Help:Wikitext - Wikipedia
Help:Wikitext
For the encyclopedic article on Wikitext, see Wikitext.
Abbreviations Edit summariesGlossary HTML ShortcutsTemplates Wikitext Directory
This help page is a how-to guide.
It details processes or procedures of some aspect(s) of Wikipedia's norms and practices. It is not one of Wikipedia's policies or guidelines, and may reflect varying levels of consensus and vetting.
Wikitext, also known as Wiki markup or Wikicode, consists of the syntax and keywords used by the MediaWiki software to format a page. To learn how to see this hypertext markup, and to save an edit, see Help:Editing. Generally, coding can be copied and pasted, without writing new code. There is a short list of markup and tips at Help:Cheatsheet.
In addition to Wikitext, some HTML elements are also allowed for presentation formatting. See Help:HTML in wikitext for information on this.
Layout
Sections
Sections in a page will follow the page's lead/introduction, and under certain conditions, the table of contents.
Section headings
Further information: Help:Section and MOS:HEAD
The = through ====== markup are headings for the sections with which they are associated.
  • A single = is styled as the article title and should not be used within an article.
  • Headings are styled through CSS and add an [edit] link. See this section for the relevant CSS.
  • Four or more headings cause a table of contents to be generated automatically.
  • Do not use any markup after the final heading markup – this will either break the heading, or will cause the heading to not be included in an edit summary.

MarkupRenders as
= Heading 1 = == Heading 2 == === Heading 3 === ==== Heading 4 ==== ===== Heading 5 ===== ====== Heading 6 ======
Heading 1
Heading 2
Heading 3
Heading 4
Heading 5
Heading 6

Templates: {{fake heading}} for use in documentation.
Horizontal rule
Further information: WP:LINE
The horizontal rule represents a paragraph-level thematic break. Do not use in article content, as rules are used only after main sections, and this is automatic.
MarkupRenders as
----
HTML equivalent: <hr /> (which can be indented, whereas ---- always starts at the left margin.)
Table of contents
Further information: WP:TOC
When a page has at least four headings, a table of contents (TOC) will automatically appear after the lead and before the first heading. The TOC can be controlled by magic words or templates:
  • __FORCETOC__ forces the TOC to appear at the normal location regardless of the number of headings.
  • __TOC__ forces the TOC to appear at the point where the magic word is inserted instead of the normal location.
  • __NOTOC__ disables the TOC entirely.
  • {{TOC limit}} can be used to control the depth of subsections included in the TOC. This is useful where the TOC is long and unwieldy.
  • Category:Wikipedia table of contents templates contains a number of specialized TOC templates.
Line breaks
Further information: Help:Line-break handling and Wikipedia:Line breaks usage
Line breaks or newlines are used to add whitespace between lines, such as separating paragraphs.
  • A line break that is visible in the content is inserted by pressing ↵ Enter twice.
  • Pressing ↵ Enter once will place a line break in the markup, but it will not show in the rendered content, except when using list markup.
  • Markup such as bold or italics will be terminated at a line break.
MarkupRenders as
A single newline here has no effect on the layout. But an empty line starts a new paragraph, or ends a list or an indented part.
A single newline here has no effect on the layout.
But an empty line starts a new paragraph, or ends a list or an indented part.
HTML equivalent: <br> or <br /> can be used to break line layout.
Templates for line breaks:
  • {{break}} adds multiple line breaks.
  • {{-}} and {{clear}} adds a break with styling, to clear floating elements. (often used to prevent text from flowing next to unrelated tables or images)
Unbulleted list:
{{plainlist}} and {{unbulleted list}} both create an unbulleted list.
Indent text
Further information: WP:INDENT
Indentation is most commonly used on talk pages.
Markup
Renders as
Indentation as used on talk pages: :Each colon at the start of a line ::causes the line to be indented by three more character positions. :::(The indentation persists so long as no carriage return or line break is used.) :::Repeat the indentation at any line break. ::::Use an extra colon for each response. :::::And so forth ... ::::::And so on ... {{Outdent|::::::}}The outdent template can give a visual indicator that we're deliberately cancelling the indent (6 levels here)
Indentation as used on talk pages:
Each colon at the start of a line
causes the line to be indented by three more character positions.
(The indentation persists
so long as no carriage return or line break is used.)
Repeat the indentation at any line break.
Use an extra colon for each response.
And so forth ...
And so on ...
The outdent template can give a visual indicator that we're deliberately cancelling the indent (6 levels here)
Templates: {{outdent}}, {{outdent2}}
Blockquote
When there is a need for separating a block of text. This is useful for (as the name says) inserting blocks of quoted (and cited) text.
MarkupRenders as
<blockquote> The '''blockquote''' tag will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does. </blockquote>
The blockquote tag will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does.
This uses an HTML tag; template {{quote}} results in the same render.
Center text
See also: Span and div, HTML tag, and Template:Align
MarkupRenders as
<div class="center" style="width: auto; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">Centered text</div>
Centered text
Template {{center}} uses the same markup. To center a table, see Help:Table#Centering tables. Please do not use <center>...</center> tags, as it is obsolete.
Align text to right
You can align content in a separate container:
MarkupRenders as
<div style="text-align: right; direction: ltr; margin-left: 1em;">Text on the right</div>
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
Text on the right
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
Or; make the text float around it:
MarkupRenders as
<div class="floatright">Text on the right</div>
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
Text on the right
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
{{stack|Text on the right}}
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
Text on the right
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
Lists
Further information: Help:List and MOS:LIST
Do not leave blank lines between items in a list unless there is a reason to do so, since this causes the MediaWiki software to interpret each item as beginning a new list.
Unordered lists
MarkupRenders as
* Item1 * Item2 * Item3 * Item4 ** Sub-item 4 a) *** Sub-item 4 a) 1. **** Sub-item 4 a) 1. i) **** Sub-item 4 a) 1. ii) ** Sub-item 4 b) * Item5
  • Item1
  • Item2
  • Item3
  • Item4
    • Sub-item 4 a)
      Sub-item 4 a) 1.
      • Sub-item 4 a) 1. i)
      • Sub-item 4 a) 1. ii)
    • Sub-item 4 b)
  • Item5
Ordered lists
Shortcut
H:OL
MarkupRenders as
# Item1 # Item2 # Item3 # Item4 ## Sub-item 1 ### Sub-sub-item #### Sub-sub-sub-item ## Sub-item 2 # Item5
  1. Item1
  2. Item2
  3. Item3
  4. Item4
    1. Sub-item 1
      Sub-sub-item
      Sub-sub-sub-item
    2. Sub-item 2
  5. Item5
Description lists
To list terms and definitions, start a new line with a semicolon (;) followed by the term. Then, type a colon (:) followed by a definition. The format can also be used for other purposes, such as make and models of vehicles, etc.
