[2] one by the urban population, originally spoken mainly in the cities of Jeddah, Mecca and Medina and another by the urbanized rural and bedouin populations.[3] However, the term most often applies to the urban variety which is discussed in this article.
Hejazi Arabic
Hijazi Arabic
West Arabian Arabic
حجازي Ḥijāzi
Pronunciation[ħɪˈdʒaːzi], [ħe̞ˈdʒaːzi]
Native toHejaz region, Saudi Arabia
Native speakers
14.5 million (2011)[1]
Afro-Asiatic
Hejazi Arabic
Early form
Old Hejazi
Arabic alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3acw
Glottologhija1235

  regions where Hejazi is the dialect of the majority
  regions considered as part of modern Hejaz region
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In antiquity, the Hejaz was home to the Old Hejazi dialect of Arabic recorded in the consonantal text of the Qur'an. Old Hejazi is distinct from modern Hejazi Arabic, and represents an older linguistic layer wiped out by centuries of migration, but which happens to share the imperative prefix vowel /a-/ with the modern dialect.
Classification
Hejazi Arabic belongs to the western Peninsular Arabic branch of the Arabic language, which itself is a Semitic language. It includes features of both urban and bedouin dialects given its history between the historical cities of Jeddah, Medina and Mecca and the bedouin tribes that lived on the outskirts of these cities in addition to the external influences from the other urban Arabic dialects (e.g. Egyptian Arabic) and more recently the influence of Modern Standard Arabic and to a lesser extent the neighboring Saudi dialects, all of which made the urban Hejazi dialect distinct from other peninsular dialects.
Features
Also referred to as the sedentary Hejazi dialect, this is the form most commonly associated with the term "Hejazi Arabic", and is spoken in the urban centers of the region, such as Jeddah, Mecca, and Medina. With respect to the axis of bedouin versus sedentary dialects of the Arabic language, this dialect group exhibits features of both. Like other sedentary dialects, the urban Hejazi dialect is less conservative than the bedouin varieties in some aspects and has therefore shed some Classical forms and features that are still present in bedouin dialects, these include gender-number disagreement, and the feminine marker -n (see Varieties of Arabic). But in contrast to bedouin dialects, the constant use of full vowels and the absence of vowel reduction plus the distinction between the emphatic letters ⟨ض⟩ and ⟨ظ⟩ is generally retained.
Innovative features
  1. The present progressive tense is marked by the prefix بـ‎ /b/ or قاعد‎ /gaːʕid/ or جالس‎/d͡ʒaːlis/ as in بيدرس‎ /bijidrus/ or قاعد يدرس‎/gaːʕid jidrus/ ("he is studying"). In Meccan Arabic, the progressive is marked by عمال /ʕamma:l/.[4]
  2. The future tense is marked by the prefix حـ‎ /ħa/ as in حيدرس‎ /ħajidrus/. In Meccan Arabic, the future is marked by رايح /ra:jiħ/.[4]
  3. the internal passive form, which in Hejazi, is replaced by the pattern (أنفعل‎ /anfaʕal/, ينفعل‎/jinfaʕil/) or (أتْفَعَل‎ /atfaʕal/, يتفعل‎ /jitfaʕil/).[5]
  4. Loss of the final /h/ sound in the 3rd person masculine singular pronoun ـه‎. For example, بيته‎ /beːtu/ ("his house"), أعرفه‎ /aʕrifu/ ("I know him"), قالوه‎ /gaːloː/ ("they said it"), عليه‎ /ʕaleː/ ("on him") and شفناه‎ /ʃufnaː/ ("we saw him").
  5. All numbers have no gender except for the number "one" which is واحدm. /waːħid/ and وحدةf. /waħda/.
  6. The pronunciation of the interdental letters ⟨ث⟩ ,⟨ذ⟩, and ⟨ظ⟩. (See Hejazi Arabic Phonology)
  7. loss of gender-specificity in plural verb forms, e.g. يركبوا‎ /jirkabu/ instead of masculine يركبون‎ /jarkabuːna/ and feminineيركبن‎ /jarkabna/.
  8. loss of gender-specificity in plural adjectives, e.g. طفشانين‎ /tˤafʃaːniːn/ "bored" can be used to describe both feminine and masculine plural nouns.
  9. The verb forms V, VI and IIQ have an additional initial ⟨ا⟩, e.g. اتْكَسّر‎ /atkasːar/ "it shattered" (V), اتْعامَلَت‎ /atʕaːmalat/ "she worked" (VI) and اتْفَلْسَفوا‎ /atfalsafu/ "they babbled" (IIQ).
Approximate distribution of Arabic language around the 1st century in Hejaz and Najd
Conservative features
  1. Hejazi Arabic does not employ double negation, nor does it append the negation particles -sh to negate verbs: Hejazi ما اعرف‎/maː aʕrif/ ("I don't know"), as opposed to Egyptian معرفش‎ /maʕrafʃ/ and Palestinianبعرفش‎ /baʕrafiʃ/.
  2. The habitual present tense is not marked by any prefixes as in يِدْرُس‎ /jidrus/ ("he studies"), as opposed to Egyptian بيدرس‎ /bijidrus/.
  3. The prohibitive mood of Classical Arabic is preserved in the imperative: لا تروح‎ /laː tiruːħ/ ("don't go").
  4. The possessive suffixes are generally preserved in their Classical forms. For example, بيتكم‎ /beːtakum/ "your (pl) house".
