is a long, vigorous walk
, usually on trails
in the countryside. Walking for pleasure developed in Europe during the eighteenth century.
have existed much longer but they involve walking long distances for a spiritual purpose associated with specific religions.
A hiker enjoying the view of the Alps
"Hiking" is the preferred term in Canada and the United States; the term "walking
" is used in these regions for shorter, particularly urban
walks. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, the word "walking" describes all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking
in the Alps
. The word hiking is also often used in the UK, along with rambling
(a slightly old-fashioned term), hillwalking
, and fell walking
(a term mostly used for hillwalking in northern England). The term bushwalking
is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927.
In New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called tramping
It is a popular activity with numerous hiking organizations
worldwide, and studies suggest that all forms of walking have health benefits.
In the United States, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, and the United Kingdom, hiking means walking outdoors on a trail, or off trail, for recreational purposes.
A day hike refers to a hike that can be completed in a single day. However, in the United Kingdom, the word walking is also used, as well as rambling, while walking in mountainous areas is called hillwalking
. In Northern England
, Including the Lake District
and Yorkshire Dales
, fellwalking describes hill or mountain walks, as fell
is the common word for both features there.
Hiking sometimes involves bushwhacking and is sometimes referred to as such. This specifically refers to difficult walking through dense forest, undergrowth, or bushes where forward progress requires pushing vegetation aside. In extreme cases of bushwhacking, where the vegetation is so dense that human passage is impeded, a machete
is used to clear a pathway. The Australian term bushwalking refers to both on and off-trail hiking.
Common terms for hiking used by New Zealanders are tramping
(particularly for overnight and longer trips),
walking or bushwalking. Trekking
is the preferred word used to describe multi-day hiking in the mountainous regions of India, Pakistan, Nepal, North America, South America, Iran, and the highlands of East Africa
. Hiking a long-distance trail
from end-to-end is also referred to as trekking and as thru-hiking
in some places.
In North America
, multi-day hikes, usually with camping
, are referred to as backpacking
The poet Petrarch
is frequently mentioned as an early example of someone hiking. Petrarch recounts that on April 26, 1336, with his brother and two servants, he climbed to the top of Mont Ventoux
(1,912 meters (6,273 ft), a feat which he undertook for recreation rather than necessity.
The exploit is described in a celebrated letter addressed to his friend and confessor, the monk Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro
, composed some time after the fact. However, some have suggested that Petrach's climb was fictional.
, in The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy
(in German in 1860) declared Petrarch "a truly modern man", because of the significance of nature for his "receptive spirit"; even if he did not yet have the skill to describe nature.
Petrarch's implication that he was the first to climb mountains for pleasure,
and Burckhardt's insistence on Petrarch's sensitivity to nature have been often repeated since.
There are also numerous references to Petrarch as an "alpinist",
although Mont Ventoux
is not a hard climb, and is not usually considered part of the Alps.
This implicit claim of Petrarch and Burckhardt, that Petrarch was the first to climb a mountain for pleasure since antiquity, was disproven by Lynn Thorndike
Mount Ventoux was climbed by Jean Buridan
, on his way to the papal court in Avignon
before the year 1334, "in order to make some meteorological observations".
There were ascents accomplished during the Middle Ages
Lynn Thorndike mentions that "a book on feeling for nature in Germany in the tenth and eleventh centuries, noted various ascents and descriptions of mountains from that period", and that "in the closing years of his life archbishop Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne
((c. 1010 – 1075)) climbed his beloved mountain oftener than usual".
However, the idea of taking a walk in the countryside only really developed during the 18th century in Europe, and arose because of changing attitudes to the landscape and nature associated with the Romantic movement
In earlier times walking generally indicated poverty and was also associated with vagrancy.:
In previous centuries long walks were undertaken as part of religious pilgrimages and this tradition continues throughout the world.
The Swiss scientist and poet Albrecht von Haller
's poem Die Alpen
(1732) is an historically important early sign of an awakening appreciation of the mountains, though it is chiefly designed to contrast the simple and idyllic life of the inhabitants of the Alps
with the corrupt and decadent existence of the dwellers in the plains.
Numerous travellers explored Europe on foot in the last third of the 18th century and recorded their experiences. A significant example is Johann Gottfried Seume
, who set out on foot from Leipzig
to Sicily in 1801, and returned to Leipzig via Paris after nine months.
Claife Station, built at one of Thomas West
's 'viewing stations', to allow visiting tourists and artists to better appreciate the picturesque Lake District
, a Scottish priest, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of 1778. In the introduction he wrote that he aimed
to encourage the taste of visiting the lakes by furnishing the traveller with a Guide; and for that purpose, the writer has here collected and laid before him, all the select stations and points of view, noticed by those authors who have last made the tour of the lakes, verified by his own repeated observations.
