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Help:IPA/Latin
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This is the pronunciation key for IPA transcriptions of Latin on Wikipedia.
It provides a set of symbols to represent the pronunciation of Latin in Wikipedia articles, and example words that illustrate the sounds that correspond to them. Integrity must be maintained between the key and the transcriptions that link here; do not change any symbol or value without establishing consensus on the talk page first.
For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Classical Latin and Ecclesiastical Latin pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-la}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.
See Latin phonology and orthography and Latin regional pronunciation for a more thorough look at the sounds of Latin.
Consonants[1]
IPA
Latin
alphabet
ExamplesEnglish approximation
Class.Eccl.
bbbellumbean
dddecemdeck
dzz[2]zēlusadds
g[3]gēnsgiant
fffaciōfan
ɡggravisgear
hh[4]habeōher or hour
ji[5]j[5]iūsyes
kc, kcaputscar
ch[2]chartacar
qu[6]quattuorsquash
kᶣquīFrench cuisine
lllītusleave
ɫl[7]multusall
mm[8]manusman
nn[8]nosternext
ŋlongus[9]song
gignis[9]
ɲgnignis[9]onion
pppāxspan
ph[2]pharetrapan
rrregiōtrilled or tapped r
ss[10]sumsend
ʃsc[3]scindōsharp
tttabulastone
th[2]thalamustone
tst[3]portBotswana
c[3]centumchange
wu[5]uerbumwest
vv[5]vest
zz[2]zēluszest
s[10]miserēre
Vowels[11]
IPA
Latin
alphabet
ExamplesEnglish approximation
Class.Eccl.
aaanimapasta
āācerfather
ɛeestmet
eae/æ
oe/œ
e
ēēlēctusScottish made
ɪiincipitmit
ii
y
īramead
ī
ɔoomnisoff
oo
ōōrdōRP or Australian law
ʊuurbsput
uulūnacool
ū
ʏy[2]cyclusScottish cute
ȳ[2]cȳmaScottish cued
Vowels that precede vowels[12]
eeVmeaScottish mate
iiVItaliapeace
Diphthongs
ae̯aeaetāssigh
oe̯oepoenaboy
au̯auaurumcow
ei̯eideindesay
eu̯euseuno English equivalent; Spanish euro
ui̯uicuidoing
Nasal vowels[8]
◌̃ːum
un
monstrumlong nasal vowels
Prosody
IPAExamplesExplanation
ˈGāius
[ˈɡaː.i.ʊs]
stress (placed before the stressed syllable)[13]
.syllable marker, generally between vowels in hiatus[14]
Notes
  1. ^ Geminate (double) consonants are written with a doubled letter except for /jj/ and /ww/: anus /ˈanʊs/, annus /ˈannʊs/. In IPA, they may be written as double or be followed by the length sign: /nn/ or /nː/.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Only found in Greek loanwords.
  3. ^ a b c d In Classical Latin, ⟨c g t⟩ are always pronounced hard, as /k g t/. In Ecclesiastical Latin, ⟨c g sc⟩ are pronounced as soft [tʃ dʒ ʃ] before the front vowels ⟨e i y ae oe⟩ and unstressed ⟨ti⟩ before a vowel is pronounced [tsi].
  4. ^ ⟨H⟩ was generally silent. Sometimes medial ⟨h⟩ is pronounced [k] in Ecclesiastical Latin (mihi); it was pronounced faintly in Classical Latin.[clarification needed]
  5. ^ a b c d
    In Classical Latin, ⟨i u⟩ represent the vowels /ɪ iː and /ʊ uː/, and the consonants /j/, and /w/. Between consonants or when marked with macrons or breves, ⟨i u⟩ are vowels. In some spelling systems, /j w/ are written with the letters ⟨j v⟩. In other cases, consult a dictionary.
    • Consonantal ⟨i⟩, between vowels, stands for doubled /jj/: cuius [ˈkʊjjʊs]. The vowel before the double /jj/ is usually short, but it is sometimes marked with a macron. When a prefix is added to a word beginning in /j/, the /j/ is usually single: trā-iectum [traːˈjɛktũː].
    • /w/ is doubled between vowels only in Greek words, such as Euander [ɛwˈwandɛr].
    In Ecclesiastical Latin, ⟨i⟩ represents the vowel /i/, ⟨j⟩ represents the consonant /j/, ⟨u⟩ represents the vowel /u/ or (in the combinations ⟨gu su qu⟩) the consonant /w/, and ⟨v⟩ represents the fricative /v/.
  6. ^ The labialized velar /kʷ/ was pronounced as labio-palatalized [kᶣ] before the vowels /ɪ, iː, ɛ, eː/.
  7. ^ /l/ has two allophones in Classical Latin. The clear [l] occurs when geminated to /ll/ and before the vowels /ɪ/ and /iː/, as well as before /ʏ/ and /yː/. Elsewhere, a dark (velarized) [ɫ] occurs: at the end of a word, before another consonant, and before all other native vowels including /ɛ/ and /eː/.
  8. ^ a b c In Classical Latin, the combination of a vowel and ⟨m⟩ at the end of a word, or a vowel and ⟨n⟩ before ⟨s⟩ or ⟨f⟩, represents a long nasal vowel.
  9. ^ a b c In both Classical and Ecclesiastical Latin, /n/ is pronounced as [ŋ] before /k, ɡ/. The digraph ⟨gn⟩ is pronounced as [ŋn] in Classical Latin but [ɲ] in Ecclesiastical Latin.
  10. ^ a b In Ecclesiastical Latin, /s/ between vowels is often pronounced [z].
  11. ^ Classical Latin has long and short vowels. If vowel length is marked, long vowels are marked with macrons, ⟨ā, ē, ī, ō, ū, ȳ⟩, and short vowels with breves, ⟨ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, ŭ, y̆⟩. Ecclesiastical Latin does not distinguish between long and short vowels.
  12. ^ In Classical Latin, short ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩ have a more closed articulation: [e] [i] when they occur before another vowel, instead of their normal Classical values of [ɛ] and [ɪ].
  13. ^ In words of two syllables, the stress is on the first syllable. In words of three or more syllables, the stress is on the penultimate syllable if heavy, on the antepenultimate syllable otherwise. There are some exceptions, most caused by contraction or elision.
  14. ^ This does not indicate a glottal stop [ʔ]; glottal stops are not reconstructed for Latin prosody in word-internal hiatus.
Last edited on 27 April 2021, at 10:59
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