  5. The plural first person pronoun is نحنا‎ / نِحْنَ‎/niħna/ or إحنا‎ /iħna/, as opposed to the bedouin حنّا‎ /ħənna/ or إنّا‎ /ənna/.
  6. When indicating a location, the preposition في‎ /fi/ (also written as a prefix فِـ‎) is preferred to بـ‎ /b/. In bedouin dialects, the preference differs by region.
  7. The pronunciation of the ⟨ض⟩ is /dˤ/ as in Modern Standard Arabic.
  8. The hamzated verbs like أخذ‎ /axad/ and أكل‎/akal/ keep their classical form as opposed to خذا‎ /xaða/ and كلى‎ /kala/.
  9. The glottal stop can be added to final syllables ending in a vowel as a way of emphasising.
  10. the definite article الـ‎ is pronounced /al/ as opposed to Egyptian or Kuwaiti /il/.
  11. Compared to neighboring dialects, urban Hejazi retains most of the short vowels of Classical Arabic with no vowel reduction (ghawa syndrome), for example:
سمكة‎ [samaka] ("fish"), as opposed to bedouin [sməka], and نُطْق‎ [nʊtˤg] ("pronunciation"), as opposed to bedouin [nətˤg]
جيبنا‎ [d͡ʒe̞ːbana] ("our pocket"), as opposed to bedouin [d͡ʒe̞ːbna] and Egyptian [gebna].
ضربَته‎ [dˤarabatu] ("she hit him"), as opposed to bedouin [ðˤrabətah].
وَلَدُه‎ [waladu] ("his son"), as opposed to bedouin [wlədah].
عندَكُم‎ [ʕɪndakʊm] ("in your possession" pl.), as opposed to bedouin [ʕəndəkum], Egyptian [ʕandoku], and Levantine [ʕandkon].
عَلَيَّ‎ [ʕalajːa] ("on me"), as opposed to bedouin [ʕalaj].
History
The Arabic of today is derived principally from the old dialects of Central and North Arabia which were divided by the classical Arab grammarians into three groups: Hejaz, Najd, and the language of the tribes in adjoining areas. Though the modern Hejazi dialects has developed markedly since the development of Classical Arabic, and Modern Standard Arabic is quite distinct from the modern dialect of Hejaz. Standard Arabic now differs considerably from modern Hejazi Arabic in terms of its phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon,[6] such diglossia in Arabic began to emerge at the latest in the sixth century CE when oral poets recited their poetry in a proto-Classical Arabic based on archaic dialects which differed greatly from their own.[7]
Historically, it is not well known in which stage of Arabic the shift from the Proto-Semitic pair /kʼ/ qāf and /g/ gīm came to be Hejazi /g, d͡ʒ/ ⟨ج, ق⟩ gāf and jīm, although it has been attested as early as the eighth century CE, and it can be explained by a chain shift /kʼ/* → /g/ → /d͡ʒ/[8] that occurred in one of two ways:
  1. Drag Chain: Proto-Semitic gīm /g/palatalized to Hejazi /d͡ʒ/ jīm first, opening up a space at the position of [g], which qāf /kʼ/* then moved to fill the empty space resulting in Hejazi /g/ gāf, restoring structural symmetrical relationships present in the pre-Arabic system.[9][10]
  2. Push Chain: Proto-Semitic qāf /kʼ/* changed to Hejazi /g/ gāf first, which resulted in pushing the original gīm /g/ forward in articulation to become Hejazi /d͡ʒ/ jīm, but since most modern qāf dialects as well as standard Arabic also have jīm, hence the push-chain of qāf to gāf first can be discredited,[11] although there are good grounds for believing that old Arabic qāf had both voiced [g] and voiceless [q] allophones; and after that gīm /g/ was fronted to /d͡ʒ/ jīm, possibly as a result of pressure from the allophones.[12]
The development of /q/ to /g/ have also been observed in languages like Azeri in which the Old Turkic [q] is pronounced as a velar /g/; e.g. qol 'arm' pronounced [ɡoɫ], rather than /kol/ as in Turkish or /qol/ in Uzbek, Uyghur, Kazakh, etc.[13]
* The original value of Proto-Semitic qāf was probably an emphatic [] not [q].
Phonology
Main article: Hejazi Arabic phonology
In general, Hejazi native phonemic inventory consists of 26 (with no interdental /θ, ð/) to 28 consonant phonemes depending on the speaker's background and formality, in addition to the marginal phoneme /ɫ/ and two foreign phonemes /p/ ⟨پ⟩ and /v/ ⟨ڤ⟩ used by a number of speakers. Furthermore, it has an eight-vowel system, consisting of three short and five long vowels /a, u, i, aː, uː, oː, iː, eː/, in addition to two diphthongs /aw, aj/.[14][15] Consonant length and Vowel length are both distinctive and being a Semitic language the four emphatic consonants/sˤ, dˤ, tˤ, zˤ/ are treated as separate phonemes from their plain counterparts.[16]
The main phonological feature that differentiates urban Hejazi from other peninsular dialects in regards to consonants; is the pronunciation of the letters ⟨ث⟩ ,⟨ذ⟩, and ⟨ظ⟩ (see Hejazi Phonology) and the pronunciation of ⟨ض⟩ /dˤ/ as in Standard Arabic. Another differential feature is the lack of palatalization for the letters ك‎ /k/, ق‎ /g/ and ج‎ /d͡ʒ/, unlike in other peninsular dialects where they can be palatalized in certain positions[17] e.g. Hejazi جديد‎ 'new' [d͡ʒadiːd] vs. Gulf Arabic [jɪdiːd] and Hejazi عندك‎ 'with you' [ʕɪndɪk] vs. traditional Najdi[ʕəndət͡s].