To this end he included various 'stations' or viewpoints around the lakes, from which tourists would be encouraged to enjoy the views in terms of their aesthetic qualities.
Published in 1778 the book was a major success.
Another famous early exponent of walking for pleasure was the English poet William Wordsworth
. In 1790 he embarked on an extended tour of France, Switzerland, and Germany, a journey subsequently recorded in his long autobiographical poem The Prelude
(1850). His famous poem Tintern Abbey
was inspired by a visit to the Wye Valley
made during a walking tour
in 1798 with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth
. Wordsworth's friend Coleridge
was another keen walker and in the autumn of 1799, he and Wordsworth undertook a three-week tour of the Lake District. John Keats
, who belonged to the next generation of Romantic poets
began, in June 1818, a walking tour of Scotland, Ireland, and the Lake District with his friend Charles Armitage Brown.
More and more people undertook walking tours through the 19th century, of which the most famous is probably Robert Louis Stevenson
's journey through the Cévennes
in France with a donkey, recorded in his Travels with a Donkey
(1879). Stevenson also published in 1876 his famous essay "Walking Tours". The subgenre of travel writing
produced many classics in the subsequent 20th century. An early American example of a book that describes an extended walking tour is naturalist John Muir
's A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf
(1916), a posthumously published account of a long botanizing walk, undertaken in 1867.
Due to industrialisation
in England, people began to migrate to the cities where living standards were often cramped and unsanitary. They would escape the confines of the city by rambling about in the countryside. However, the land in England, particularly around the urban areas of Manchester
, was privately owned and trespass
was illegal. Rambling clubs soon sprang up in the north
and began politically campaigning for the legal 'right to roam
'. One of the first such clubs was 'Sunday Tramps' founded by Leslie White in 1879. The first national grouping, the Federation of Rambling Clubs, was formed in London in 1905 and was heavily patronized by the peerage
Access to Mountains bills
, that would have legislated the public's 'right to roam' across some private land, were periodically presented to Parliament
from 1884 to 1932 without success. Finally, in 1932, the Rambler’s Right Movement organized a mass trespass
on Kinder Scout
. Despite attempts on the part of the police to prevent the trespass from going ahead, it was successfully achieved due to massive publicity. However, the Mountain Access Bill that was passed in 1939 was opposed by many walkers' organizations, including The Ramblers
, who felt that it did not sufficiently protect their rights, and it was eventually repealed.
The Scottish-born, American naturalist John Muir
(1838 –1914), was another important early advocate of the preservation of wilderness in the United States. He petitioned the U.S. Congress
for the National Park bill that was passed in 1890, establishing Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks. The Sierra Club
, which he founded, is now one of the most important conservation organizations in the United States. The spiritual quality and enthusiasm toward nature expressed in his writings inspired others, including presidents and congressmen, to take action to help preserve large areas of undeveloped countryside.
He is today referred to as the "Father of the National Parks".
In 1916, the National Park Service was created to protect national parks and monuments.
Youth hiking in Israel
Frequently nowadays long-distance hikes (walking tours) are undertaken along long-distance paths, including the National Trails
in England and Wales, the Kungsleden
(Sweden) and the National Trail System
in the United States. The Grande Randonnée (France), Grote Routepaden, or Lange-afstand-wandelpaden (The Netherlands), Grande Rota (Portugal), Gran Recorrido (Spain) is a network of long-distance footpaths
, mostly in France, Belgium, the Netherlands
and Spain. There are extensive networks in other European countries of long-distance trails, as well as in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Nepal, and to a lesser extent other Asiatic countries, like Turkey, Israel, and Jordan. In the Alps of Austria, Slovenia, Switzerland, Germany, France, and Italy walking tours can be made from 'hut-to-hut', using an extensive system of mountain huts
In the late 20th-century, there has been a proliferation of official and unofficial long-distance routes, which mean that hikers now are more likely to refer to using a long-distance way (Britain), trail (US), The Grande Randonnée
(France), etc., than setting out on a walking tour. Early examples of long-distance paths include the Appalachian Trail
in the US and the Pennine Way
In the Middle East
the Jordan Trail
is a 650 km (400 miles) long hiking trail in Jordan established in 2015 by the Jordan Trail Association. And Israel
has been described as "a trekker's paradise" with over 9,656 km (6,000 miles) of trails.
The Great Himalaya Trail
is a route across the Himalayas
. The original concept of the trail was to establish a single long distance trekking trail from the east end to the west end of Nepal
that includes a total of roughly 1,700 kilometres (1,100 mi) of path. The proposed trail will link together a range of the less explored tourism destinations of Nepal's mountain region.
Backpacks are commonly used on hikes
The equipment required for hiking depends on a variety of factors, including local climate. Day hikers often carry water, food, a map, and rain-proof gear.
