"High-speed train" redirects here. For an article about the 'High-Speed Train' in the United Kingdom, see InterCity 125
For fast railway services with speeds less than 200 kilometres per hour (120 mph), see Higher-speed rail
) is a type of rail transport that runs significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock
and dedicated tracks. While there is no single standard that applies worldwide, new lines in excess of 250 kilometres per hour (160 mph) and existing lines in excess of 200 kilometres per hour (120 mph) are widely considered to be high-speed.
The first high-speed rail system, the Tōkaidō Shinkansen
, began operations in Japan in 1964 and was widely known as the bullet train
High-speed trains mostly operate on standard gauge
tracks of continuously welded rail
that incorporates a large turning radius
in its design, however certain regions with wider legacy railways, such as Russia have sought to develop a high speed railway network in broad gauge
The Tōkaidō Shinkansen
high-speed line in Japan, with Mount Fuji
in the background. The Tokaido Shinkansen was the world's first high-speed rail line.
Several countries have built and developed high-speed rail infrastructure to connect major cities, including Belgium
, the Netherlands
, Saudi Arabia
, South Korea
, the United Kingdom
, the United States
. Only in Europe does high-speed rail cross international borders. China had built over 37,900 kilometres (23,500 mi) of high-speed rail as of December 2020, accounting for more than two-thirds of the world's total.
High-speed rail is the fastest ground-based commercial transportation. The Shanghai Maglev Train
, opened in 2004, is the fastest commercial passenger maglev in operation, at 430 km/h. The Euroduplex TGV
trains broke a record of 574.8 km/h, making it the fastest conventional wheeled train. The Chuo Shinkansen
in Japan is a maglev line under construction from Tokyo to Osaka at commercial speeds of 500 km/h, with operations due to start in 2027.
Multiple definitions for high-speed rail are in use worldwide.
- Infrastructure: track built specially for high-speed travel or specially upgraded for high-speed travel.
- Minimum Speed Limit: Minimum speed of 250 km/h (155 mph) on lines specially built for high speed and of about 200 km/h (124 mph) on existing lines which have been specially upgraded. This must apply to at least one section of the line. Rolling stock must be able to reach a speed of at least 200 km/h (124 mph) to be considered high speed.
- Operating conditions: Rolling stock must be designed alongside its infrastructure for complete compatibility, safety and quality of service.
Category I – New tracks specially constructed for high speeds, allowing a maximum running speed of at least 250 km/h (155 mph).
Category II – Existing tracks specially upgraded for high speeds, allowing a maximum running speed of at least 200 km/h (124 mph).
Category III – Existing tracks specially upgraded for high speeds, allowing a maximum running speed of at least 200 km/h (124 mph), but with some sections having a lower allowable speed (for example due to topographic constraints, or passage through urban areas).
A third definition of high-speed and very high-speed rail (Demiridis & Pyrgidis 2012
) requires simultaneous fulfilment of the following two conditions:
- Maximum achievable running speed in excess of 200 km/h (124 mph), or 250 km/h (155 mph) for very high-speed,
- Average running speed across the corridor in excess of 150 km/h (93 mph), or 200 km/h (124 mph) for very high-speed.
The UIC prefers to use "definitions" (plural) because they consider that there is no single standard definition of high-speed rail, nor even standard usage of the terms ("high speed", or "very high speed"). They make use of the European EC Directive 96/48, stating that high speed is a combination of all the elements which constitute the system: infrastructure, rolling stock and operating conditions.
The International Union of Railways
states that high-speed rail is a set of unique features, not merely a train travelling above a particular speed. Many conventionally hauled trains are able to reach 200 kilometres per hour (124 miles per hour) in commercial service but are not considered to be high-speed trains. These include the French SNCF Intercités
and German DB IC
The criterion of 200 kilometres per hour (124 miles per hour) is selected for several reasons; above this speed, the impacts of geometric defects are intensified, track adhesion is decreased, aerodynamic resistance is greatly increased, pressure fluctuations within tunnels cause passenger discomfort, and it becomes difficult for drivers to identify trackside signalling.
Standard signaling equipment is often limited to speeds below 200 km/h with the traditional limits of 79 mph (127 km/h) in the US, 160 km/h (99 mph) in Germany and 125 mph (201 km/h) in Britain. Above those speeds positive train control
or the European Train Control System
becomes necessary or legally mandatory.
National domestic standards may vary from the international ones.
Railways were the first form of rapid land transportation and had an effective monopoly on long-distance passenger traffic until the development of the motor car
in the early-mid 20th century. Speed had always been an important factor for railroads and they constantly tried to achieve higher speeds and decrease journey times. Rail transportation in the late 19th century was not much slower than non-high-speed trains today, and many railroads regularly operated relatively fast express
trains which averaged speeds of around 100 km/h (62 mph).
The German 1903 record holder
On 23 October 1903, the S&H-equipped railcar achieved a speed of 206.7 km/h (128.4 mph) and on 27 October the AEG-equipped railcar achieved 210.2 km/h (130.6 mph).
These trains demonstrated the feasibility of electric high-speed rail; however, regularly scheduled electric high-speed rail travel was still more than 30 years away.
After the breakthrough of electric railroads, it was clearly the infrastructure – especially the cost of it – which hampered the introduction of high-speed rail. Several disasters happened – derailments, head-on collisions on single-track lines, collisions with road traffic at grade crossings, etc. The physical laws were well-known, i.e. if the speed was doubled, the curve radius should be quadrupled; the same was true for the acceleration and braking distances.
In 1891 the engineer Károly Zipernowsky
proposed a high-speed line Vienna–Budapest, bound for electric railcars at 250 km/h (160 mph).
In 1893 Dr. Wellington Adams proposed an air-line
from Chicago to St. Louis of 252 miles (406 km).
At a speed of only 160 km/h (99 mph), he was more modest than Zipernowsky – and more realistic, according to General Electric.
1907 map showing the projected Chicago–New York Electric Air Line Railroad
Alexander C. Miller had greater ambitions. In 1906, he launched the Chicago-New York Electric Air Line Railroad
project to reduce the running time between the two big cities to ten hours by using electric 160 km/h (99 mph) locomotives. After seven years of effort, however, less than 50 km (31 mi) of arrow-straight track was finished.
A part of the line is still used as one of the last interurbans in the US.
In the US, some of the interurbans
(i.e. trams or streetcars
which run from city to city) of the early 20th century were very high-speed for their time (also Europe had and still does have some interurbans). Several high-speed rail technologies have their origin in the interurban field.
In 1903 – 30 years before the conventional railways started to streamline their trains – the officials of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition organized the Electric Railway Test Commission to conduct a series of tests to develop a carbody design that would reduce wind resistance at high speeds. A long series of tests was carried.
In 1905, St. Louis Car Company
built a railcar for the traction magnate Henry E. Huntington
, capable of speeds approaching 160 km/h (100 mph). Once it ran 32 km (20 mi) between Los Angeles and Long Beach in 15 minutes, an average speed of 130 km/h (80 mph).
However, it was too heavy for much of the tracks, so Cincinnati Car Company
, J. G. Brill
and others pioneered lightweight constructions, use of aluminium alloys, and low-level bogies
which could operate smoothly at extremely high speeds on rough interurban tracks. Westinghouse
and General Electric
designed motors compact enough to be mounted on the bogies. From 1930 on, the Red Devils
from Cincinnati Car Company and a some other interurban railcars reached about 145 km/h (90 mph) in commercial traffic. The Red Devils weighed only 22 tons though they could seat 44 passengers.
Extensive wind tunnel
research – the first in the railway industry – was done before J. G. Brill in 1931 built the Bullet
cars for Philadelphia and Western Railroad
(P&W). They were capable of running at 148 km/h (92 mph).
Some of them were almost 60 years in service.