The marginal /ɫ/ is only used in the word الله‎ 'God' /aɫːaːh/ (except when it follows an /i/ as in بسمِ الله ‎/bismilːaːh/) and in words derived from it, unlike other neighboring dialects where /l/ might be velarized allophonically in certain positions, as in عقل‎ 'brain' pronounced [ʕaɡe̞l] in Hejazi and [ʕaɡəɫ] in other peninsular Arabic dialects. It contrasts with /l/ in والله 'I swear' /waɫːa/ vs. ولَّا 'or' /walːa/.
A conservative feature that Hejazi holds is the constant use of full vowels and the absence of vowel reduction, for example قلنا لهم‎ 'we told them', is pronounced [gʊlnaːlahʊm] in Hejazi with full vowels but pronounced with the reduced vowel [ə] as [gəlnaːləhəm] in Najdi, in addition to that, the absence of initial consonant cluster (known as the ghawa syndrome) as in بَقَرة‎ 'cow', قَهْوة‎ 'coffee', نِعْرِف‎ 'we count' and سِمْعَت‎ 'she heard' which are pronounced [bagara], [gahwa], [nɪʕrɪf] and [sɪmʕat] respectively in Hejazi but [bgara], [ghawa], [nʕarɪf] and [smaʕat] in other peninsular dialects.
Consonants
Consonant phonemes of Hejazi (urban)
LabialDentalDenti-alveolarPalatalVelarPharyngealGlottal
 plain emphatic
Nasalmn
Occlusivevoiceless(p)tkʔ
voicedbdd͡ʒɡ
Fricativevoicelessfθ*sʃxħh
voiced(v)ð*zɣʕ
Trillr
Approximantl(ɫ)jw
Phonetic notes:
Vowels
Hejazi Arabic vowel chart, from Abdoh (2010:84)
Vowel phonemes of Hejazi
ShortLong
FrontBackFrontBack
Closeiu
Mid
Opena
Phonetic notes:
Monophthongization
Most of the occurrences of the two diphthongs /aj/ and /aw/ in the Classical Arabic period underwent monophthongization in Hejazi, and are realized as the long vowels /eː/ and /oː/ respectively, but they are still preserved as diphthongs in a number of words which created a contrast with the long vowels /uː/, /oː/, /iː/ and /eː/.
Example (without diacritics)MeaningHejazi ArabicModern Standard Arabic
دوريleague/dawri//dawri/
my turn/dri/
turn around!/dri//dri/
search!/dawːiri//dawːiri/
Not all instances of mid vowels are a result of monophthongization, some are from grammatical processes قالوا‎ /gaːlu/ 'they said' → قالوا لها‎/gaːllaha/ 'they said to her' (opposed to Classical Arabic قالوا لها‎ /qaːl lahaː/), and some occur in modern Portmanteau words e.g. ليش‎/leːʃ/ 'why?' (from Classical Arabic لأي‎ /liʔaj/ 'for what' and شيء‎ /ʃajʔ/ 'thing').
Vocabulary
Hejazi vocabulary derives primarily from Arabic Semitic roots. The urban Hejazi vocabulary differs in some respect from that of other dialects in the Arabian Peninsula. For example, there are fewer specialized terms related to desert life, and more terms related to seafaring and fishing. Loanwords are uncommon and they are mainly of French, Italian, Persian, Turkish and most recently of English origins, and due to the diverse origins of the inhabitants of Hejazi cities, some loanwords are only used by some families. Some old loanwords are fading or became obsolete due to the influence of Modern Standard Arabic and their association with lower social class and education,[18] e.g. كنديشن‎ /kunˈdeːʃan/ "air conditioner" (from English Condition) was replaced by Standard Arabic مكيّف‎ /mukajːif/. Most of the loanwords tend to be nouns, with a change of meaning sometimes as in: ‏‎كبري‎ /kubri/ "overpass" from Turkish köprü / كوپرى originally meaning "bridge" and وَايْت‎ /waːjt/ "water tanker truck" from English white and ‏جَزْمَة‎ /d͡ʒazma/ "shoe" from Turkish çizme / چزمه originally meaning "boot", or it can be derived from a sentence as in ‏‎روج‎ /ˈroːd͡ʒ/ "lipstick" from French rouge à lèvres. Loaned verbs include ‏‎هَكَّر/hakːar/ "to hack" from English "hack" and ‏نَرْفَز/narfaz/ "to agitate" from French "nerveux" or English "nervous".