Description lists (formerly definition lists, and a.k.a. association lists) consist of group names corresponding to values. Group names (terms) are in bold. Values (definitions) are indented. Each group must include one or more definitions. For a single or first value, the : can be placed on the same line after ; – but subsequent values must be placed on separate lines.
Do not use a semicolon (;) simply to bold a line without defining a value using a colon (:). This usage renders invalid HTML5 and creates issues with screen readers. Also, use of a colon to indent (other than for talk page responses) may also render invalid HTML5 and cause accessibility issues per MOS:INDENTGAP.
MarkupRenders as
; Term : Definition1
Term
Definition1
; Term : Definition1 : Definition2 : Definition3 : Definition4
Term
Definition1
Definition2
Definition3
Definition4
HTML equivalent: <dl> <dt>...</dt>, <dd>...</dd> </dl>
Templates: {{defn}}
Retaining newlines and spaces
The MediaWiki software suppresses single newlines and converts lines starting with a space to preformatted text in a dashed box. HTML suppresses multiple spaces. It is often desirable to retain these elements for poems, lyrics, mottoes, oaths and the like. The Poem extension adds HTML-like <poem>...</poem> tags to maintain newlines and spaces. These tags may be used inside other tags such as <blockquote>...</blockquote>​; the template
{{poemquote}}
provides a convenient shorthand. CSS styles may be applied to this tag, e.g.: <poem style="margin-left: 2em;">.
Markup
Renders as
<poem> In Xanadu did Kubla Khan A stately pleasure-dome decree: Where Alph, the sacred river, ran Through caverns measureless to man Down to a sunless sea. So twice five miles of fertile ground With walls and towers were girdled round: And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills, Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree; And here were forests ancient as the hills, Enfolding sunny spots of greenery. </poem>
In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
  A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
  Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.

So twice five miles of fertile ground
  With walls and towers were girdled round:
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,
  Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
  Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.
Poems and their translation can be presented side by side, and the language can be indicated with lang="xx". Following the last side-by-side block,
{{Clear|left}}
must be used to cancel "float:left;" and to re-establish normal flow. Note that this method does not require a table and its columns to achieve the side-by-side presentation.
Markup
<poem lang="fr" style=​"float:left;"​>​Frère Jacques, frère Jacques, Dormez-vous? Dormez-vous? Sonnez les matines! Sonnez les matines! Ding, dang, dong. Ding, dang, dong.</poem><poem style=​"margin-left:2em; float:left;">Are you sleeping? Are you sleeping? Brother John, Brother John, Morning bells are ringing! Morning bells are ringing! Ding, dang, dong. Ding, dang, dong.​</poem>​{{Clear|left}}
Renders as
Frère Jacques, frère Jacques,
Dormez-vous? Dormez-vous?
Sonnez les matines! Sonnez les matines!
Ding, dang, dong. Ding, dang, dong.
Are you sleeping? Are you sleeping?
Brother John, Brother John,
Morning bells are ringing! Morning bells are ringing!
Ding, dang, dong. Ding, dang, dong.
Format
Text formatting
DescriptionWhat you typeWhat it looks like
italics, bold, small capital letters
To ''italicize text'', put two consecutive apostrophes on each side of it. Three apostrophes each side will '''bold the text'''. Five consecutive apostrophes on each side (two for italics plus three for bold) produces '''''bold italics'''''. '''''Italic and bold formatting''''' works correctly only within a single line. For text as {{smallcaps|small caps}}, use the template {{tl|smallcaps}}.
To italicize text, put two consecutive apostrophes on each side of it.
Three apostrophes each side will bold the text.
Five consecutive apostrophes on each side (two for italics plus three for bold) produces bold italics.
Italic and bold formatting works correctly only within a single line.
To reverse this effect where it has been automatically applied, use {{nobold}} and {{noitalic}}.
For text as small caps, use the template {{smallcaps}}.
Small chunks of source code within a line of normal text.
Code is displayed in a monospace font.
function <code>int m2()</code> is nice.
function int m2() is nice.
Syntax highlighting for source code.
Computer code has colored text and more stringent formatting. For example, to define a function: int m2(), with highlights.
See here for a full list of supported languages that can be put in lang="????"
<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp"> #include <iostream> int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) { std::cout <<"Hello World!"; return 0; }</syntaxhighlight>
#include <iostream>int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) { std::cout <<"Hello World!"; return 0;}
Small text
Use <small>small text</small> only when necessary.
Use small text only when necessary.
a <small> span
To match, for example, the font-size used in an [[Help:Visual file markup#Caption|image caption]], the "small" tag can also be used to <small style​=​"font-size:87%;"​>​reduce a text's font-size to 87%</small>.
To match, for example, the font-size used in an image caption, the "small" tag can also be used to reduce a text's font-size to 87%.
Big text
Better not use <big>big text</big>, unless <small>it's <big>within</big> small</small> text.
Better not use big text, unless it's within small text.
To prevent two words from becoming separated by a linewrap (e.g. Mr. Smith or 400 km/h) a non-breaking space, sometimes also called a "non-printing character", may be used between them. (For three or more words, the template {{nowrap}} is probably more suitable.)
Mr.&nbsp;Smith or 400&nbsp;km/h
Mr. Smith or 400 km/h
Extra spacing within text is usually best achieved using the {{pad}} template.
Mary {{pad|4.0em}} had a little lamb.
Mary had a little lamb.
Special characters
See also: Help:Special characters and List of XML and HTML character entity references
Special characters can often be displayed using numeric character references or character entity references. See Character encodings in HTML for more information. For example, &Agrave; and &#xC0; both render À (A-grave). Percent-encoding can't be used, as it works only in URLs.
Diacritical marks
Diacritic marks, using character entity references.
What you typeWhat it looks like
&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; &AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml; &Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve; &Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &OElig; &Ugrave; &Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &Yuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute; &acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil; &egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute; &icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &oelig; &ugrave; &uacute; &ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;
À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ
Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ
Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Œ
Ù Ú Û Ü Ÿ ß
à á â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë
ì í î ï ñ
ò ó ô õ ö ø œ
ù ú û ü ÿ
Punctuation special characters
Using character entity references.
What you typeWhat it looks like
&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;¿ ¡ § ¶
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;† ‡ • – —
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;‹ › « »
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;‘ ’ “ ”
&apos; &quot;' "
Escaping punctuation characters
The <pre>, <nowiki>, and <code> markup tags are also available, for writing "[", "{", "&", "}", "]" for example. These tags prevent these characters from being recognised as wiki markup, which is a possibility in some circumstances.
Commercial symbols
Using character entity references.
What you typeWhat it looks like
&trade; &copy; &reg; ™ © ®
&cent; &euro; &yen; &pound; &curren;¢ € ¥ £ ¤
Greek characters
Using character entity references.