P&W's Norristown High Speed Line
is still in use, almost 110 years after P&W in 1907 opened their double-track Upper Darby–Strafford line without a single grade crossing with roads or other railways. The entire line was governed by an absolute block signal system.
Early German high-speed network
The German Fliegender Hamburger
Further development allowed the usage of these "Fliegenden Züge" (flying trains) on a rail network across Germany. The "Diesel-Schnelltriebwagen-Netz" (diesel high-speed-vehicle network) had been in the planning since 1934 but it never reached its envisaged size.
All high-speed service stopped in August 1939 shortly before the outbreak of World War II
On 26 May 1934, one year after Fliegender Hamburger introduction, the Burlington Railroad
set an average speed record on long distance with their new streamlined train, the Zephyr
, at 124 km/h (77 mph) with peaks at 185 km/h (115 mph). The Zephyr was made of stainless steel and, like the Fliegender Hamburger, was diesel powered, articulated with Jacobs bogies
, and could reach 160 km/h (99 mph) as commercial speed.
The new service was inaugurated 11 November 1934, traveling between Kansas City
, but at a lower speed than the record, on average speed 74 km/h (46 mph).
In 1935, the Milwaukee Road
introduced the Morning Hiawatha
service, hauled at 160 km/h (99 mph) by steam locomotives. In 1939, the largest railroad of the world, the Pennsylvania Railroad
introduced a duplex steam engine Class S1
, which was designed to be capable of hauling 1200 tons passenger trains at 161 km/h (100 mph). The S1 engine was assigned to power the popular all-coach overnight premier train the Trail Blazer
between New York and Chicago since the late 1940s and it consistently reached 161 km/h (100 mph) in its service life. These were the last "high-speed" trains to use steam power. In 1936, the Twin Cities Zephyr
entered service, from Chicago to Minneapolis, with an average speed of 101 km/h (63 mph).
Many of these streamliners posted travel times comparable to or even better than their modern Amtrak
successors, which are limited to 127 km/h (79 mph) top speed on most of the network.
Italian electric and the last steam record
The German high-speed service was followed in Italy in 1938 with an electric-multiple-unit ETR 200
, designed for 200 km/h (120 mph), between Bologna and Naples. It too reached 160 km/h (99 mph) in commercial service, and achieved a world mean speed record of 203 km/h (126 mph) near Milan in 1938.
In Great Britain in the same year, the streamlined steam locomotive Mallard
achieved the official world speed record
for steam locomotives
at 202.58 km/h (125.88 mph). The external combustion engines and boilers on steam locomotives were large, heavy and time and labor-intensive to maintain, and the days of steam for high speed were numbered.
Introduction of the Talgo system
In 1945, a Spanish engineer, Alejandro Goicoechea
, developed a streamlined, articulated train that was able to run on existing tracks at higher speeds than contemporary passenger trains. This was achieved by providing the locomotive and cars with a unique axle
system that used one axle set per car end, connected by a Y-bar coupler. Amongst other advantages, the centre of mass was only half as high as usual.
This system became famous under the name of Talgo
(Tren Articulado Ligero Goicoechea Oriol), and for half a century was the main Spanish provider of high-speed trains.
First above 300 km/h developments
The French CC 7100, 1955 record holder
In the early 1950s, the French National Railway started to receive their new powerful CC 7100
electric locomotives, and began to study and evaluate running at higher speeds. In 1954, the CC 7121 hauling a full train achieved a record 243 km/h (151 mph) during a test on standard track. The next year, two specially tuned electric locomotives, the CC 7107 and the prototype BB 9004, broke previous speed records, reaching respectively 320 km/h (200 mph) and 331 km/h (206 mph), again on standard track.
For the first time, 300 km/h (190 mph) was surpassed, allowing the idea of higher-speed services to be developed and further engineering studies commenced. Especially, during the 1955 records, a dangerous hunting oscillation
, the swaying of the bogies
which leads to dynamic instability and potential derailment was discovered. This problem was solved by yaw dampers
which enabled safe running at high speeds today. Research was also made about "current harnessing"[clarification needed]
at high-speed by the pantographs, which was solved 20 years later by the Zébulon TGV
The original 0 series Shinkansen train. Introduced in 1964, it reached a speed of 210 km/h (130 mph).
E6 and E5 series Shinkansen models
Japanese research and development
With some 45 million people living in the densely populated Tokyo–Osaka
corridor, congestion on road and rail became a serious problem after World War II
and the Japanese government began thinking seriously about a new high-speed rail service.
Japan in the 1950s was a populous, resource-limited nation that for security reasons did not want to import petroleum, but needed a way to transport its millions of people in and between cities.
Japanese National Railways
(JNR) engineers then began to study the development of a high-speed regular mass transit service. In 1955, they were present at the Lille
's Electrotechnology Congress in France, and during a 6-month visit, the head engineer of JNR accompanied the deputy director Marcel Tessier at the DETE (SNCF
Electric traction study department).
JNR engineers returned to Japan with a number of ideas and technologies they would use on their future trains, including alternating current for rail traction, and international standard gauge.
First narrow-gauge Japanese high-speed service
In 1957, the engineers at the private Odakyu Electric Railway
in Greater Tokyo Area
launched the Odakyu 3000 series SE
EMU. This EMU set a world record for narrow gauge
trains at 145 km/h (90 mph), giving the Odakyu engineers confidence they could safely and reliably build even faster trains at standard gauge.
The original Japanese railways generally used narrow gauge, but the increased stability offered by widening the rails to standard gauge
would make very high-speed rail much simpler, and thus standard gauge
was adopted for high-speed service.
With the sole exceptions of Russia, Finland, and Uzbekistan all high-speed rail lines in the world are still standard gauge, even in countries where the preferred gauge for legacy lines is different.
A new train on a new line
The new service, named Shinkansen
(meaning new trunk line
) would provide a new alignment, 25% wider standard gauge, continuously welded rails between Tokyo and Osaka using new rolling stock, designed for 250 km/h (160 mph). However, the World Bank
, whilst supporting the project, considered the design of the equipment as unproven for that speed, and set the maximum speed to 210 km/h (130 mph).
After initial feasibility tests, the plan was fast-tracked and construction of the first section of the line started on 20 April 1959.
In 1963, on the new track, test runs hit a top speed of 256 km/h (159 mph). Five years after the beginning of the construction work, in October 1964, just in time for the Olympic Games
, the first modern high-speed rail, the Tōkaidō Shinkansen
, was opened between the two cities.
The first Shinkansen trains, the 0 Series Shinkansen
, built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries
—in English often called "Bullet Trains", after the original Japanese name Dangan Ressha
(弾丸列車)—outclassed the earlier fast trains in commercial service. They traversed the 515 km (320 mi) distance in 3 hours 10 minutes, reaching a top speed of 210 km/h (130 mph) and sustaining an average speed of 162.8 km/h (101.2 mph) with stops at Nagoya and Kyoto.
High-speed rail for the masses
Speed was not only a part of the Shinkansen revolution: the Shinkansen offered high-speed rail travel to the masses. The first Bullet trains
had 12 cars and later versions had up to 16,
and double-deck trains further increased the capacity.
After three years, more than 100 million passengers had used the trains, and the milestone of the first one billion passengers was reached in 1976. In 1972, the line was extended a further 161 km (100 mi), and further construction has resulted in the network expanding to 3,058 km (1,900 mi) as of March 2020, with a further 399 km (248 mi) of extensions currently under construction and due to open in stages between March 2023 and 2031. The cumulative patronage on the entire system since 1964 is over 10 billion, the equivalent of approximately 140% of the world's population, without a single train passenger fatality. (Suicides, passengers falling off the platforms, and industrial accidents have resulted in fatalities.)
Since their introduction, Japan's Shinkansen systems have been undergoing constant improvement, not only increasing line speeds. Over a dozen train models have been produced, addressing diverse issues such as tunnel boom
noise, vibration, aerodynamic drag, lines with lower patronage ("Mini shinkansen"), earthquake
safety, braking distance
, problems due to snow, and energy consumption (newer trains are twice as energy-efficient as the initial ones despite greater speeds).