Hikers have traditionally worn sturdy hiking boots 
for stability over rough terrain. In recent decades this has become less common as some long distance hikers
have switched to trail running shoes
Boots are still commonly used in mountainous terrain. The Mountaineers
club recommends a list of "Ten Essentials
" equipment for hiking, including a compass, sunglasses, sunscreen, a flashlight
, a first aid kit, a fire starter
, and a knife.
Other groups recommend items such as hat, gloves, insect repellent, and an emergency blanket
A GPS navigation device
can also be helpful and route cards
may be used as a guide. Trekking poles
are also recommended, especially when carrying a heavy backpack.
Winter hiking requires a higher level of skill and generally more specialized gear than in other seasons (see winter hiking below).
Proponents of ultralight backpacking
argue that long lists of required items for multi-day hikes increases pack weight, and hence fatigue and the chance of injury.
Instead, they recommend reducing pack weight, in order to make hiking long distances easier. Even the use of hiking boots on long-distances hikes is controversial among ultralight hikers, because of their weight.
Hiking with children
The American Hiking Society
advises that parents with young children should encourage them to participate in decision-making about route-finding and pace.
Alisha McDarris, writing in Popular Science
, suggests that, whilst hiking with children poses particular challenges, it can be a rewarding experience for them, particularly if a route is chosen with their interests in mind.
Young children are prone to becoming fatigued more rapidly than adults, requiring fluids and energy-rich foods more frequently, and are also more sensitive to variations in weather and terrain. Hiking routes may be chosen with these factors in mind, and appropriate clothing, equipment and sun-protection need to be available.
Parts of many hiking trails around Lake Mohonk
, New York State, US, include stairways which can prevent erosion
are often fragile and may be accidentally damaged, especially when a large number of hikers are involved. For example, years of gathering wood can strip an alpine area of valuable nutrients, and can cause deforestation;
and some species, such as martens
or bighorn sheep
, are very sensitive to the presence of humans, especially around mating season. Generally, protected areas such as parks have regulations in place to protect the environment, so as to minimize such impact.
Such regulations include banning wood fires, restricting camping
to established campsites, disposing or packing out faecal matter
, and imposing a quota on the number of hikers. Many hikers espouse the philosophy of Leave No Trace
, following strict practices on dealing with food waste
, food packaging, and other impacts on the environment.
Human feces are often a major source of environmental impact from hiking,
and can contaminate the watershed and make other hikers ill. 'Catholes
' dug 10 to 25 cm (4 to 10 inches) deep, depending on local soil composition and covered after use, at least 60 m (200 feet) away from water sources and trails, are recommended to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination.
Fire is a particular source of danger, and an individual hiker can have a large impact on an ecosystem. For example, in 2005, a Czech backpacker accidentally started a fire that burnt 5% of Torres del Paine National Park
Because hikers may come into conflict with other users of the land or may harm the natural environment, hiking etiquette has developed.
- When two groups of hikers meet on a steep trail, a custom has developed in some areas whereby the group moving uphill has the right-of-way.
- Various organizations recommend that hikers generally avoid making loud sounds, such as shouting or loud conversation, playing music, or the use of mobile phones. However, in bear country, hikers use intentional noise-making as a safety precaution to avoid startling bears.
- The Leave No Trace movement offers a set of guidelines for low-impact hiking: "Leave nothing but footprints. Take nothing but photos. Kill nothing but time. Keep nothing but memories".
- Hikers are advised not to feed wild animals, because they will become a danger to other hikers if they become habituated to human food, and may have to be killed, or relocated.
Hiking can be hazardous
because of terrain, inclement weather, becoming lost, or pre-existing medical conditions. The dangerous circumstances hikers can face include specific accidents or physical ailments. It is especially hazardous in high mountains, crossing rivers and glaciers, and when there is snow and ice. At times hiking may involve scrambling
, as well as the use of ropes, ice axes and crampons and the skill to properly use them.
Potential hazards involving physical ailments may include dehydration, frostbite, hypothermia, sunburn, sunstroke, or diarrhea
and such injuries as ankle sprains, or broken bones.Hypothermia
is a danger for all hikers and especially inexperienced hikers. Weather does not need to be very cold to be dangerous since ordinary rain or mist has a strong cooling effect. In high mountains a further danger is altitude sickness
. This typically occurs only above 2,500 metres (8,000 ft), though some are affected at lower altitudes.
Risk factors include a prior episode of altitude sickness, a high degree of activity, and a rapid increase in elevation.
Walkers in high mountains, and during winter in many countries, can encounter hazardous snow and ice conditions, and the possibility of avalanches
Year round glaciers
are potentially hazardous.
Fast flowing water presents another danger and a safe crossing may requires special techniques.
In various countries, borders may be poorly marked. In 2009, Iran imprisoned three Americans for hiking across the Iran-Iraq border.