What you typeWhat it looks like
&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta; α β γ δ ε ζ
&Alpha; &Beta; &Gamma; &Delta; &Epsilon; &Zeta;Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;η θ ι κ λ μ ν
&Eta; &Theta; &Iota; &Kappa; &Lambda; &Mu; &Nu; Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;ξ ο π ρ σ ς
&Xi; &Omicron; &Pi; &Rho; &Sigma; Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;τ υ φ χ ψ ω
&Tau; &Upsilon; &Phi; &Chi; &Psi; &Omega; Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Main page: Help:WikiHiero syntax
WikiHiero is a software extension that renders Egyptian hieroglyphs as PNG images using
<hiero>
tags.
Example:
MarkupRenders as
<hiero>P2</hiero>
Chess symbols
Main article: Chess symbols in Unicode
For example, &#9812; displays ♔
Subscripts and superscripts
DescriptionWhat you typeWhat it looks like
Subscripts
x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324; x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;
x1 x2 x3 or
x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄
x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉
Superscripts
x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308; x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;
x1 x2 x3 or
x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴
x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹
Combined
&epsilon;​<sub>​0​</sub> = 8.85 &times; 10​<sup>​&minus;​12​</sup> C&sup2; / J m 1 [[hectare]] = 1 E+4 m&sup2;
ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m
1 hectare = 1 E+4 m²
Characters in the Private Use Area, and invisible formatting characters
Main article: MOS:TEXT § PUA and RTL
Invisible and PUA (Private Use Areas) characters should be avoided where possible. When needed, they should both be replaced with their (hexa)decimal code values (as "&#(x)...;"). This renders invisible characters visible, for manual editing, and allows AWB to process pages with PUA characters. The latter should also be tagged with the {{PUA}} template for tracking and future maintenance.
Mathematical characters and formulae
Mathematical characters
See also Wikipedia:Mathematical symbols, WikiProject Mathematics and TeX.
What you typeWhat it looks like
&int; &sum; &prod; &radic;∫ ∑ ∏ √
&minus; &plusmn; &infin;− ± ∞
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne;≈ ∝ ≡ ≠
&le; &ge;≤ ≥
&times; &middot; &divide; &part;× · ÷ ∂
&prime; &Prime;′ ″
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym;∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ
&oslash;ø
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup;∈ ∉ ∩ ∪
&sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall;¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀
&rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr;⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔
&rarr; &larr; &darr; &uarr; &harr;→ ← ↓ ↑ ↔
Mathematical formulae
Main page: Help:Displaying a formula
Formulae that include mathematical letters, like x, and operators like × should not use the plain letter x. See math font formatting. For a comprehensive set of symbols, and comparison between <math> tags and the {{math}} template see section TeX vs HTML.
The <math> tag typesets using LaTeX markup,[a] which may render as an image or as HTML, depending on environmental settings. The <math> tag is best for the complex formula on its own line in an image format. If you use this tag to put a formula in the line with text, put it in the {{nowrap}} template.
The {{math}} template uses HTML, and will size-match a serif font, and will also prevent line-wrap. All templates are sensitive to the = sign, so remember to replace = with
{{=}}
in template input, or start the input with 1=. Use wikimarkup '' and ''' inside the {{math}} template, as well as other HTML entities. The {{math}} template is best for typeset formulas in line with the text.
Markup
Renders as
<math>2x \times 4y \div 6z + 8 - \frac {y}{z^2} = 0</math>
{{math|2''x'' &times; 4''y'' &divide; 6''z'' + 8 &minus; {{sfrac|''y''|''z''​<​sup​>​2​</​sup​>​}} {{=}} 0}}
<math>\sin 2\pi x + \ln e</math>
{{math|sin 2&pi;''x'' + ln ''e''}}
2x × 4y ÷ 6z + 8 −
y
z2
= 0

sin 2πx + ln e
Spacing in simple math formulae
Using &nbsp; to prevent line break is not needed; the {{math}} template will prevent line breaks anyway; you can use <br /> if you need an explicit line break inside a formula.
MarkupRenders as
It follows that {{math|''x''​<​sup​>​2​</​sup​> &ge; 0}} for real {{mvar|x}}.
It follows that x2 ≥ 0 for real x.
Complicated formulae
MarkupRenders as
: <math>​\sum​_{​n=0​}^​\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>
Links and URLs
Main page: Help:Link
Free links
In Wikipedia and some other wikis, free links are used in wikitext markup to produce internal links between pages, as opposed to the concept of CamelCase for the same purpose, which was used in the early days of Wikipedia – see CamelCase and Wikipedia.
In Wikipedia's markup language, you create free links by putting double square brackets around text designating the title of the page you want to link to. Thus, [[Texas]] will be rendered as Texas. Optionally, you can use a vertical bar (|) to customize the link title. For example, typing [[Texas|Lone Star State]] will produce Lone Star State, a link that is displayed as "Lone Star State" but in fact links to Texas.
Link to another wiki article
MarkupRenders as
London has [[public transport]].
London has public transport.
Link to this page: "[[Help:Wikitext]]" will appear only as bold text.
Link to this page: "Help:Wikitext" will appear only as bold text.
Renamed link
What you typeWhat it looks like
New York also has [[public transport|public transportation]].New York also has public transportation.
Automatically rename links
DescriptionWhat you typeWhat it looks like
Automatically hide stuff in parentheses[[kingdom (biology)|]]kingdom
Automatically hide the comma and following text[[Seattle, Washington|]]Seattle
Automatically hide namespace[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]]Village pump
Or both[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style (headings)|]]Manual of Style
But this doesn't work for section links[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|]][[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|]]
Blend link
DescriptionWhat you typeWhat it looks like
Blending activeSan Francisco also has [[public transport]]ation. Examples include [[bus]]es, [[taxicab]]s, and [[tram]]s.San Francisco also has public transportation. Examples include buses, taxicabs, and trams.
A [[micro-]]secondA micro-second
Blending suppressedA [[micro-]]<nowiki />second.A micro-second
Link to a section of a page
What you typeWhat it looks like
[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics]] is a link to a section within another page.Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics is a link to a section within another page.
[[#Links and URLs]] is a link to another section on the current page. [[#Links and URLs|Links and URLs]] is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.#Links and URLs is a link to another section on the current page. Links and URLs is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.
[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics|Italics]] is a piped link to a section within another page.Italics is a piped link to a section within another page.
Create a page link
DescriptionWhat you typeWhat it looks like
Links to pages that don’t exist yet look red.The article about [[cardboard sandwiches]] doesn't exist yet.The article about cardboard sandwiches doesn't exist yet.
Redirects
Main page: Help:Redirect
DescriptionWhat you type
Redirect to an article#REDIRECT [[United States]]
Redirect to a section#REDIRECT [[United States#History]]
Link to another namespace
The full page name should be included in double square brackets.
What you typeWhat it looks like
See the [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].See the Wikipedia:Manual of Style.
Link to the same article in another language (interlanguage links)
Main pages: Help:Interlanguage links and Wikipedia:Complete list of language wikis available
After the launch of Wikidata, interlanguage links are now added through it. Links in articles should exist only in special cases, for example when an article in one language has two articles in another language.