Some general Hejazi expressions include بالتوفيق​‎/bitːawfiːg/ "good luck", إيوه‎ /ʔiːwa/ "yes", لأ‎ /laʔ/ "no", لسة‎ /lisːa/ "not yet, still", قد‎ /ɡid/ or قيد‎ /ɡiːd/ "already",[19] دحين‎ /daħiːn/ or /daħeːn/ "now", أبغى‎ /ʔabɣa/ "I want", لو سمحت‎ /law samaħt/ "please/excuse me" to a male and لو سمحتي‎ /law samaħti/ "please/excuse me" to a female. (see vocabulary list)
Portmanteau
A common feature in Hejazi vocabulary is portmanteau words (also called a blend in linguistics); in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, it is especially innovative in making Interrogative words, examples include:
Numerals
The Cardinal number system in Hejazi is much more simplified than the Classical Arabic[20]
numbers 1-10IPA11-20IPA10sIPA100sIPA
1 واحد/waːħid/11 احدعش/iħdaʕaʃ/10 عشرة/ʕaʃara/100 مية/mijːa/
2 اثنين/itneːn/ or /iθneːn/12 اثنعش/itˤnaʕaʃ/ or /iθnaʕaʃ/20 عشرين/ʕiʃriːn/200 ميتين/mijteːn/ or /mijːateːn/
3 ثلاثة/talaːta/ or /θalaːθa/13 ثلثطعش/talat.tˤaʕaʃ/ or /θalaθ.tˤaʕaʃ/30 ثلاثين/talaːtiːn/ or /θalaːθiːn/300 ثلثميَّة/tultumijːa/ or /θulθumijːa/
4 أربعة/arbaʕa/14 أربعطعش/arbaʕ.tˤaʕaʃ/40 أربعين/arbiʕiːn/400 أربعميَّة/urbuʕmijːa/
5 خمسة/xamsa/15 خمسطعش/xamis.tˤaʕaʃ/ or /xamas.tˤaʕaʃ/50 خمسين/xamsiːn/500 خمسميَّة/xumsumijːa/
6 ستة/sitːa/16 ستطعش/sit.tˤaʕaʃ/60 ستين/sitːiːn/600 ستميَّة/sutːumijːa/
7 سبعة/sabʕa/17 سبعطعش/sabaʕ.tˤaʕaʃ/70 سبعين/sabʕiːn/700 سبعميَّة/subʕumijːa/
8 ثمنية/tamanja/ or /θamanja/18 ثمنطعش/taman.tˤaʕaʃ/ or /θaman.tˤaʕaʃ/80 ثمانين/tamaːniːn/ or /θamaːniːn/800 ثمنميَّة/tumnumijːa/ or /θumnumijːa/
9 تسعة/tisʕa/19 تسعطعش/tisaʕ.tˤaʕaʃ/90 تسعين/tisʕiːn/900 تسعميَّة/tusʕumijːa/
10 عشرة/ʕaʃara/20 عشرين/ʕiʃriːn/100 ميَّة/mijːa/1000 ألف/alf/
A system similar to the German numbers system is used for other numbers between 20 and above : 21 is واحد و عشرين‎ /waːħid u ʕiʃriːn/ which literally mean ('one and twenty') and 485 is أربعمية و خمسة و ثمانين‎ /urbuʕmijːa u xamsa u tamaːniːn/ which literally mean ('four hundred and five and eighty').
Unlike Classical Arabic, the only number that is gender specific in Hejazi is "one" which has two forms واحدm. and وحدةf. as in كتاب واحد‎ /kitaːb waːħid/ ('one book') or سيارة وحدة‎ /sajːaːra waħda/ ('one car'), with كتاب‎ being a masculine noun and سيّارة‎ a feminine noun.
Grammar
Subject pronouns
In Hejazi Arabic, personal pronouns have eight forms. In singular, the 2nd and 3rd persons differentiate gender, while the 1st person and plural do not. The negative articles include لا‎ /laː/ as in لا تكتب‎ /laː tiktub/ ('do not write!'), ما‎ /maː/ as in ما بيتكلم‎ /maː bijitkalːam/ ('he is not talking') and مو‎ /muː/ as in مو كذا‎ /muː kida/ ('not like this')
Subject pronouns
PersonSingularPlural
1stana اناiħna احنا
2ndmasculineinta َانتintu انتو
feminineinti ِانتي/انت
3rdmasculinehuwwa َّهُوhumma هُمَّ
femininehiyya َّهِي
Negative subject pronouns
PersonSingularPlural
1stmani ماني/منيmaħna محنا
2ndmasculinemanta َمنتmantu منتو
femininemanti منتي
3rdmasculinemahu مهوmahum ماهم/مهم
femininemahi مهي
Verbs
Hejazi Arabic verbs, as with the verbs in other Semitic languages, and the entire vocabulary in those languages, are based on a set of three, four, or even five consonants (but mainly three consonants) called a root (triliteral or quadriliteral according to the number of consonants). The root communicates the basic meaning of the verb, e.g. k-t-b 'to write', ʼ-k-l 'to eat'. Changes to the vowels in between the consonants, along with prefixes or suffixes, specify grammatical functions such as :
Hejazi has two grammatical number in verbs (Singular and Plural) instead of the Classical (Singular, Dual and Plural), in addition to a present progressive tense which was not part of the Classical Arabic grammar. In contrast to other urban dialects the prefix (b-) is only used for present continuous as in بِيِكْتُب‎ /bijiktub/ "he is writing" while the habitual tense is without a prefix as in أَحُبِّك‎ /aħubbik/ "I love you" f. unlike بحبِّك‎ in Egyptian and Levantine dialects and the future tense is indicated by the prefix (ħa-) as in حَنِجْري‎ /ħanid͡ʒri/ "we will run".