A maglev train on the Yamanashi Test Track, November 2005
After decades of research and successful testing on a 43 km test track, JR Central is now constructing a Maglev
Shinkansen line, which is known as the Chūō Shinkansen
. These Maglev trains still have the traditional underlying tracks and the cars have wheels. This serves a practical purpose at stations and a safety purpose out on the lines in the event of a power failure. However, in normal operation, the wheels are raised up into the car as the train reaches certain speeds where the magnetic levitation effect takes over. It will link Tokyo and Osaka by 2037, with the section from Tokyo to Nagoya expected to be operational by 2027.
Average speed is anticipated at 505 km/h. The first generation train can be ridden by tourists visiting the test track.
Europe and North America
First demonstrations at 200 km/h
In Europe, high-speed rail began during the International Transport Fair in Munich
in June 1965, when Dr Öpfering, the director of Deutsche Bundesbahn
(German Federal Railways), performed 347 demonstrations at 200 km/h (120 mph) between Munich and Augsburg
by DB Class 103
hauled trains. The same year the Aérotrain
, a French hovercraft monorail train prototype, reached 200 km/h (120 mph) within days of operation.
The BB 9200
hauled Le Capitole
at 200 km/h.
After the successful introduction of the Japanese Shinkansen in 1964, at 210 km/h (130 mph), the German demonstrations up to 200 km/h (120 mph) in 1965, and the proof-of-concept jet-powered Aérotrain
ran its fastest trains at 160 km/h (99 mph).
In 1966, French Infrastructure Minister Edgard Pisani
consulted engineers and gave the French National Railways twelve months to raise speeds to 200 km/h (120 mph).
The classic line Paris–Toulouse
was chosen, and fitted, to support 200 km/h (120 mph) rather than 140 km/h (87 mph). Some improvements were set, notably the signals system, development of on board "in-cab" signalling system, and curve revision.
The next year, in May 1967, a regular service at 200 km/h (120 mph) was inaugurated by the TEELe Capitole
between Paris and Toulouse
, with specially adapted SNCF Class BB 9200
locomotives hauling classic UIC cars, and a full red livery.
It averaged 119 km/h (74 mph) over the 713 km (443 mi).
At the same time, the Aérotrain
prototype 02 reached 345 km/h (214 mph) on a half-scale experimental track. In 1969, it achieved 422 km/h (262 mph) on the same track. On 5 March 1974, the full-scale commercial prototype Aérotrain I80HV, jet powered, reached 430 km/h (270 mph).
US Metroliner trains
trains developed in the U.S. for rapid service between New York and Washington, DC
In the United States, following the creation of Japan's first high-speed Shinkansen
, President Lyndon B. Johnson
as part of his Great Society
infrastructure building initiatives asked the Congress
to devise a way to increase speeds on the railroads.
The congress delivered the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965
which passed with overwhelming bipartisan
support and helped to create regular Metroliner
service between New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. The new service was inaugurated in 1969, with top speeds of 200 km/h (120 mph) and averaging 145 km/h (90 mph) along the route, with the travel time as little as 2 hours 30 minutes.
In a 1967 competition with a GE powered Metroliner on Penn Central's mainline, the United Aircraft Corporation TurboTrain
set a record of 275 km/h (171 mph).
United Kingdom, Italy and Germany
In 1976, British Rail
introduced a high-speed service able to reach 201 km/h (125 mph) using the InterCity 125 diesel-electric
train sets under the brand name of High Speed Train (HST). It was the fastest diesel-powered train in regular service and it improved upon its 160 km/h (100 mph) forerunners in speed and acceleration. As of 2019 it is still the fastest diesel-powered train regular service.
The train was as a reversible multi-car set having driving power-cars at both ends and a fixed formation of passenger cars between them. Journey times were reduced by an hour for example on the East Coast Main Line
, and passenger numbers increased.
. As of 2019 many of these trains are still in service, private operators have often preferred to rebuild the units with new engines rather than replace them.
The next year, in 1977, Germany finally introduced a new service at 200 km/h (120 mph), on the Munich–Augsburg line. That same year, Italy inaugurated the first European High-Speed line, the Direttissima
, designed for 250 km/h (160 mph), but used by FS E444
hauled train at 200 km/h (120 mph). In France this year also saw the abandonment for political reasons of the Aérotrain
project, in favour of the TGV
Evolution in Europe
Following the 1955 records
, two divisions of the SNCF
began to study high-speed services. In 1964, the DETMT (petrol-engine traction studies department of SNCF) investigated the use of gas turbines
: a diesel-powered railcar was modified with a gas-turbine, and was called "TGV" (Turbotrain Grande Vitesse).
It reached 230 km/h (140 mph) in 1967, and served as a basis for the future Turbotrain and the real TGV. At the same time, the new "SNCF Research Department", created in 1966, was studying various projects, including one code-named "C03: Railways possibilities on new infrastructure (tracks)".
In 1969, the "C03 project" was transferred to public administration while a contract with Alstom
was signed for the construction of two gas-turbine high-speed train prototypes, named "TGV 001". The prototype consisted of a set of five carriages, plus a power car
at each end, both powered by two gas-turbine engines. The sets used Jacobs bogies
, which reduce drag and increase safety.
In 1970, the DETMT's Turbotrain
began operations on the Paris–Cherbourg line
, and operated at 160 km/h (99 mph) despite being designed for usage at 200 km/h (120 mph). It used gas-turbine powered multiple elements and was the basis for future experimentation with TGV services, including shuttle services and regular high rate schedules.
In 1971, the "C03" project, now known as "TGV Sud-Est", was validated by the government, against Bertin's Aerotrain.
Until this date, there was a rivalry between the French Land Settlement Commission (DATAR), supporting the Aérotrain, and the SNCF and its ministry, supporting conventional rail. The "C03 project" included a new High-Speed line between Paris and Lyon
, with new multi-engined trains running at 260 km/h (160 mph). At that time, the classic Paris-Lyon line was already congested and a new line was required; this busy corridor, neither too short (where high speeds give limited reductions in end to end times) nor too long (where planes are faster in city center to city center travel time), was the best choice for the new service.
The 1973 oil crisis
substantially increased oil prices. In the continuity of the De Gaulle
"energy self-sufficiency" and nuclear-energy policy, a ministry decision switched the future TGV from now costly gas-turbine to full electric energy in 1974. An electric railcar named Zébulon
was developed for testing at very high speeds, reaching a speed of 306 km/h (190 mph). It was used to develop pantographs capable of withstanding speeds of over 300 km/h (190 mph).
One power-car of the gas-turbine prototype "TGV 001"
The TGV at 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) in 2007
After intensive tests with the gas-turbine "TGV 001" prototype, and the electric "Zébulon", in 1977, the SNCF placed an order to the group Alstom
–MTE for 87 TGV Sud-Est
They used the "TGV 001" concept, with a permanently coupled set of eight cars, sharing Jacobs bogies
, and hauled by two electric-power cars, one at each end.
In 1981, the first section of the new Paris–Lyon High-Speed line
was inaugurated, with a 260 km/h (160 mph) top speed (then 270 km/h (170 mph) soon after). Being able to use both dedicated high-speed and conventional lines, the TGV offered the ability to join every city in the country at shorter journey times.
After the introduction of the TGV on some routes, air traffic on these routes decreased and in some cases disappeared.
The TGV set a publicised speed records
in 1981 at 380 km/h (240 mph), in 1990 at 515 km/h (320 mph), and then in 2007 at 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph), although these were test speeds, rather than operation train speeds.