NOTE: To create an inline link (a clickable link within the text) to any foreign language article, see Help:Interlanguage links#Inline interlanguage links and consider the usage notes.
DescriptionWhat you type
Link from English article "Plankton" to the Spanish article "Plancton".
"es" is the language code for "español" (the Spanish language).
[[es:Plancton]]
Other examples: French (fr for français), German (de for Deutsch), Russian (ru), and simple English (simple).
[[fr:Plancton]] [[de:Plankton]] [[ru:Планктон]] [[simple:Plankton]]
Interwiki link
DescriptionWhat you typeWhat it looks like
Linking to a page on another wiki in English.
All of these forms lead to the URL http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hello​.
Simple link.
Without prefix.
Named link.
[[Wiktionary:hello]]
[[Wiktionary:hello|]]
[[Wiktionary:hello|Wiktionary definition of "hello"]]
Wiktionary:hello
Linking to a page on another wiki in another language.
All of these forms lead to the URL http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/bonjour​.
Simple link.
Without prefix.
Named link.
[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]
[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]
[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]
Wiktionary:fr:bonjour
Categories
DescriptionWhat you typeWhat it looks like
Categorize an article.[[Category:Character sets]]
Link to a category.[[:Category:Character sets]]Category:Character sets
Without prefix.[[:Category:Character sets|]]Character sets
External links
space"',;<>?[]
%20%22%27%2c%3b%3c%3e%3f%5b%5d
Or use the {{urlencode:}} magic word. See Help:Magic words in the MediaWiki documentation for more details.
See Wikipedia:External links for style issues, and Category:External link file type templates for indicating the file type of an external link with an icon.
DescriptionWhat you typeWhat it looks like
Named link with an external link icon[http://www.wikipedia.org Wikipedia]Wikipedia
Unnamed link
(Used only within article body for footnotes)
[http://www.wikipedia.org][1]
Bare URL
(Bad style)
use <nowiki></nowiki> to keep this bad style from showing
http://www.wikipedia.orghttp://www.wikipedia.org
Link without arrow
(Not often used)
<span class="plainlinks">[http://www.wikipedia.org Wikipedia]</span>Wikipedia
Miscellaneous
"As of" template
The As of template generates phrases like "As of April 2009" or "as of April 2009", and categorize information that will need updating. For an explanation of the parameters see the {{As of}} documentation.
What you typeWhat it looks like
{{As of|2009|4|df=us}}As of April 2009
{{As of|2009|4|df=us|lc=y}}as of April 2009
Media link
What you typeWhat it looks like
[[media:Classical guitar scale.ogg|Sound]]Sound
Links directly into edit mode
These create links that directly go to the edit or view source tab. For example, to create links to the edit tab for this page, either of the following works:
DescriptionWhat you typeWhat it looks like
Using the {{fullurl}} template[{{fullurl:Help:Wiki markup|action=edit}} edit]edit
Using the {{Edit}} template{{edit}}edit
Links partially italicized
Linking to a page with a title containing words that are usually italicized, such as the Hindenburg disaster article.
What you typeWhat it looks like
[[Hindenburg disaster|''Hindenburg'' disaster]]
Hindenburg disaster
Pronunciation aids
It is often desirable to provide an aid to pronunciation for a word. The IPAc-en and Respell templates can be of assistance.
What you typeWhat it looks like
'''Konjac''' {{IPAc-en|lang|pron|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}}KonjacEnglish: /
ˈkoʊnjæk
/
'''Konjac''' ({{IPAc-en|lang|pron|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}} {{respell|KOHN|yak}})Konjac (English: /
ˈkoʊnjæk
/KOHN-yak)
''Konjac'' is pronounced {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}} in English.Konjac is pronounced /
ˈkoʊnjæk
/ in English.
Refer to Wikipedia:Manual of Style (pronunciation) for more information.
Musical notation
Main page: Help:Score
Musical notation is added by using the
<score>...</score>
extension tag. For example:
Markup
Renders as
<score>\relative c' { fis d fis a d f e d c cis d e a g f ees }</score>
Images
Main pages: Help:Visual file markup and Wikipedia:Images
Only images that have been uploaded to Wikipedia or Wikimedia Commons can be used. To upload images, use the Commons upload wizard for photos you have taken, and the Wikipedia upload page if there may be copyright issues. You can find the uploaded image on the image list.
See the Wikipedia's image use policy for the policy used on Wikipedia.
For further help on images, including some more versatile abilities, see the picture tutorial and extended image syntax.
What you typeWhat it looks likeNotes
The image name, the word thumb then the caption : [[File:wiki.png|thumb|Wikipedia logo]]
The image name, the word thumb then the caption :
Wikipedia logo
  • The thumb tag automatically allows the image to be enlarged and positions it (floats) automatically to the right of the page.
  • An enlarge icon is placed in the lower right corner.
  • See note below about adding an alt tag
  • This is the basic markup for most images

A picture: [[File:wiki.png]]
A picture:
  • The picture name alone places the image in the text, or on the next line if there is insufficient space.
  • Embedding the image in the text is only possible for very small images.
  • Embedding the image will affect the vertical formatting of text.
With alternative text: [[File:wiki.png|alt=Puzzle globe logo]]
With alternative text:
Alternative text, used when the image is unavailable or when the image is loaded in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is strongly encouraged. See Alternative text for images for help on choosing it.
With link: [[File:wiki.png|link=Wikipedia]]
With link:
The link directs to the Wikipedia page, Wikipedia, instead of the image file page.
Forced to the centre of the page using the ''frame'' tag (attribute), a ''centre'' tag and a caption: [[File:wiki.png|frame|centre|alt=Puzzle globe|Wikipedia logo]]
Forced to the centre of the page using the frame tag (attribute), a centre tag and a caption:
Wikipedia logo
  • The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
  • The frame tag is only of use with very small images or ones using the px tag
  • The attributes left, center or centre override this, and places the image to the left or the centre of the page.
  • The last parameter is the caption that appears below the image.
Forced to the left side of the page using the ''thumb'' attribute, the ''left'' attribute and a caption: [[File:wiki.png|thumb|left|alt=Puzzle globe|Wikipedia logo]]
Forced to the left side of the page using the thumb attribute, the left attribute and a caption:
Wikipedia logo
  • The thumb tag automatically floats the image right.
  • An enlarge icon is placed in the lower right corner.
  • The attributes left, center or centre override this, and places the image to the left or the centre of the page.
Forced to the right side of the page ''without'' a caption: [[File:wiki.png|right|Wikipedia encyclopedia]]
Forced to the right side of the page without a caption:
  • Captions are only displayed when the thumb or frame attributes are present
  • The picture tutorial explains more options.
A picture resized to 50 pixels... [[File:wiki.png|50 px|Wikipedia encyclopedia]]
A picture resized to 50 pixels...
  • The picture tutorial explains more options.
  • This should be used very sparingly, thumb images are always of the same width.