Regular verbs
The most common verbs in Hejazi have a given vowel pattern for past (a and i) to present (a or u or i). Combinations of each exist:[21]
Vowel patternsExample
PastPresent
aaraħam رحمhe forgave – yirħam يرحمhe forgives
auḍarab ضربhe hit – yiḍrub يضربhe hits
aiġasal غسلhe washed – yiġsil يغسلhe washes
iafihim فهمhe understood – yifham يفهمhe understands
iiʕirif عرفhe knew – yiʕrif يعرفhe knows
According to Arab grammarians, verbs are divided into three categories; Past ماضي, Present مضارع‎ and Imperative أمر‎. An example from the root k-t-b the verb katabt/ʼaktub 'i wrote/i write' (which is a regular sound verb):
Verb Example (ك ت ب) (k t b) "to write"
Tense/MoodPast "wrote"Present (Indicative) "write"Imperative "write!"
PersonSingularPluralSingularPluralSingularPlural
1stكتبت(katab)-tكتبنا(katab)-naأكتب‎ ʼa-(ktub)نكتبni-(ktub)
2ndmasculineكتبت(katab)-tكتبتوا (katab)-tuتكتبti-(ktub)تكتبوا ti-(ktub)-uأكتب[a]-(ktub)أكتبوا[a]-(ktub)-u
feminineكتبتي(katab)-tiتكتبيti-(ktub)-iأكتبي[a]-(ktub)-i
3rdmasculineكتب(katab)كتبوا (katab)-uيكتبyi-(ktub)يكتبوا yi-(ktub)-u
feminineكتبت(katab)-atتكتبti-(ktub)
While present progressive and future are indicated by adding the prefix (b-) and (ħa-) respectively to the present (indicative) :
Tense/MoodPresent Progressive "writing"Future "will write"
PersonSingularPluralSingularPlural
1stبكتب‎ or بأكتبba-a-(ktub)بنكتبbi-ni-(ktub)حكتب‎ or حأكتبħa-a-(ktub)حنكتبħa-ni-(ktub)
2ndmasculineبتكتبbi-ti-(ktub)بتكتبوا bi-ti-(ktub)-uحتكتبħa-ti-(ktub)حتكتبوا ħa-ti-(ktub)-u
feminineبتكتبيbi-ti-(ktub)-iحتكتبيħa-ti-(ktub)-i
3rdmasculineبيكتبbi-yi-(ktub)بيكتبوا bi-yi-(ktub)-uحيكتبħa-yi-(ktub)حيكتبوا ħa-yi-(ktub)-u
feminineبتكتبbi-ti-(ktub)حتكتبħa-ti-(ktub)
Example: katabt/aktub "write": non-finite forms
Number/Genderاسم الفاعل‎ Active Participleاسم المفعول‎ Passive Participleمصدر‎ Verbal Noun
Masc. Sg.kātib كاتبmaktūb مكتوبkitāba كتابة
Fem. Sg.kātb-a كاتبةmaktūb-a مكتوبة
Pl.kātb-īn كاتبينmaktūb-īn مكتوبين
Active participles act as adjectives, and so they must agree with their subject. An active participle can be used in several ways:
  1. to describe a state of being (understanding; knowing).
  2. to describe what someone is doing right now (going, leaving) as in some verbs like رحت‎ ("i went") the active participle رايح‎ ("i'm going") is used instead of present continuous form to give the same meaning of an ongoing action.
  3. to indicate that someone/something is in a state of having done something (having put something somewhere, having lived somewhere for a period of time).
Passive Voice
The passive voice is expressed through two patterns; (أَنْفَعَل‎ /anfaʕal/, يِنْفَعِل‎ /jinfaʕil/) or (أتْفَعَل‎/atfaʕal/, يِتْفَعِل‎ /jitfaʕil/), while most verbs can take either pattern as in أتكتب‎ /atkatab/ or أنكتب‎/ankatab/ "it was written" and يتكتب‎ /jitkatib/ or ينكتب‎/jinkatib/ "it is being written", other verbs can only have one of the two patterns as in أتوقف‎/atwagːaf/ "he was stopped" and يتوقف‎ /jitwagːaf/ "he is being stopped".
Adjectives
In Hejazi, adjectives, demonstratives and verbs fully agree in gender and number,[22] e.g. ولد كبير‎/walad kabiːr/ "big boy" and بنت كبيرة‎ /bint kabiːra/ "big girl". But there are two exceptions;[23] First, there is no agreement in dual number; e.g. بنتين‎/binteːn/ "two girls" takes the plural adjective as in بنتين كبار‎ /binteːn kubaːr/ "two big girls". Second, and more importantly, gender agreement is syncretic in the plural, in which inanimate plural nouns take a feminine singular adjective e.g. سيارات كبيرة‎ /sajːaːraːt kabiːra/ "big cars" instead of the plural adjective, while animate plural nouns take the plural adjective as in بنات كبار‎ /banaːt kubaːr/ "big girls". The plural feminine adjective كبيرات‎ /kabiːraːt/ can be used as well but it is rather archaic.