The Acela Express
Following the French TGV, in 1991 Germany was the second country in Europe to inaugurate a high-speed rail service, with the launch of the Intercity-Express
(ICE) on the new Hannover–Würzburg high-speed railway
, operating at a top speed of 280 km/h (170 mph). The German ICE train was similar to the TGV, with dedicated streamlined power cars at both ends, but a variable number of trailers between them. Unlike the TGV, the trailers had two conventional bogies per car, and could be uncoupled, allowing the train to be lengthened or shortened. This introduction was the result of ten years of study with the ICE-V prototype, originally called Intercity Experimental, which broke the world speed record in 1988, reaching 406 km/h (252 mph).
, the characteristics of high-speed lines are rather unique. In fact, the network was conceived with the aim of "high capacity" (in Italian "alta capacità"), in addition to that of "high speed". The "high capacity" consists of a series of technical characteristics (in particular concerning the monitoring of railway traffic and the increase in the capacity of the tracks) that allow the passage of freight at high speed. This last characteristic (also present in China, but with different technologies) and the characteristics of the particularly mountainous territory of the Italian peninsula have caused a very high increase in construction costs (20/68 million € per km). Furthermore, unlike the networks of other countries, such as France, the high-speed railways have been built completely independently from the normal networks, following very straight and linear trajectories. Only in the development of more recent lines (like the Napoli-Bari or the Palermo-Catania-Messina) it was preferred to intervene on existing lines, speeding them up by increasing their performance with more linear deviations.
The German ICE 1
In 2005, the Spanish Government announced an ambitious plan, (PEIT 2005–2020)
envisioning that by 2020, 90 percent of the population would live within 50 km (30 mi) of a station served by AVE
. Spain began building the largest HSR network in Europe: as of 2011, five of the new lines have opened (Madrid–Zaragoza–Lleida–Tarragona–Barcelona, Córdoba–Malaga, Madrid–Toledo, Madrid–Segovia–Valladolid, Madrid–Cuenca–Valencia) and another 2,219 km (1,380 mi) were under construction.
Opened in early 2013, the Perpignan–Barcelona high-speed rail line
provides a link with neighbouring France with trains running to Paris, Lyon, Montpellier and Marseille.
Evolution in the United States
Amtrak started testing two trains, the Swedish X2000
and the German ICE 1
, in the same year along its fully electrified segment between New York City and Washington DC. The officials favored the X2000 as it had a tilting mechanism. However, the Swedish manufacturer never bid on the contract as the burdensome United States railroad regulations required them to heavily modify the train resulting in added weight, among other things. Eventually, a custom-made tilting train
derived from TGV, manufactured by Alstom
, won the contract and was put into service in December 2000.
The new service was named "Acela Express
" and linked Boston, New York City, Philadelphia
, and Washington DC. The service did not meet the 3-hour travel time objective, between Boston and New York City. The time was 3 hours and 24 minutes as it partially ran on regular lines, limiting its average speed, with a maximum speed of 240 km/h (150 mph) being reached on a small section of its route through Rhode Island
Expansion in East Asia
For four decades from its opening in 1964, the Japanese Shinkansen
was the only high-speed rail service outside of Europe. In the 2000s a number of new high-speed rail services started operating in East Asia
Chinese CRH and CR
High-speed rail was introduced to China in 2003 with the Qinhuangdao–Shenyang high-speed railway
. The Chinese government made high-speed rail construction a cornerstone of its economic stimulus program
in order to combat the effects of the 2008 global financial crisis
and the result has been a rapid development of the Chinese rail system into the world's most extensive high-speed rail network. By 2013 the system had 11,028 km (6,852 mi) of operational track, accounting for about half of the world's total at the time.
By the end of 2018, the total high-speed railway (HSR) in China had risen to over 29,000 kilometres (18,000 miles).
Over 1,713 billion trips were made in 2017, more than half of China's total railway passenger delivery, making it the world's busiest network.
State planning for high-speed railway began in the early 1990s, and the country's first high-speed rail line, the Qinhuangdao–Shenyang Passenger Railway
, was built in 1999 and opened to commercial operation in 2003. This line could accommodate commercial trains running at up to 200 km/h (120 mph). Planners also considered Germany's Transrapid maglev
technology and built the Shanghai maglev train
, which runs on a 30.5 km (19.0 mi) track linking the Pudong
, the city's financial district, and the Pudong International Airport
. The maglev train service began operating in 2004 with trains reaching a top speed of 431 km/h (268 mph), and remains the fastest high-speed service in the world. Maglev, however, was not adopted nationally and all subsequent expansion features high-speed rail on conventional tracks.
In the 1990s, China's domestic train production industry designed and produced a series of high-speed train prototypes but few were used in commercial operation and none were mass-produced. The Chinese Ministry of Railways (MOR) then arranged for the purchase of foreign high-speed trains from French, German, and Japanese manufacturers along with certain technology transfers and joint ventures with domestic trainmakers. In 2007, the MOR introduced the China Railways High-speed (CRH)
service, also known as "Harmony Trains", a version of the German Siemens Velaro
A collision of high-speed trains
on 23 July 2011 in Zhejiang
province killed 40 and injured 195, raising concerns about operational safety. A credit crunch later that year slowed the construction of new lines. In July 2011, top train speeds were lowered to 300 km/h (190 mph). But by 2012, the high-speed rail boom had renewed with new lines and new rolling stock by domestic producers that had indigenized foreign technology. On 26 December 2012, China opened the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong high-speed railway
, the world's longest high-speed rail line, which runs 2,208 km (1,372 mi) from Beijing West railway station
to Shenzhen North Railway Station
The network set a target to create the 4+4 National high-speed rail Grid
and continues to rapidly expand with the July 2016 announcement of the 8+8 National high-speed rail Grid
In 2017, 350 km/h services resumed on the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway
once again refreshing the world record for average speed with select services running between Beijing South
to Nanjing South
reaching average speeds of 317.7 km/h (197.4 mph).
South Korean KTX
In South Korea, Korea Train Express (KTX)
services were launched on 1 April 2004, using French (TGV) technology, on the Seoul–Busan corridor, Korea's busiest traffic corridor, between the two largest cities. In 1982, it represented 65.8% of South Korea's population, a number that grew to 73.3% by 1995, along with 70% of freight traffic and 66% of passenger traffic. With both the Gyeongbu Expressway
's Gyeongbu Line
congested as of the late 1970s, the government saw the pressing need for another form of transportation.
Construction began on the high-speed line from Seoul
in 1992 with the first commercial service launching in 2004. Top speed for trains in regular service is currently 305 km/h (190 mph), though the infrastructure is designed for 350 km/h (220 mph). The initial rolling stock was based on Alstom
's TGV Réseau
, and was partly built in Korea. The domestically developed HSR-350x
, which achieved 352.4 km/h (219.0 mph) in tests, resulted in a second type of high-speed trains now operated by Korail, the KTX Sancheon
. The next generation KTX train, HEMU-430X
, achieved 421.4 km/h (261.8 mph) in 2013, making South Korea the world's fourth country after France, Japan, and China to develop a high-speed train running on conventional rail above 420 km/h (260 mph).
Taiwan high-speed rail, derived from the Shinkansen
Taiwan High Speed Rail
's first and only HSR line opened for service on 5 January 2007, using Japanese trains with a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph). The service traverses 345 km (214 mi) from Nangang
in as little as 105 minutes. Once THSR began operations, almost all passengers switched from airlines flying parallel routes
while road traffic was also reduced.
Middle East and Central Asia
In 2009, Turkey inaugurated a high-speed service between Ankara and Eskișehir
This has been followed up by an Ankara
route, and the Eskișehir line has been extended to Istanbul
Uzbekistan opened the Afrosiyob
344 km (214 mi) service from Tashkent
in 2011, which was upgraded in 2013 to an average operational speed of 160 km/h (99 mph) and peak speed of 250 km/h (160 mph). The Talgo 250 service has been extended to Karshi as of August 2015 whereby the train travels 450 km (280 mi) in 3 hours. As of August 2016, the train service was extended to Bukhara
, and the 600 km (370 mi) extension will take 3 hours and 20 minutes down from 7 hours.