  • There is an upright attribute that can be used to display tall images. These tags are optimised for both laptop and mobile phone screens.
Linking directly to the description page of an image: [[:File:wiki.png]]
Linking directly to the description page of an image:
Clicking on an image displayed normally on a page also leads to the description page.
Linking directly to an image without displaying it: [[Media:wiki.png|Image of jigsaw globe]]
Linking directly to an image without displaying it:
To include links to images shown as links instead of drawn on the page, use a "media" link.
Example: <div style="display: inline; width: 220px; float: right;"> [[File:wiki.png|50 px|Wikipedia encyclopedia]][[File:wiki.png|50 px]] </div>
Example:
Using the span or div elements to separate images from text (note that this may allow images to cover text).
Example: {| align=right |- | [[File:wiki.png|50 px]] |- | [[File:wiki.png|50 px]] |- | [[File:wiki.png|50 px]] |}
Example:
Using wiki markup to make a table in which to place a vertical column of images (this helps edit links match headers, especially in Firefox browsers).
Tables
Main page: Help:Table
There are two ways to build tables:
See also When tables are appropriate.
Columns
Main page: Help:Columns
Use {{colbegin}} and {{colend}} to produce columns.
References and citing sources
Main pages: Wikipedia:Citing sources and Help:Footnotes
See also: APA style, Chicago style, Harvard style, and MLA style
Making a reference citing a printed or online source can be accomplished by using the <ref>...</ref> tags. Inside these tags details about the reference are added.
Details about the citation can be provided using a structure provided by various templates; the table below lists some typical citation components.
What it's forWhat you type
To create the reference<ref name="name for reference">Use a closing tag</ref>
To cite a book
To cite a web source
Book ISBN|isbn=0-4397-0818-4 (ISBN of the book)
Web URL|url=http://www.wikipedia.org
Title|title=title of source
Author|author=authors, use commas for multiple
First name|first=first name
Last name|last=last name
Location|location=location of publisher
Publisher|publisher=who published the source
Date|date=2007-09-21 (date of source)
Year|year=year of source
Accessed date|accessdate=2008-12-25 (only if url= is included)
A complete reference tag<ref name="WikiMarkup">​{{cite web |url=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Wiki_markup |title=Help:Wiki markup |publisher=Wikimedia Foundation}}</ref>
Referencing this again<ref name="WikiMarkup" />
Citation needed
Templates and transcluding pages
Main page: Wikipedia:Transclusion
See also: Help:Template § Noinclude, includeonly, and onlyinclude
Examples for templates: {{pad|...}}, {{math|...}}, {{as of|...}}, {{edit}}
Templates are segments of wiki markup that are meant to be copied automatically ("transcluded") into a page. They are specified by putting the template's name in {{double braces}}. Most templates are pages in the Template namespace, but it is possible to transclude mainspace pages (articles) by using {{:colon and double braces}}.
There are three pairs of tags that can be used in wikitext to control how transclusion affects parts of a template or article. They determine whether or not wikitext renders, either in its own article, which we will call "here", or in another article where it is transcluded, which we will call "there".
There can be several such section "elements". Also, they can be nested. All possible renderings are achievable. For example, to render there one or more sections of the page here use <onlyinclude> tags. To append text there, wrap the addition in <includeonly> tags before, within, or after the section. To omit portions of the section, nest <noinclude> tags within it.
If a page is transcluded without transclusion markup, it may cause an unintentional categorization. Any page transcluding it will contain the same category as the original page. Wrap the category markup with <noinclude> tags to prevent incorrect categorization. Some templates take parameters, as well, which you separate with the pipe character |.
What you typeWhat it looks like
{{Transclusion demo}}
This text comes from the page named Template:Transclusion demo. It has been transcluded into this page.
{{Help:Transclusion demo}}
This transclusion demo is a little bit of text from the page Help:Transclusion demo to be included into any file.
This template takes two parameters, and creates underlined text with a hover box for many modern browsers supporting CSS: {{H:title|This is the hover text| Hover your mouse over this text}} Go to this page to see the H:title template itself: {{tl|H:title}}
This template takes two parameters, and creates underlined text with a hover box for many modern browsers supporting CSS:
Hover your mouse over this text
Go to this page to see the H:title template itself: {{H:title}}
Talk and project pages
These are likely to be helpful on talk and project pages.
Signing comments
The tilde character (~) is used when signing a comment on a talk page. Your username provides a link to your user page.
DescriptionWhat you typeWhat it looks like
You should sign your comments by appending four tildes to the comment, which adds your user name plus date/time.~~~~Username (talk) 19:44, 6 May 2021 (UTC)
Adding three tildes will add just your user name.~~~Username (talk)
Adding five tildes gives the date/time alone.~~~~~19:44, 6 May 2021 (UTC)
Linking to old revisions of pages, diffs, and specific history pages
The external link function is mainly used for these. Open an old revision or diff, and copy the URL from the address bar, pasting it where you want it.
What you type
What it looks like
[//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Wiki_markup&diff=330350877&oldid=330349143 Diff between revisions 330349143 and 330350877]
Diff between revisions 330349143 and 330350877
You can also use an internal diff link. Unlike the template {{diff}}, this kind of link can even be used in edit summaries.
What you type
What it looks like
[[Special:Diff/330349143/330350877|Diff between revisions 330349143 and 330350877]]
Diff between revisions 330349143 and 330350877
If the diff intended to be shown is between an immediately previous revision, the first parameter can be dropped.
What you type
What it looks like
[[Special:Diff/330350877|Diff between revisions 330349143 and 330350877]]
Diff between revisions 330349143 and 330350877
For an old revision, you can also use a permalink. Though here only the main text is guaranteed to be retained (images and templates will be shown as they are today, not as they were at the time).
What you type
What it looks like
[[Special:Permalink/330350877|Revision 330350877]]Revision 330350877
What links here, and recent changes linked
The following markup can be used. For example, for the article Beetroot:
What you type
What it looks like

[[Special:WhatLinksHere/Beetroot]]
Special:WhatLinksHere/Beetroot
[[Special:RecentChangesLinked/Beetroot]]Special:RecentChangesLinked/Beetroot
User edits
Link to a user's contributions page.
DescriptionWhat you typeWhat it looks like
Username (registered users).[[Special:Contributions/UserName]]Special:Contributions/UserName
IPv4 address (unregistered users).[[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]]Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0
IPv6 address (unregistered users).[[Special:Contributions/2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:8329]]Special:Contributions/2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:8329
Coloring and highlighting text
Using the {{Color}} and {{Font color}} templates:
What you typeWhat it looks like
I will change the color in {{color|blue|the middle part of}} this sentence.I will change the color in the middle part of this sentence.
This is how to {{Font color||yellow|highlight part of a sentence}}.This is how to highlight part of a sentence.
Example text
The
{{xt}}
family of templates can be used on help pages and user pages to highlight example text.
These do not work in mainspace; that is, in articles.