Adjective Example "big"
Number/GenderAdjectiveUsage notes
Masc. Sg.kabīr كبيرwith singular masculine nouns
Fem. Sg.kabīraكبيرةwith singular feminine and inanimate plural nouns
Common Pl.kubār كبار‎ or kabīrīnكبيرينwith dual (masculine or feminine) and animate plural (masculine or feminine) nouns
Pronouns
Enclitic pronouns
Enclitic forms of personal pronouns are suffixes that are affixed to various parts of speech, with varying meanings:
Unlike Egyptian Arabic, in Hejazi no more than one pronoun can be suffixed to a word.
Possessive Pronouns (nominal)[24]
PersonSingularPlural
1stconsonant+vowel+
-i ـي-yya or -ya ـيّ‎1-na ـنا
2ndmasculine m.-ak ـَك-k ـك-kum ـكم
feminine f.-ik ـِك-ki ـكي
3rdmasculine m.-u ـُه-[ː] ـه2-hum ـهم
feminine f.-ha ـها
Direct Object Pronouns (verbal)
PersonSingularPlural
1stconsonant+vowel+
-ni ـني-na ـنا
2ndmasculine m.-ak ـَك-k ـك-kum ـكم
feminine f.-ik ـِك-ki ـكي
3rdmasculine m.-u ـُه-[ː] ـه2-hum ـهم
feminine f.-ha ـها
Indirect Object Pronouns (verbal)
PersonSingularPlural
1st-li لي-lana لنا
2ndmasculine m.-lak لَك-lakum لكم
feminine f.-lik لِك
3rdmasculine m.-lu له-lahum لهم
feminine f.-laha لها
General Modifications:-
Hollow Verbs vowel shortening
Medial vowel shortening occurs in Hollow verbs (verbs with medial vowels ā, ū, ō, ē, ī) when added to Indirect object pronouns:[25]
Hollow Verb (ر و ح) (r w ḥ) "to go"
Tense/MoodPast "went" (ruḥ)Present (Indicative) "goes" (rūḥ)Imperative "go!" (rūḥ)
PersonSingularPluralSingularPluralSingularPlural
1stرحت‎ ruḥtرحنا‎ ruḥnaأروح‎ʼarūنروح‎ nirū
2ndmasculineرحت‎ ruḥtرحتوا‎ ruḥtuتروح‎ tirūتروحوا‎ tirūḥuروح‎ rūروحوا‎ rūḥu
feminineرحتي‎ ruḥtiتروحي‎ tirūḥiروحي‎ rūḥi
3rdmasculineراح‎ rāراحوا‎ rāḥuيروح‎ yirūيروحوا‎ yirūḥu
feminineراحت‎ rāḥatتروح‎ tirū
Hollow Verb + Indirect Object Pronoun (-lu)
Tense/MoodPast "went"Present (Indicative) "goes"Imperative "go!"
PersonSingularPluralSingularPluralSingularPlural
1stرحت له‎ ruḥt-alluرحنا له‎ ruḥnā-luأرح له‎ or أروح له‎ ʼaruḥ-luنرح له‎ or نروح له‎ niru-lu
2ndmasculineرحت له‎ ruḥt-alluرحتوا له‎ ruḥtū-luترح له‎ or تروح له‎ tiruḥ-luتروحوا له‎ tirūḥū-luرح له‎ or روح له‎ ruḥ-luروحوا له‎ rūḥū-lu
feminineرحتي له‎ ruḥtī-luتروحي له‎ tirūḥī-luروحي له‎ rūḥī-lu
3rdmasculineراح له‎ raḥ-luراحوا له‎ rāḥō-luيرح له‎ or يروح له‎ yiruḥ-luيروحوا له‎ yirūḥū-lu
feminineراحت له‎ rāḥat-luترح له‎ or تروح له‎ tiruḥ-lu
Writing system
Hejazi does not have a standardized form of writing and mostly follows Classical Arabic rules of writing.[26] The main difference between classical Arabic and Hejazi are the alternations of the Hamza, some verb forms and the final long vowels, this alternation happened since most word-final short vowels from the classical period have been omitted and most word-final unstressed long vowel have been shortened in Hejazi. Another alternation is writing the words according to the phoneme used while pronouncing them, rather than their etymology which mainly has an effect on the three letters ⟨ث⟩ ⟨ذ⟩ and ⟨ظ⟩, for example writing تخين‎ instead of ثخين‎ or ديل‎ instead of ذيل‎ although this alternation in writing is not considered acceptable by most Hejazi speakers. The alphabet still uses the same set of letters as Classical Arabic in addition to two letters ⟨پ⟩ /p/ and ⟨ڤ⟩ /v/ which are only used in writing loanwords and they can be substituted by ⟨ب⟩ /b/ and ⟨ف⟩ /f/ respectively depending on the writer, in addition to that the vowels /oː/ and /eː/ which were not part of the CA phonemic inventory are represented by the letters ⟨و⟩ and ⟨ي⟩ respectively.