Operational high-speed lines in Europe
Operational high-speed lines in Western & Central Asia
Operational high-speed lines in East Asia
310–350 km/h (193–217 mph) 270–300 km/h (168–186 mph) 240–260 km/h (149–162 mph)
200–230 km/h (124–143 mph) Under construction Other railways
Road-rail parallel layout
A German high-speed line being built along a highway
The road-rail parallel layout uses land beside highways for railway lines. Examples include Paris/Lyon and Köln–Frankfurt
in which 15% and 70% of the track runs beside highways, respectively.
In China, high-speed lines at speeds between 200 and 250 km/h (124 and 155 mph) may carry freight or passengers, while lines operating at speeds over 300 km/h (186 mph) are used only by passenger CRH/CR trains.
In the United Kingdom, HS1
is also used by regional trains run by Southeastern
at speeds of up to 225 km/h, and occasionally freight trains that run to central Europe.
In Germany, some lines are shared with Inter-City and regional trains at day and freight trains at night.
In France, some lines are shared with regional trains that travel at 200 km/h, for example TER Nantes-Laval
The cost per kilometre in Spain was estimated at between €9 million (Madrid-Andalucía) and €22 million (Madrid-Valladolid). In Italy, the cost was between €24 million (Roma-Napoli) and €68 million (Bologna-Firenze).
In the 2010s, costs per kilometre in France ranged from €18 million (BLP Brittany) to €26 million (Sud Europe Atlantique).
The World Bank estimated in 2019 that the Chinese HSR network was built at an average cost of $17-$21 million per km, a third less of the cost in other countries.
At £309 million per mile, the UK's High Speed 2
line—currently under construction—is the most expensive high-speed line in the world as of 2020.
Freight high-speed rail
All high-speed trains have been designed to carry passengers only. There are very few high-speed freight services in the world; they all use trains that were originally designed to carry passengers.
The French TGV La Poste
was for a long time the sole very high-speed train service, transporting mail in France for La Poste
at a maximum top speed of 270 km/h, between 1984 and 2015. The trainsets were either specifically adapted and built, either converted, passenger TGV Sud-Est
In Italy, Mercitalia Fast is a high-speed freight service launched in October 2018 by Mercitalia
. It uses converted passenger ETR 500
trainsets to carry goods at average speeds of 180 km/h, at first between Caserta and Bologna, with plans to extend the network throughout Italy.
In some countries, high-speed rail is integrated with courier
services to provide fast door-to-door intercity deliveries. For example, China Railways has partnered with SF Express
for high-speed cargo deliveries
and Deutsche Bahn
offers express deliveries within Germany as well as to some major cities outside the country on the ICE network.
Rather than using dedicated freight trains, these use luggage racks and other unused space in passenger trains.
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. (July 2013)
Comparison with other modes of transport
While commercial high-speed trains have lower maximum speeds than jet aircraft, they offer shorter total trip times than air travel for short distances. They typically connect city centre rail stations to each other, while air transport connects airports that are typically farther from city centres.
High-speed rail (HSR) is best suited for journeys of 1 to 4½ hours (about 150–900 km or 93–559 mi), for which the train can beat air and car trip time.
For trips under about 700 km (430 mi), the process of checking in and going through airport security, as well as traveling to and from the airport, makes the total air journey time equal to or slower than HSR.
European authorities treat HSR as competitive with passenger air for HSR trips under 4½ hours.
HSR eliminated most air transport from between Paris–Lyon, Paris–Brussels, Cologne–Frankfurt, Madrid–Barcelona, Naples–Rome–Milan, Nanjing–Wuhan, Chongqing–Chengdu,
Tokyo–Nagoya, Tokyo–Sendai and Tokyo–Niigata. China Southern Airlines, China's largest airline, expects the construction of China's high-speed railway network to impact (through increased competition and falling revenues) 25% of its route network in the coming years.
European data indicate that air traffic is more sensitive than road traffic (car and bus) to competition from HSR, at least on journeys of 400 km (249 mi) and more. TGV Sud-Est reduced the travel time Paris–Lyon from almost four to about two hours. Market share rose from 40 to 72%. Air and road market shares shrunk from 31 to 7% and from 29 to 21%, respectively. On the Madrid–Sevilla link, the AVE connection increased share from 16 to 52%; air traffic shrunk from 40 to 13%; road traffic from 44 to 36%, hence the rail market amounted to 80% of combined rail and air traffic.
This figure increased to 89% in 2009, according to Spanish rail operator RENFE
According to Peter Jorritsma, the rail market share s
, as compared to planes, can be computed approximately as a function of the travelling time in minutes t
by the formula
According to this formula, a journey time of three hours yields a 65% market share, not taking into account the price of a ticket.
In another study conducted about Japan's High-speed rail service, they found a "4-hour wall" in high-speed rail's market share, which if the high-speed rail journey time exceeded 4 hours, then people would likely choose planes over high-speed rail. For instance, from Tokyo to Osaka, a 2h22m-journey by Shinkansen, high-speed rail has an 85% market share whereas planes have 15%. From Tokyo to Hiroshima, a 3h44m-journey by Shinkansen, high-speed rail has a 67% market share whereas planes have 33%. The situation is the reverse on the Tokyo to Fukuoka route where high-speed rail takes 4h47m and rail only has 10% market share and planes 90%.
Travel by rail is more competitive in areas of higher population density or where gasoline is expensive, because conventional trains are more fuel-efficient than cars when ridership is high, similar to other forms of mass transit. Very few high-speed trains consume diesel
or other fossil fuels
but the power stations that provide electric trains with electricity can consume fossil fuels. In Japan (prior to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
) and France, with very extensive high-speed rail networks, a large proportion of electricity comes from nuclear power
On the Eurostar, which primarily runs off the French grid, emissions from travelling by train from London to Paris are 90% lower than by flying.
In Germany 38.5% of all electricity was produced from renewable sources in 2017, however railways run on their own grid partially independent from the general grid and relying in part on dedicated power plants. Even using electricity generated from coal or oil, high-speed trains are significantly more fuel-efficient per passenger per kilometre traveled than the typical automobile because of economies of scale
in generator technology
and trains themselves, as well as lower air friction and rolling resistance at the same speed.
Automobiles and buses
High-speed rail can accommodate more passengers at far higher speeds than automobiles. Generally, the longer the journey, the better the time advantage of rail over road if going to the same destination. However, high-speed rail can be competitive with cars on shorter distances, 0–150 kilometres (0–90 mi), for example for commuting, especially if the car users do experience road congestion or expensive parking fees. In Norway, the Gardermoen Line
has made the rail market share for passengers from Oslo
to the airport (42 km) rise to 51% in 2014, compared to 17% for buses and 28% for private cars and taxis.
On such short lines−particularly services which call at stations close to one another−the acceleration
capabilities of the trains may be more important than their maximum speed.
Moreover, typical passenger rail carries 2.83 times as many passengers per hour per metre width as a road. A typical capacity is the Eurostar
, which provides capacity for 12 trains per hour and 800 passengers per train, totaling 9,600 passengers per hour in each direction. By contrast, the Highway Capacity Manual
gives a maximum capacity of 2,250 passenger cars per hour per lane, excluding other vehicles, assuming an average vehicle occupancy of 1.57 people.
A standard twin track railway has a typical capacity 13% greater than a 6-lane highway (3 lanes each way),
while requiring only 40% of the land (1.0/3.0 versus 2.5/7.5 hectares per kilometre of direct/indirect land consumption
The Tokaido Shinkansen line in Japan, has a much higher ratio (with as many as 20,000 passengers per hour per direction). Similarly, commuter roads tend to carry fewer than 1.57 persons per vehicle (Washington State Department of Transportation, for instance, uses 1.2 persons per vehicle) during commute times.