What you typeWhat you get
This is an {{xt|A correct example}} for comparison {{tick}}
This is an A correct example for comparison
this is an {{!xt|An incorrect example}} for example {{cross}}
this is an An incorrect example for example
this is an {{mxt|In monospace}} for comparison
this is an In monospace for comparison
this is an {{!mxt|In monospace}} for comparison
this is an In monospace for comparison
this is an {{bxt|in bold}} for comparison
this is an In bold for comparison
this is an {{!bxt|In bold}} for comparison
this is an In bold for comparison
Show deleted or inserted text
Further information: Wikipedia:Talk page guidelines
Note: <s></s> and <u></u> (speced in HTML 3 & 4) are considerably more popular than <del></del> and <ins></ins> (speced in HTML 5) on Wikipedia.
What you typeWhat it looks like
You can <del>strike out deleted material</del> and <ins>underline new material</ins>.You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.
Alternative markup:
You can <s>strike out deleted material</s> and <u>underline new material</u>.

You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.
Strike through
This is also possible with the
{{strike}}
template.
What you typeWhat you get
This is {{strike|a misplaced bit of text}} for comparison
This is a misplaced bit of text for comparison
Limiting formatting / escaping wiki markup
A few different kinds of formatting will tell the wiki to display things as you typed them – what you see is what you get!
What you type
What it looks like
'''&lt;nowiki&gt; tag:''' <nowiki> The <nowiki> tag ignores [[wiki]] ''markup''. It reformats text by removing newlines and multiple spaces. It still interprets characters specified by &name;: &rarr; </nowiki>
<nowiki> tag:
The <nowiki> tag ignores [[wiki]] ''markup''. It reformats text by removing newlines and multiple spaces. It still interprets characters specified by &name;: →
'''&lt;pre&gt; tag:''' <pre>The <pre> tag ignores [[wiki]] ''markup'' as does the <nowiki> tag. Additionally, <pre> displays in a mono-spaced font, and does not reformat text spaces. It still interprets special characters: &rarr; </pre>
<pre> tag:
The <pre> tag ignores [[wiki]] ''markup'' as does the <nowiki> tag. Additionally, <pre> displays in a mono-spaced font, and does not reformat text spaces. It still interprets special characters: →
'''[Text without a URL]:''' Single square brackets holding [text without a HTTP URL] are preserved, but single square brackets containing a URL are treated as being an external [http://example.com/ Web link].
[Text without a URL]:
Single square brackets holding [text without a HTTP URL] are preserved, but single square brackets containing a URL are treated as being an external Web link.
'''Leading space:''' Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting. Putting a space at the beginning of each line stops the text from being reformatted. It still interprets [[wiki]] ''markup'' and special characters: &amp;rarr;
Leading space:
Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.
Putting a space at the beginning of each line stops the text from being reformatted. It still interprets wikimarkup and special characters: →
Nowiki
"WP:NOWIKI" redirects here. For the essay about the name "Wiki", see Wikipedia:Don't abbreviate "Wikipedia" as "Wiki"!
In order for the software to interpret wiki markup, its parser first scans the page. When it sees its nowiki tags
<nowiki>...</nowiki> (escapes all contained wiki markup), and
<nowiki /> (escapes the interpretations it is designed to "break"),
it escapes its wikicode, so editors can document its markup using its markup.
Article editors can normalize the font of characters trailing [[...]]outside a wikilink, which would otherwise adhere to the wikilink font. They can also add line-spacing in the wikitext. Template editors: tag <nowiki> works only on its source page, not the target; also
{{#tag:nowiki | content}}
, although it wraps that content in nowiki tags, it also does a pre-save transform on that content, which is entirely at odds with the intended purpose of nowiki for templates, subst, signatures, and the pipe-trick.
The two kinds of nowiki operate in different ways to target content, but they both remove meaning (subtract rendering) of wiki markup, then disappear into the background font. Nowiki does nothing toward rendering, but it can add newlines to wikitext (for readability), just like the HTML comment (the preferred method) can. Unlike wiki markup, nowiki does not remove the meaning of character entities, either HTML or MediaWiki special characters.
There is only one meaning for what <nowiki>...</nowiki> contains, so it needs few examples; but the singular <nowiki /> tag "contains" many linkage structures, where it is expected between bracketing-pair characters or in the keyword area. So this section has many examples and few mis-examples.
For example, only at the beginning of a line (bol of wikitext, bol in a transclusion, or beginning of a table cell), do *, #, ; or : mean something.
MarkupRenders as
# Ordered list
Ordered list
<nowiki /># Ordered list
# Ordered list
A [[micro-]]second.
A micro-second.
A [[micro-]]<nowiki />second.
A micro-second.
a<nowiki> b</nowiki>
a b
'<nowiki />'Italics' markup'<nowiki />'
''Italics' markup''
<nowiki>[[Example]]</nowiki>
[[Example]]
<nowiki><!-- revealed --></nowiki>
<!-- revealed -->
The rest of the section consists of simple, live examples showing how a single nowiki tag escapes entire linkage structures, beyond [[ wikilink ]] and {{ template }}:
[[ fullpagename | label ]]
{{ pagename | parameter }}
[[fullpagename | {{ pagename }} ]]
{{ pagename | [[ fullpagename ]] }}
{{ pagename | {{ pagename }} }}
Unless you use the two "balanced" nowiki tags, troubleshooting strip marker errors and template parameter-handling inconsistencies is a risk. Also, a rendering error may arise when two [[...]] square brackets are on the same line, or two {{...}} curly brackets are in the same section, but only when the two have the nowiki markup placed inconsistently.
Displaying wikilinks
(These are all live examples.)
[[ wp:pagename | page name ]] [<nowiki />[ wp:pagename | page name ]] [[<nowiki /> wp:pagename | page name ]] [[ wp:pagename <nowiki />| page name ]] [[ wp:pagename | page name ]<nowiki />]
page name
[[ wp:pagename | page name ]]
[[ wp:pagename | page name ]]
[[ wp:pagename | page name ]]
[[wp:pagename | page name ]]
For nested structures, escaping an inner structure escapes its outer structure too.
[[ wp: {{ 1x | pagename }} ]] [[ wp: {<nowiki />{ 1x | pagename }} ]] [[ wp: {{<nowiki /> 1x | pagename }} ]] [[ wp: {{ 1x <nowiki />| pagename }} ]]
wp: pagename
[[ wp: {{ 1x | pagename }} ]]
[[ wp: {{ 1x | pagename }} ]]
[[ wp: {{ 1x | pagename }} ]]
For two, first pipes, two nowiki tags are required:
[[ wp: pagename | {{ 1x | label }} ]] [[ wp: pagename <nowiki />| {{ 1x <nowiki />| label }} ]] <nowiki>[[ wp: pagename | {{ 1x | label }} ]] </nowiki>
label
[[ wp: pagename | {{ 1x | label }} ]]
[[ wp: pagename | {{ 1x | label }} ]]
Displaying template calls
See also: Template:tl
For templates, put nowiki before the first pipe. If a parameter has a wikilink, put it in that, an inmost position.