Differences Between Classical and Hejazi writing
An Early Qur'anic manuscript written in Hijazi script (8th century AD)
Mistakes in Hejazi spelling
The table below shows the Arabic alphabet letters and their corresponding phonemes in Hejazi:
LetterPhonemes / Allophones (IPA)ExamplePronunciation
ا/ʔ/ (see ⟨ء⟩ Hamza).سَأَل‎ "he asked"/saʔal/
//باب‎ "door"/baːb/
/a/when word-final and unstressed (when word-final and stressed it's //)شُفْنا‎ "we saw", (ذا ‎m. "this")/ˈʃufna/, (/ˈdaː/ or /ˈðaː/)
only when word-medial before indirect object pronouns e.g. لي ,له ,لها and some wordsقال لي "he told me", راح لَها "he went to her"/galːi/, /raħlaha/
additional ∅ silent word-final only in plural verbs and after nunationدِرْيُوا‎ "they knew", شُكْرًا‎ "thanks"/dirju/, /ʃukran/
ب/b/بِسَّة "cat"/bisːa/
ت/t/توت‎ "berry"/tuːt/
ث/t/or always/in some words as /θ/ثَلْج "snow"/tald͡ʒ/ or /θald͡ʒ/
or /s/ثابِت‎ "stable"/saːbit/ or /θaːbit/
ج/d͡ʒ/جَوَّال "mobile phone"/d͡ʒawːaːl/
ح/ħ/حوش "courtyard"/ħoːʃ/
خ/x/خِرْقة "rag"/xirga/
د/d/دولاب‎ "closet"/doːˈlaːb/
ذ/d/or always/in some words as /ð/ذيل‎ "tail"/deːl/ or /ðeːl/
or /z/ذوق‎ "taste"/zoːg/ or /ðoːg/
ر/r/رَمِل‎ "sand"/ramil/
ز/z/زُحْليقة "slide"/zuħleːga/
س/s/سَقْف‎ "roof"/sagf/
ش/ʃ/شيوَل "loader"/ʃeːwal/
ص//صُفِّيرة‎ "whistle"/sˤuˈfːeːra/
ض//ضِرْس‎ "molar"/dˤirs/
ط//طُرْقة "corridor"/tˤurga/
ظ//or always/in some words as [ðˤ] (allophone)ظِل‎ "shade"/dˤilː/ or [ðˤɪlː]
or //ظَرْف‎ "envelope, case"/zˤarf/ or [ðˤarf]
ع/ʕ/عين‎ "eye"/ʕeːn/
غ/ɣ/غُراب‎ "crow"/ɣuraːb/
ف/f/فَم‎ "mouth"/famː/
ق/g/ (pronounced [q] (allophone) in a number of words)قَلْب‎ "heart" (قِمَّة‎ "peak")/galb/ ([qɪmːa] or /gimːa/)
ك/k/كَلْب‎ "dog"/kalb/
ل/l/ (marginal phoneme /ɫ/ only in the word الله‎ and words derived from it)ليش؟ "why?", (الله‎ "god")/leːʃ/, (/aɫːaːh/)
م/m/مويَة "water"/moːja/
ن/n/نَجَفة "chandelier"/nad͡ʒafa/
هـ/h/ (silent when word-final in 3rd person masculine singular pronouns and some words)هَوا‎ "air", (كِتابُه‎ "his book", شافوه‎ "they saw him")/hawa/, (/kitaːbu/, /ʃaːˈfoː/)
و/w/وَرْدة‎ "rose"/warda/
//فوق‎ "wake up!"/fuːg/
//فوق‎ "above, up"/foːg/
/u/only when word-final and unstressed (when word-final and stressed it's either // or //)رَبو‎ "asthma", (مو‎ "is not", جوا‎ "they came")/ˈrabu/, (/ˈmuː/, /ˈd͡ʒoː/)
only when word-medial before indirect object pronouns e.g. لي ,له ,لها‎روح لها‎ "go to her" also written as رُح لها/ruħlaha/
ي/j/يَد‎ "hand"/jadː/
//بيض‎ "whites pl."/biːdˤ/
//بيض‎ "eggs"/beːdˤ/
/i/only when word-final and unstressed (when word-final and stressed it's either // or //)سُعُودي‎ "saudi", (ذيf. "this", عليه‎ "on him")/suˈʕuːdi/, (/ˈdiː/, /ʕaˈleː/)
only when word-medial before indirect object pronouns e.g. لي ,له ,لها‎تجيب لي‎ "you bring me" also written as تِجِب لي/tid͡ʒibli/
Additional non-native letters
پ/p/ (can be written and/or pronounced as ⟨ب⟩ /b/ depending on the speaker)پيتزا or بيتزا‎ "pizza"/piːtza/ or /biːtza/
ڤ/v/ (can be written and/or pronounced as ⟨ف⟩ /f/ depending on the speaker)ڤَيْروس or فَيْروس‎ "virus"/vajruːs/ or /fajruːs/
Notes:
Rural dialects
The varieties of Arabic spoken in the smaller towns and by the bedouin tribes in the Hejaz region are relatively under-studied. However, the speech of some tribes shows much closer affinity to other bedouin dialects, particularly those of neighboring Najd, than to those of the urban Hejazi cities. The dialects of northern Hejazi tribes merge into those of Jordan and Sinai, while the dialects in the south merge with those of 'Asir and Najd. Also, not all speakers of these bedouin dialects are figuratively nomadic bedouins; some are simply sedentary sections that live in rural areas, and thus speak dialects similar to those of their bedouin neighbors.