- Less boarding infrastructure: Although air transit moves at higher speeds than high-speed rail, total time to destination can be increased by travel to/from far out airports, check-in, baggage handling, security, and boarding, which may also increase cost to air travel.
- Short range advantages: Trains may be preferred in short to mid-range distances since rail stations are typically closer to urban centers than airports. Likewise, air travel needs longer distances to have a speed advantage after accounting for both processing time and transit to the airport.
- Urban centers: Particularly for dense city centers, short-hop air travel may not be ideal to serve these areas as airports tend to be far out of the city, due to land scarcity, short runway limitations, building heights, as well as airspace issues.
- Weather: Rail travel also requires less weather dependency than air travel. A well-designed and operated rail system can only be affected by severe weather conditions, such as heavy snow, heavy fog, and major storm. Flights however, often face cancellations or delays under less severe conditions.
- Comfort: High-speed trains also have comfort advantages, since train passengers are allowed to move freely about the train at any point in the journey.[non-primary source needed] Since airlines have complicated calculations to try to minimize weight to save fuel or to allow takeoff at certain runway lengths, rail seats are also less subject to weight restrictions than on planes, and as such may have more padding and legroom. Technology advances such as continuously welded rail have minimized the vibration found on slower railways, while air travel remains affected by turbulence when adverse wind conditions arise. Trains can also accommodate intermediate stops at lower time and energetic costs than planes, though this applies less to HSR than to the slower conventional trains.
- Delays: On particular busy air-routes – those that HSR has historically been most successful on – trains are also less prone to delays due to congested airports, or in the case of China, airspace. A train that is late by a couple of minutes will not have to wait for another slot to open up, unlike airplanes at congested airports. Furthermore, many airlines see short-haul flights as increasingly uneconomic and in some countries airlines rely on high-speed rail instead of short-haul flights for connecting services.
- De-icing: HSR does not need to spend time deicing as planes do, which is time-consuming but critical; it can dent airline profitability as planes remain on the ground and pay airport fees by the hour, as well as take up parking space and contributing to congestive delays.
- Hot and High: Some airlines have cancelled or move their flights to takeoff at night due to hot and high conditions. Such is the case for Hainan Airlines in Las Vegas in 2017, which moved its long haul takeoff slot to after midnight. Similarly, Norwegian Air Shuttle cancelled all its Europe-bound flights during summer due to heat. high-speed rail may complement airport operations during hot hours when takeoffs become uneconomical or otherwise problematic.
- Noise and pollution: Major airports are heavy polluters, downwind of LAX particulate pollution doubles, even accounting for Port of LA/Long Beach shipping and heavy freeway traffic. Trains may run on renewable energy, and electric trains produce no local pollution in critical urban areas at any rate. Of course, this effect can be mitigated with aviation biofuel. Noise also is an issue for residents.
- Ability to serve multiple stops: An airplane spends significant amounts of time loading and unloading cargo and/or passengers as well as landing, taxiing and starting again. Trains spend only a few minutes stopping at intermediate stations, often greatly enhancing the business case at little cost.
- Energy: high-speed trains are more fuel-efficient per passenger space offered than planes. Furthermore, they usually run on electricity, which can be produced from a wider range of sources than kerosene.
- HSR usually requires land acquisition, for example in Fresno, California where it was caught up in legal paperwork.
- HSR is subject to land subsidence, where expensive fixes sent costs soaring in Taiwan.
- HSR can be costly due to required tunneling through mountain terrain as well as earthquake and other safety systems.
- Crossing mountain ranges or large bodies of water with HSR requires expensive tunnels and bridges, or else slower routes and train ferries, and HSR cannot cross oceans. Air routes are largely unaffected by geography.
- Airlines frequently and aggressively add and drop routes due to demand and profitability—over 3,000 new routes in 2016. HSR may add or drop services, but the rail line itself represents a significant sunk cost and cannot be as easily modified in response to changing market conditions. However, for passengers this can present an advantage as services are less likely to be withdrawn for railways.
- Cities do not always lie in a straight line, so any routing will include bends and twists, which can substantially increase the length and duration of a journey. This can introduce inefficiency when compared to a point-to-point transit flight.
- Railways require the security and cooperation of all geographies and governments involved. Political issues can make routes unviable, whereas an airplane can fly over politically sensitive areas and/or be re-routed with relative ease.
High-speed rail usually implements electric power and therefore its energy sources can be distant or renewable. This is an advantage over air travel, which currently uses fossil fuels and is a major source of pollution. Studies regarding busy airports such as LAX, have shown that over an area of about 60 square kilometres (23 square miles) downwind of the airport, where hundreds of thousands of people live or work, the particle number concentration was at least twice that of nearby urban areas, showing that airplane pollution far exceeded road pollution, even from heavy freeway traffic.
Airplanes and airstrips require trees to be cut down, as they are a nuisance to pilots. Some 3,000 trees will be chopped due to obstruction issues at Seattle–Tacoma International Airport
On the other hand, trees next to rail lines can often become a hazard during winter storms, with several German media calling for trees to be cut down following autumn storms in 2017.
HSR is much simpler to control due to its predictable course. High-speed rail systems reduce (but do not eliminate)
collisions with automobiles or people, by using non-grade level track and eliminating grade-level crossings. To date, the only two deadly accidents involving a high-speed train on high-speed tracks in revenue service were the 1998 Eschede train disaster
and the 2011 Wenzhou train collision
(in which speed was not a factor).
In general, travel by high-speed rail has been demonstrated to be remarkably safe. The first high-speed rail network, the Japanese Shinkansen
has not had any fatal accidents involving passengers since it began operating in 1964.
Notable major accidents involving high-speed trains include the following.
1998 Eschede accident
In 1998, after over thirty years of high-speed rail operations worldwide without fatal accidents, the Eschede accident occurred in Germany: a poorly designed ICE 1 wheel fractured at a speed of 200 km/h (124 mph) near Eschede
, resulting in the derailment and destruction of almost the entire set of 16 cars, and the deaths of 101 people.
The derailment began at a switch; the accident was made worse when the derailed cars traveling at high speed struck and collapsed a road bridge located just past the switch.
2011 Wenzhou accident
On 23 July 2011, 13 years after the Eschede train accident, a Chinese CRH2 travelling at 100 km/h (62 mph) collided with a CRH1 which was stopped on a viaduct in the suburbs of Wenzhou, Zhejiang province, China. The two trains derailed, and four cars fell off the viaduct. Forty people were killed and at least 192 were injured, 12 of them severely.
The disaster led to a number of changes in management and exploitation of high-speed rail in China. Despite the fact that speed itself was not a factor in the cause of the accident, one of the major changes was to further lower the maximum speeds in high-speed and higher-speed railways in China, the remaining 350 km/h (217 mph) becoming 300, 250 km/h (155 mph) becoming 200, and 200 km/h (124 mph) becoming 160.
Six years later they started to be restored to their original high speeds.
2013 Santiago de Compostela accident
In July 2013, a high-speed train in Spain travelling at 190 km/h (120 mph) attempted to negotiate a curve whose speed limit is 80 km/h (50 mph). The train derailed and overturned, resulting in 78 fatalities.
Normally high-speed rail has automatic speed limiting restrictions, but this track section is a conventional section and in this case the automatic speed limit was said to be disabled by the driver several kilometers before the station. A few days later, the train worker's union claimed that the speed limiter didn't work properly because of lack of proper funding, acknowledging the budget cuts made by the current government.
Two days after the accident, the driver was provisionally charged with homicide by negligence. This is the first accident that occurred with a Spanish high-speed train, but it occurred in a section that was not high speed and as mentioned safety equipment mandatory on high-speed track would have prevented the accident.