{<nowiki />{ val | u=&gt; [[ms]] | 49082 }} {{<nowiki /> val | u=&gt; [[ms]] | 49082 }} {{ val <nowiki />| u=&gt; [[ms]] | 49082 }} {{ val | u= > [[ms]] | 49082 }<nowiki />} {{ val | u= > [[ ms ]<nowiki />] | 49082 }}
{{ val | u=> ms | 49082 }}
{{ val | u= > ms | 49082 }}
{{ val | u=> ms | 49082 }}
{{ val | u=> ms | 49082 }}
{{ val | u= > [[ ms ]] | 49082 }}
Displaying magic words
Further information: Help:Magic words and Help:Parser function
For input parameters, {{{1}}}, {{{2}}}, just write them out, unless they have a default (which goes behind their pipe): {{<nowiki />{1|default}}} → {{{1|default}}}
For a parser function nowiki goes between bracketing-pair characters, or anywhere before the : colon.
{{ #ifeq: inYes | inYes | outYes | outNo }} {<nowiki />{ #ifeq: inYes | inYes | outYes | outNo }} {{<nowiki /> #ifeq: inYes | inYes | outYes | outNo }} {{ #ifeq<nowiki />: inYes | inYes | outYes | outNo }} {{ #ifeq: inYes | inYes | outYes | outNo }<nowiki />}
outYes
{{ #ifeq: inYes | inYes | outYes | outNo }}
{{ #ifeq: inYes | inYes | outYes | outNo }}
{{ #ifeq: inYes | inYes | outYes | outNo }}
{{ #ifeq: inYes | inYes | outYes | outNo }}
Behavioral switches expect the tag anywhere:
1. __HIDDENCAT__ 2. __HIDDENCAT<nowiki />__
1.
2. __HIDDENCAT__
Displaying tags
<tags> do not display; they are just markup. If you want them to, insert <nowiki /> after an < opening angle bracket; it goes only in the very front. Opening tags and closing tags must be treated separately.
<span style=color:blue> Blue </span> <<nowiki />span style=color:blue> Blue <<nowiki />/span> <section end=la<nowiki />bel />
Blue
<span style=color:blue> Blue </span>
bel />
Use template {{tag}} instead of nowiki tags to display parser tags:
Character entities, nowiki cannot escape. To escape HTML or special character entities, replace & with &amp;. For example, &amp;lt;&lt;
To display a nowiki tag, you can (1) use {{tag}}, (2) replace the < left angle bracket with its HTML character entity, or (3) nest nowiki tags in each other:
{{ tag | nowiki }} <code>&lt; nowiki>...&lt;/ nowiki ></code> <code><<nowiki />nowiki>...<<nowiki />/ nowiki ></code>
<nowiki>...</ nowiki >
< nowiki>...</ nowiki >
< nowiki>...</ nowiki >
{{ tag | nowiki | s }} <code>&lt; nowiki /></code> <code><<nowiki /> nowiki /></code> <code><nowiki>< nowiki /></nowiki></code>
<nowiki />
< nowiki />
< nowiki />
< nowiki />
Nowiki tags do not otherwise nest, so it is the second and fourth that displays:
1<nowiki>2<nowiki>3</nowiki>4</nowiki> <nowiki>{{!}}<nowiki></nowiki>{{!}}</nowiki>
12<nowiki>34</nowiki>     second and fourth
{{!}}<nowiki>|</nowiki>
These simply scan from left to right. The paired tags cannot overlap, because the very first pair-match nullifies any intervening tags inside. Unbalanced tags always display.
Nowiki tags do not display table markup, use <pre>...</pre>.
Pre
<pre> is a parser tag that emulates the HTML <pre> tag. It defines preformatted text that is displayed in a fixed-width font and is enclosed in a dashed box. HTML and wiki markups are escaped and spaces and line breaks are preserved, but HTML entities are parsed.
<pre> examples
MarkupRenders as
<pre><!--Comment--> [[wiki]] markup &amp;</pre>
<!--Comment--> [[wiki]] markup &amp;
<pre> formatted text does not wrap, thus text may extend past the browser window:
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
To resolve this, <pre> may use CSS styling to add wrapping or a horizontal scrollbar:
  • Wrapping: <pre style="white-space:-moz-pre-wrap; white-space:-pre-wrap; white-space:-o-pre-wrap; white-space:pre-wrap; word-wrap:break-word;">
  • Scroll bar: <pre style="overflow:auto; width:auto;">
As <pre> is a parser tag, it escapes wikitext and HTML tags. This can be prevented with the use of <includeonly></includeonly> within the <pre>, making it act more like its HTML equivalent:
<pre> with <includeonly></includeonly> example
MarkupRenders as
<pre<includeonly></includeonly>​>​<!--Comment--> [[wiki]] markup &amp;</pre>
wiki markup &
Invisible HTML <pre> tags can also be inserted by preceding text with a space character, like:
wiki markup &
Alternatively, consider using {{pre2}} template or
<syntaxhighlight lang="text">...</syntaxhighlight>
.
Invisible text (comments)
See also: Help:Hidden text
It's uncommon – but on occasion acceptable for notes to other editors – to add a hidden comment within the text of an article. These comments are visible only when editing or viewing the source of a page. Most comments should go on the appropriate Talk page. The format is to surround the hidden text with "<!--" and "-->" and may cover several lines, e.g.:
<!-- An example of hidden comments This won't be visible except in "edit" mode. -->
Another way to include a comment in the wiki markup uses the {{Void}} template, which can be abbreviated as {{^}}. This template "expands" to the empty string, generating no HTML output; it is visible only to people editing the wiki source. Thus
{{^|A lengthy comment here}}
operates similarly to the comment <!-- A lengthy comment here -->. The main difference is that the template version can be nested, while attempting to nest HTML comments produces odd results.
Variables
See also: Help:Magic_words § Variables
CodeEffectNotes
{{CURRENTWEEK}}18
{{CURRENTDOW}}4Monday = 1, Tuesday = 2, etc., but Sunday = 0
{{CURRENTMONTH}}05
{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}May
{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}May
{{CURRENTDAY}}6
{{CURRENTDAYNAME}}Thursday
{{CURRENTYEAR}}2021
{{CURRENTTIME}}19:44
{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}}6,293,722
{{NUMBEROFPAGES}}53,299,127
{{NUMBEROFUSERS}}41,490,551
{{PAGENAME}}Wikitext
{{NAMESPACE}}Help
{{REVISIONID}}-
{{REVISIONUSER}}Paine Ellsworth
{{localurl:pagename}}/wiki/Pagename
{{localurl:​Wikipedia:Sandbox​|action=edit}}/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Sandbox&action=edit
{{fullurl:pagename}}//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pagename
{{fullurl:pagename|​query_string​}}//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pagename&query_string
{{SERVER}}//en.wikipedia.org
{{ns:1}}Talk{{ns:index}} e.g. {{ns:1}} → full name of namespace
{{SITENAME}}Wikipedia
{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}} is the number of pages in the main namespace that contain a link and are not a redirect. This includes full articles, stubs containing a link, and disambiguation pages.