Al-'Ula
The dialect of Al-'Ula governorate in the northern part of the Madinah region. Although understudied, it is considered to be unique among the Hejazi dialects, it is known for its pronunciation of Classical Arabic ⟨ك⟩ /k/ as a ⟨ش⟩ /ʃ/ (e.g. تكذب‎ /takðib/ becomes تشذب‎ /taʃðib/), the dialect also shows a tendency to pronounce long /aː/ as [] (e.g. Classical ماء‎ /maːʔ/ becomes ميء‎ [meːʔ]), in some instances the Classical /q/ becomes a /d͡ʒ/ as in قايلة‎ /qaːjla/ becomes جايلة‎/d͡ʒaːjla/, also the second person singular feminine pronoun /ik/ tends to be pronounced as /iʃ/ (e.g. رجلك‎ /rid͡ʒlik/ ('your foot') becomes رجلش‎/rid͡ʒliʃ/.[27]
Badr
The dialect of Badr governorate in the western part of the Madinah region is mainly noted for its lengthening of word-final syllables and its alternative pronunciation of some phonemes as in سؤال‎ /suʔaːl/ which is pronounced as سعال‎/suʕaːl/, it also shares some features with the general urban dialect in which modern standard Arabic ثلاجة‎ /θalːaːd͡ʒa/ is pronounced تلاجة‎/talːaːd͡ʒa/, another unique feature of the dialect is its similarity to the Arabic dialects of Bahrain.
See also
References
  1. ^ "Arabic, Hijazi Spoken". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  2. ^ Alzaidi (2014:73) Information Structure and Intonation in Hijazi Arabic.
  3. ^ Il-Hazmy (1975:234)
  4. ^ a b Versteegh, Kees. The Arabic Language(PDF). p. 150.
  5. ^ Alqahtani, Fatimah; Sanderson, Mark (2015). "Generating a Lexion for the Hijazi dialect of Arabic". Generating a Lexion for the Hijazi Dialect of Arabic: 9. ISBN 9783030329594.
  6. ^ Watson, Janet (2002). The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic. Oxford university press. pp. 8, 9.
  7. ^ Lipinski (1997). Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar. p. 75.
  8. ^ Cantineau, Jean (1960). Cours de phonétique arabe (in French). Paris, France: Libraire C. Klincksieck. p. 67.
  9. ^ Freeman, Aaron (2015). "The Linguistic Geography of Dorsal Consonants in Syria"(PDF). The Linguistic Geography of Dorsal Consonants in Syria. University of Pennsylvania.
  10. ^ Öhrnberg, Kaj (2013). "Travelling Through Time". Studia Orientalia 114: 524.
  11. ^ Heinrichs, Wolfhart. "Ibn Khaldūn as a Historical Linguist with an Excursus on the Question of Ancient gāf". Harvard University.
  12. ^ Blanc 1969: 11, Travelling Through Time, Essays in honour of Kaj Öhrnberg
  13. ^ Oztopchu, Kurtulush (1993). "A Comparison of Modern Azeri With Modern Turkish" (PDF). A Comparison of Modern Azeri with Modern Turkish.
  14. ^ Abdoh (2010:84)
  15. ^ Omar, Margaret k. (1975). Saudi Arabia, Urban Hijazi dialect. pp. x.
  16. ^ Omar (1975:xiv) harvcoltxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFOmar1975 (help)
  17. ^ Owens, Owens. The Oxford Handbook of Arabic Linguistics. p. 259.
  18. ^ Alahmadi, Sameeha (2015). "Loanwords in the Urban Meccan Hijazi Dialect: An Analysis of Lexical Variation according to Speakers' Sex, Age and Education". Loanwords in the Urban Meccan Hijazi Dialect: An Analysis of Lexical Variation According to Speakers' Sex, Age and Education. Canadian Center of Science and Education.
  19. ^ Eifan, Emtenan (2017). "Grammaticalization in Urban Hijazi Arabic" (PDF). Grammaticalization in Urban Hijazi Arabic: 39.
  20. ^ Kheshaifaty (1997) "Numerals: a comparative study between classical and hijazi arabic"
  21. ^ Ahyad, Honaida; Becker, Michael (2020). "Vowel unpredictability in Hijazi Arabic monosyllabic verbs". Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics. 5. doi:10.5334/gjgl.814.
  22. ^ Sieny, Mahmoud (1978). "The Syntax of Urban Hijazi Arabic". The Syntax of Urban Hijazi Arabic: 33.
  23. ^ Kramer, Ruth; Winchester, Lindley. "Number and Gender Agreement in Saudi Arabic: Morphology vs. Syntax". Number and Gender Agreement in Saudi Arabic: Morphology Vs. Syntax: 41.
  24. ^ Omar (1975) harvcoltxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFOmar1975 (help)
  25. ^ Al-Mohanna Abaalkhail, Faisal (1998). "Syllabification and metrification in Urban Hijazi Arabic: between rules and constraints" (PDF). Syllabification and Metrification in Urban Hijazi Arabic: Between Rules and Constraints. Chapter 3: 119.
  26. ^ Holes, Clive (2004). Modern Arabic: Structures, Functions, and Varieties. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, Washington D.C. pp. 92.
  27. ^ Aljuhani, Sultan (2008). "Spoken Al-'Ula dialect between privacy and fears of extinction. (in Arabic)".
Bibliography
External links
Hijazi Arabic course with audio files
Hejazi Arabic test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator
Last edited on 10 May 2021, at 18:46
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