2015 Eckwersheim accident
On 14 November 2015, a specialized TGV EuroDuplex
was performing commissioning tests on the unopened second phase of the LGV Est
high-speed line in France, when it entered a curve, overturned, and struck the parapet
of a bridge over the Marne–Rhine Canal
. The rear power car
came to a rest in the canal, while the remainder of the train came to a rest in the grassy median between the northern and southern tracks. Approximately 50 people were on board, consisting of SNCF technicians and, reportedly, some unauthorized guests. Eleven were killed and 37 were injured. The train was performing tests at 10 percent above the planned speed limit for the line and should have slowed from 352 km/h (219 mph) to 176 kilometres per hour (109 mph) before entering the curve. Officials have indicated that excessive speed may have caused the accident.
During testing, some safety features that usually prevent accidents like this one are switched off.
2018 Ankara train collision
On 13 December 2018, a high-speed passenger train and a locomotive collided near Yenimahalle in Ankara Province, Turkey. Three cars (carriages/coaches) of the passenger train derailed in the collision. Three railroad engineers and five passengers were killed at the scene, and 84 people were injured. Another injured passenger later died, and 34 passengers, including two in critical condition, were treated in several hospitals.
2020 Lodi derailment
On 6 February 2020, a high-speed train traveling at 300 kilometres per hour (190 mph) derailed at Livraga, Lombardy, Italy. The two drivers were killed and 31 were injured.
The cause as preliminarily reported by investigators was that a set of junction points was put in the reverse position, but was reported to the signaling system as being in the normal - i.e. straight - position.
High-speed rail ridership has been increasing rapidly since 2000. At the beginning of the century, the largest share of ridership was on the Japanese Shinkansen
network. In 2000, the Shinkansen was responsible for about 85% of the cumulative world ridership up to that point.
This has been progressively surpassed by the Chinese high-speed rail network, which has been the largest contributor of global ridership growth since its inception. As of 2018, annual ridership of the Chinese high-speed rail network is over five times larger than that of the Shinkansen.
Comparison of high-speed rail and airlines, by year: annual passengers worldwide (in millions).
Only systems with 200 km/h (124 mph) service speeds or higher are considered.
, modified TGV
, conventional world speed record holder (574.8 km/h or 357.2 mph)
There are several definitions of "maximum speed":
- The maximum speed at which a train is allowed to run by law or policy in daily service (MOR)
- The maximum speed at which an unmodified train is proved to be capable of running
- The maximum speed at which specially modified train is proved to be capable of running
Absolute speed record
Since the 1955 record, France has nearly continuously held the absolute world speed record. The latest record is held by a SNCF TGV POS
trainset, which reached 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) in 2007, on the newly constructed LGV Est
high-speed line. This run was for proof of concept and engineering, not to test normal passenger service.
The speed record for a pre-production unconventional passenger train was set by a seven-car L0 series
train at 603 km/h (375 mph) on 21 April 2015.
Maximum speed in service
As of 2017, the fastest trains currently in commercial operation are :
- Shanghai Maglev : 430 km/h (270 mph) (in China, on the lone 30 km (19 mi) maglev track)
- CR400AF, CR400BF, CRH2C, CRH3C, CRH380A & AL, CRH380B, BL & CL, CRH380D : 350 km/h (220 mph) (in China)
- SNCF TGV Duplex, SNCF TGV Réseau, SNCF TGV POS, TGV Euroduplex : 320 km/h (200 mph) (in France)
- Eurostar e320 : 320 km/h (200 mph) (in France and GB)
- E5 Series Shinkansen, E6 Series Shinkansen, H5 Series Shinkansen: 320 km/h (200 mph) (in Japan)
- ICE 3 Class 403, 406, 407 : 320 km/h (200 mph) (in Germany)
- AVE Class 103 : 310 km/h (190 mph) (in Spain)
- KTX-I, KTX-II, KTX-III : 305 km/h (190 mph) (in South Korea)
- ETR 500, ETR 400 (Frecciarossa 1000), AGV 575 : 300 km/h (190 mph), 350 km/h (220 mph) for Frecciarossa 1000 (in Italy)
Many of these trains and their networks are technically capable of higher speeds but they are capped out of economic and commercial considerations (cost of electricity, increased maintenance, resulting ticket price, etc.)
The fastest operating conventional trains are the Chinese CR400A and CR400B running on Beijing–Shanghai HSR
, after China relaunched its 350 km/h class service on select services effective 21 September 2017. In China, from July 2011 until September 2017, the maximum speed was officially 300 km/h (186 mph), but a 10 km/h (6 mph) tolerance was acceptable, and trains often reached 310 km/h (193 mph).
Before that, from August 2008 to July 2011, China Railway High-speed
trains held the highest commercial operating speed record with 350 km/h (217 mph) on some lines such as the Wuhan–Guangzhou high-speed railway
. The speed of the service was reduced in 2011 due to high costs and safety concerns the top speeds in China were reduced to 300 km/h (186 mph) on 1 July 2011.
Six years later they started to be restored to their original high speeds.
The China Railway
G403/4, G405/6 and D939/40 Beijing–Kunming
train (2,653 kilometres or 1,648 miles, 10 hours 43 minutes to 14 hours 54 minutes), which began service on 28 December 2016, are the longest high-speed rail services in the world.
Existing high-speed rail systems by country
The early high-speed lines, built in France, Japan, Italy and Spain, were between pairs of large cities. In France, this was Paris–Lyon
, in Japan, Tokyo–Osaka
, in Italy, Rome
, in Spain, Madrid
). In European and East Asian countries, dense networks of urban subways and railways provide connections with high-speed rail lines.
China has the largest network of high-speed railways in the world and in 2018 it encompassed 27,000 kilometres (17,000 miles) of high-speed rail or 60% of the world's total.
The HSR building boom continues with the HSR network set to reach 38,000 km (24,000 mi) in 2025.
It is also the world's busiest with an annual ridership of over 1.44 billion in 2016
and 2.01 billion in 2018, more than 60% of total passenger rail volume.
By the end of 2018, cumulative passengers delivered by high speed railway trains was reported to be over 9 billion.
According to Railway Gazette
, select trains between Beijing South
to Nanjing South
on the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway
have the fastest average operating speed in the world at 317.7 km/h (197.4 mph) as of July 2019.
The improved mobility and interconnectivity created by these new high-speed rail lines has generated a whole new high-speed commuter market around some urban areas. Commutes via high-speed rail to and from surrounding Hebei
have become increasingly common, likewise are between the cities surrounding Shanghai
In Japan, the Shinkansen
reaches a cumulative ridership of 6 billion passengers with zero passenger fatalities due to operational accidents.
(as of 2003).
Since its opening in 2004, KTX
has transferred over 360 million passengers until April 2013. For any transportation involving travel above 300 km (186 mi), the KTX secured a market share of 57% over other modes of transport, which is by far the largest.
Taiwan has a single north–south high-speed line, Taiwan high-speed rail
. It is approximately 345 kilometres (214 miles) long, along the west coast of Taiwan from the national capital Taipei to the southern city of Kaohsiung. The construction was managed by Taiwan high-speed rail Corporation and the total cost of the project was US$18 billion. The private company operates the line fully, and the system is based primarily on Japan's Shinkansen
Eight initial stations were built during the construction of the high-speed rail system: Taipei, Banqiao, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Taichung, Chiayi, Tainan, and Zuoying (Kaohsiung).
The line now has 12 total stations (Nangang, Taipei, Banqiao, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Miaoli, Taichung, Changhua, Yunlin, Chiayi, Tainan and Zuoying) as of August 2018.
Since 2006, Indonesian authorities and private investors have expressed an interest in high-speed rail for the densely populated island of Java
High-speed railway in Java
On 16 October 2015, Indonesia and China signed an agreement to build Jakarta
high speed rail.
Groundbreaking has been done on 21 January 2016. The HSR CR400 trainset maximum speed is 400km/h, limited to 350km/h.