{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}} is the genitive (possessive) grammatical form of the month name, as used in some languages but not in English; {{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} is the nominative (subject) form, as usually seen in English.
In languages where it makes a difference, you can use constructs like {{grammar:case|word}} to convert a word from the nominative case to some other case. For example, {{grammar:genitive|{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}}} means the same as {{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}​.
HTML
Main page: Help:HTML in wikitext
Many HTML tags can be used in wiki markup. You can check your HTML by using markup validation.
Common templates
vte
Quick templates
Images
[[File: | thumb | upright | right | alt= | caption ]]
Cite web
<ref>{{cite web |url= |title= |author= |date= |website= |publisher= |access-date= }}</ref>
Cite journal
<ref>{{cite journal |last1= |first1= |last2= |first2= |year= |title= |journal= |volume= |issue= |pages= |publisher= |doi= |url= |access-date= }}</ref>
Cite book (short)
<ref>{{cite book |last= |first= |author-link= |title= |publisher= |series= |year= |doi= |isbn= }}</ref>
Cite book (extended)
<ref>{{cite book |last1 = |first1 = |last2 = |first2 = |author-link = |coauthors = |editor = |title = |trans-title = |url = |access-date = |edition = |series = |volume = |date = |year = |publisher = |location = |isbn = |doi = |page = |pages = |chapter = }}</ref>
Metric conversions
Single input:
{{​convert​|​original_value​|​original_unit​|​conversion_unit​|​abbr​=​on​}}
Range of values:
{{​convert​|​orig_val1​|​range​|​orig_val2​|​original_unit​|​conversion_unit​|​abbr​=​on​}}
Examples:
{{​convert​|​60​|​and​|​170​|​kg​|​lb​|​abbr​=​on​}}​{{​convert​|​18​|​°​C​|​°​F​}}​{{​convert​|​3.21​|​kg​|​lb​}}
Variables
CodeEffect
{{CURRENTWEEK}}18
{{CURRENTDOW}}4
{{CURRENTMONTH}}05
{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}May
{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}May
{{CURRENTDAY}}6
{{CURRENTDAYNAME}}Thursday
{{CURRENTYEAR}}2021
{{CURRENTTIME}}19:44
{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}}6,293,722
{{NUMBEROFPAGES}}53,299,127
{{NUMBEROFUSERS}}41,490,551
{{PAGENAME}}Wikitext
{{NAMESPACE}}Help
{{REVISIONID}}-
{{REVISIONUSER}}Paine Ellsworth
{{localurl:pagename}}/wiki/Pagename
{{localurl:​Wikipedia:Sandbox​|action=edit}}/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Sandbox&action=edit
{{fullurl:pagename}}//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pagename
{{fullurl:pagename|​query_string​}}//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pagename&query_string
{{SERVER}}//en.wikipedia.org
{{ns:index}} e.g. '{{ns:1}}'fullname of namespace e.g 'Talk'
{{SITENAME}}Wikipedia
Recalling named reference
<ref name=​"NAMEOFREF" />
Quotes
{{quote |text= |sign= }}
Blockquotes
<​blockquote​>​<​p​>​QUOTED PARAGRAPH​</​p​>​<​p​>​NAME, SOURCE, REFERENCE​</​p​>​</​blockquote​>
About
(This page is about USE1. For other uses, see About (disambiguation).)
{{About|USE1}}
(This page is about USE1. For other uses, see PAGE2.)
{{​About​|​USE1​||​PAGE2​}}
(This page is about USE1. For USE2, see PAGE2.)
{{​About​|​USE1​|​USE2​|​PAGE2​}}
(This page is about USE1. For USE2, see PAGE2. For USE3, see PAGE3. For USE4, see PAGE4. For USE5, see PAGE5.)
{{​About​|​USE1​|​USE2​|​PAGE2​|​USE3​|​PAGE3​|​USE4​|​PAGE4​|​USE5​|​PAGE5​}}
Tables (borderless)
{||-! scope="col" width="width:20em;" |COLUMN1! scope="col" width="width:20em;" |COLUMN2​|-​|ROW1​|ROW1/COL2​|-​|ROW2​|ROW2/COL2​|-​|​}
Tables (style 1)
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"|----! scope="col" width="width:20em;" |COLUMN1! scope="col" width="width:20em;" |COLUMN2​|-​|ROW1​|ROW1/COL2​|-​|ROW2​|ROW2/COL2​|----​|​}
Tables (style 2: wikitable)
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: left;"|-! style="width:20em;" |COLUMN1! style="width:20em;" |COLUMN2​|-​|ROW1​|ROW1/COL2​|-​|ROW2​|ROW2/COL2​|-​|​}
Collapsible tables (Default: collapsed)
{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed" style="text-align: left;margin:0px;"|- ! style="width:20em;" |COLUMN1! style="width:20em;" |COLUMN2|- |ROW1​|ROW1/COL2​|-​|ROW2​|ROW2/COL2​|-​|​}
Columns
{{​col​-​begin​|​width​=​100​%​}}​{{​col​-​break​|​width​=​}} {{col-end}}
Interwiki links
WikiShortcut
Wikimedia Commons[[commons:]]
Wikipedia[[w:]]
Wiktionary[[wikt:]]
Wikibooks[[b:]]
Wikisource[[s:]]
Wikispecies[[species:]]
Metawiki[[m:]]
MediaWiki[[mw:]]
Vandalism response templates
* {{subst:uw-vandalism1|PageName}} ~~~~ (unintentional vandalism/test) * {{subst:uw-delete1|PageName}} ~~~~ (unintentional removal of content) * {{subst:uw-vandalism2|PageName}} ~~~~ (suitable for intentional nonsense or disruption) * {{subst:uw-delete2|PageName}} ~~~~ (variant for removal of content) * {{subst:uw-vandalism3|PageName}} ~~~~ ("please stop" for use after level 2 warning) * {{subst:uw-delete3|PageName}} ~~~~ (please stop removing content) * {{subst:uw-vandalism4|PageName}} ~~~~ (last warning for vandalism) * {{subst:uw-delete4|PageName}} ~~~~ (last warning for removing content) * {{subst:uw-vandalism4im|PageName}} ~~~~ (only warning; for severe or grotesque vandalism only) * {{subst:uw-delete4im|PageName}} ~~~~ (only warning; for many blankings in a short period of time)
Page citations
{{rp|page=}}
Notes
^ The version of LaTeX used is a subset of AMS-LaTeX markup; see Help:Displaying a formula for details.
See also
Help desk
See the 'Coding wiki markup' section of the Help navigation navbox below for additional links.
Last edited on 18 April 2021, at 20:05
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