Middle East and North Africa
The Turkish State Railways
started building high-speed rail lines in 2003. The first section of the line, between Ankara
, was inaugurated on 13 March 2009. It is a part of the 533 km (331 mi) Istanbul
high-speed rail line. A subsidiary of Turkish State Railways, Yüksek Hızlı Tren
is the sole commercial operator of high-speed trains in Turkey.
The construction of three separate high-speed lines from Ankara to Istanbul, Konya
, as well as taking an Ankara–İzmir
line to the launch stage, form part of the Turkish Ministry of Transport
's strategic aims and targets.
Turkey plans to construct a network of high-speed lines in the early part of the 21st century, targeting a 1,500 km (932 mi) network of high-speed lines by 2013 and a 10,000 km (6,214 mi) network by the year 2023.
In Europe, several nations are interconnected with cross-border high-speed rail, such as London-Paris, Paris-Brussel-Rotterdam, Madrid-Perpignan, and other future connecting projects exist.
Market segmentation has principally focused on the business travel market. The French original focus on business travelers is reflected by the early design of the TGV
trains. Pleasure travel was a secondary market; now many of the French extensions connect with vacation beaches on the Atlantic
, as well as major amusement parks
and also the ski resorts in France and Switzerland. Friday evenings are the peak time for TGVs (train à grande vitesse
The system lowered prices on long-distance travel to compete more effectively with air services, and as a result some cities within an hour of Paris by TGV have become commuter communities, increasing the market while restructuring land use
On the Paris–Lyon service, the number of passengers grew sufficiently to justify the introduction of double-decker coaches. Later high-speed rail lines, such as the LGV Atlantique, the LGV Est, and most high-speed lines in France, were designed as feeder routes branching into conventional rail lines, serving a larger number of medium-sized cities.
Germany's first high-speed lines ran north–south, for historical reasons, and later developed east–west after German unification.
In the early 1900s, Germany became the first country to run a prototype electric train at speeds in excess of 200 km/h, and during the 1930s several steam and diesel trains achieved revenue speeds of 160 km/h in daily service. The InterCityExperimental briefly held the world speed record for a steel-wheel-on-steel-rails vehicle during the 1980s. The InterCityExpress
entered revenue service in 1991 and serves purpose-built high-speed lines (Neubaustrecken
), upgraded legacy lines (Ausbaustrecken
), and unmodified legacy lines. Lufthansa
, Germany's flag carrier, has entered into a codeshare agreement with Deutsche Bahn
where ICEs run as "feeder flights" bookable with a Lufthansa flight number under the AIRail
During the 1920s and 1930s, Italy was one of the first countries to develop the technology for high-speed rail. The country constructed the Direttissime
railways connecting major cities on dedicated electrified high-speed track (although at speeds lower to what today would be considered high-speed rail) and developed the fast ETR 200
trainset. After the Second World War and the fall of the fascist regime, interest in high-speed rail dwindled, with the successive governments considering it too costly and developing the tilting Pendolino
, to run at medium-high speed (up to 250 km/h (160 mph)) on conventional lines, instead. The only exception was the Direttissima
between Florence and Rome, but it was not conceived to be part of a high-speed line on a large scale.
A true dedicated high-speed rail network was developed during the 1980s and the 1990s, and 1,000 km (621 mi) of high-speed rail were fully operational by 2010. Frecciarossa services are operated with ETR 500
and Frecciarossa 1000
non-tilting trains at 25kVAC, 50 Hz power. The operational speed of the service is 300 km/h (186 mph).
Over 100 million passengers used the Frecciarossa from the service introduction up to the first months of 2012.
The high-speed rail system serves about 20 billion passenger-km per year as of 2016.
Italian high-speed services are profitable without subsidies.
As of 2015, Norway's fastest trains have a commercial top speed of 210 kilometres per hour (130 miles per hour) and the FLIRT
trains may attain 200 kilometres per hour (120 miles per hour). A velocity of 210 kilometres per hour (130 miles per hour) is permitted on the 42 kilometres (26 miles) Gardermoen Line
, which links the Gardermoen
airport to Oslo
and a part of the main line northwards to Trondheim
Some parts of the trunk railways around Oslo are renewed and built for 250 kilometres per hour (160 miles per hour):
- The Follo Line southwards from Oslo, a 22-kilometre-long (14-mile) line Oslo–Ski on the Østfold Line, mainly in tunnel, planned to be ready in 2021.
- The Holm–Holmestrand–Nykirke part of the Vestfold Line (west to southwest of Oslo).
- The Farriseidet project, 14.3 kilometres (8.9 miles) between Larvik and Porsgrunn on the Vestfold Line, 12.5 kilometres (7.8 miles) in tunnel.
Spanish high speed services
Spain has built an extensive high-speed rail network, with a length of 3,100 km (1,926 mi) (2013), the longest in Europe. It uses standard gauge
as opposed to the Iberian gauge
used in most of the national railway network, meaning that the high-speed tracks are separated and not shared with local trains or freight. Although standard gauge is the norm for Spanish high-speed rail, since 2011 there exists a regional high-speed service running on Iberian gauge
with special trains that connects the cities of Ourense
, Santiago de Compostela
, A Coruña
, and Vigo
in northwestern Spain. Connections to the French network exist since 2013, with direct trains from Paris to Barcelona
. Although on the French side, conventional speed tracks are used from Perpignan
High-speed north–south freight lines in Switzerland are under construction, avoiding slow mountainous truck traffic, and lowering labour costs. The new lines, in particular the Gotthard Base Tunnel
, are built for 250 km/h (155 mph). But the short high-speed parts and the mix with freight will lower the average speeds. The limited size of the country gives fairly short domestic travel times anyway. Switzerland is investing money in lines on French and German soil to enable better access to the high-speed rail networks of those countries from Switzerland.
The UK's fastest high-speed line (High Speed 1
) connects London St Pancras
and Paris through the Channel Tunnel
. At speeds of up to 300 km/h (186 mph), it is the only high-speed line in Britain with an operating speed of more than 125 mph (201 km/h).
The United States has domestic definitions for high-speed rail varying between jurisdictions.
's Acela Express
(reaching 150 mph (240 km/h)), Northeast Regional
, Keystone Service
, Silver Star
and certain MARC Penn Line
express trains (the three reaching 125 mph (201 km/h)) are currently the only high-speed services on the American continent, and all are limited to the Northeast Corridor
. The Acela Express
, New York City, Philadelphia
, and Washington, D.C., and while Northeast Regional
trains travel the whole of the same route, but make more station stops. All other high-speed rail services travel over portions of the route. The California High-Speed Rail
project, eventually linking the 5 largest cities in California, is planned to have its first operating segment, between Merced
, in 2027.
With high-speed rail there has been an increase in accessibility within cities. It allows for urban regeneration, accessibility in cities near and far, and efficient inter-city relationships. Better inter-city relationships lead to high-level services to companies, advanced technology, and marketing. The most important effect of HSR is the increase of accessibility due to shorter travel times. HSR lines have been used to create long-distance routes which in many cases cater to business travelers. However, there have also been short-distance routes that have revolutionized the concepts of HSR. They create commuting relationships between cities opening up more opportunities. Using both longer distance and shorter distance rail in one country allows for the best case of economic development, widening the labor and residential market of a metropolitan area and extending it to smaller cities.
The KTX Incheon International Airport to Seoul Line (operates on Incheon AREX
) was closed in 2018, due to a mix of issues, including poor ridership and track sharing.
The AREX was not constructed as high-speed rail, resulting a cap of 150 km/h
on KTX service in its section.
In China, many conventional lines upgraded up to 200 km/h had high-speed services shifted to parallel high-speed lines. These lines, often passing through towns and having level crossings, are still used for local trains and freight trains. For example, all (passenger) EMU
services on the Hankou–Danjiangkou railway
were routed over the Wuhan–Shiyan high-speed railway
on its opening to free up capacity for freight trains on the slower railway.
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Last edited on 9 May 2021, at 21:17
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