It is illegal to cross into the US on the Pacific Crest Trail
from Canada. Going south to north it is more straightforward and a crossing can be made, if advanced arrangements are made with Canada Border Services
. Within the Schengen Area
, which includes most of the E.U.
, and associated nations like Switzerland and Norway, there are no impediments to crossing by path, and borders are not always obvious.
Hiking in winter offers additional opportunities, challenges and hazards. Crampons
may be needed in icy conditions, and an ice ax
is recommended on steep, snow covered paths. Snowshoes
and hiking poles
, or cross country skis
are useful aid for those hiking in deep snow.
An example of a close relationship between skiing and hiking is found in Norway, where The Norwegian Trekking Association
maintains over 400 huts stretching across thousands of kilometres of trails which hikers can use in the summer and skiers in the winter.
For longer routes in snowy conditions, hikers may resort to ski touring
, using specialised skis and boots for uphill travel.
In winter, factors such as shortened daylight, changeable weather conditions and avalanche risk can raise the hazard level of hiking.
- Cross-country skiing – hiking snow with the aid of skis
- Fell running – the sport of running over rough mountainous ground, often off-trail
- Geocaching – an outdoor treasure-hunting game
- Orienteering – a sport that involves navigation with a map and compass
- Peak bagging – ticking-off a list of mountain peaks climbed
- Pilgrimage – a journey of moral or spiritual significance
- River trekking – a combination of trekking and climbing and sometimes swimming along a river
- Rogaining – a sport of long-distance cross-country navigation
- Snow shoeing – walking across deep snow on snow shoes
- Trail blazing – using signages to mark a hiking route (known as way-marking in Europe)
- Trail running – running on trails
- Thru-hiking – hiking an established long-distance hiking trail continuously in one direction.
- ^ AMATO, JOSEPH A. "Mind over Foot: Romantic Walking and Rambling." In On Foot: A History of Walking, 101-24. NYU Press, 2004. Accessed March 1, 2021. http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt9qg056.7.
- ^ "Sydney Bush Walkers Club's history".
- ^ Orsman, HW (1999). The Dictionary of New Zealand English. Auckland: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-558347-7.
- ^ McKinney, John (2009-03-22). "For Good Health: Take a Hike!". Miller-McCune. Archived from the original on 2011-04-29.
- ^ "A Step in the Right Direction: The health benefits of hiking and trails" (PDF). American Hiking Society. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- ^ a b c d Keller, Kristin T. (2007). Hiking. Capstone Press. ISBN 978-0-7368-0916-0.
- ^ "Bushwalking Australia home". Bushwalking Australia. Retrieved 2016-03-18.
- ^ Orsman, HW (1999). The Dictionary of New Zealand English. Auckland: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195583472.
- ^ Mueser, Roland (1997). Long-Distance Hiking: Lessons from the Appalachian Trail. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-044458-7.
- ^ Nicolson, Marjorie Hope; Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory: The Development of the Aesthetics of the Infinite (1997), p. 49; ISBN 0-295-97577-6
- ^ Cassirer, Ernst (January 1943). "Some Remarks on the Question of the Originality of the Renaissance". Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press. 4 (1): 49–74. doi:10.2307/2707236. JSTOR 2707236.
- ^ Halsall, Paul (August 1998). "Petrarch: The Ascent of Mount Ventoux". fordham.edu. Fordham University. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- ^ Burckhardt, Civilization, Part IV §3, beginning. convenience link Archived February 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ E.g. Bishop, p.104:"the first recorded Alpinist, the first to climb a mountain because it is there."
- ^ E.g. Kimmelman, who sees Petrarch's letter as early environmental writing.
- ^ E.g. Ernst Cassirer: The Renaissance Philosophy of Man, tr. Hans Nachod, p.28:"The colorful description of this enterprise has startled many readers who have been amazed to see a man of his epoch venturing to climb a mountain for a view like a modern alpinist"
- ^ Bishop, p.102,104
- ^ Thorndike, pp. 69-74
- ^ Ernest A. Moody Jean Buridan in the Dictionary of Scientific Biography
- ^ Michael Kimmelman, "NOT Because it's There", New York Times, 6 June 1999.
- ^ Burckhardt, Jacob. The Civilisation of the Period of the Renaissance in Italy (1860). Translated by S.G.C. Middlemore. Swan Sonnenschein (1904), pp. 301–302.
- ^ Lynn Thorndike, Renaissance or Prenaissance, Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 4, No. 1. (Jan. 1943), pp. 69–74. JSTOR link to a collection of several letters in the same issue.
- ^ Lynn Thorndike, Journal of the History of Ideas, pp. 71-2.
- ^ Abrams, MH, ed. (2000). The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 2 (7th ed.). pp. 9–10. ISBN 9780393963380.
- ^ Solnit, Rebecca (2000). Wanderlust: A History of Walking. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0670882097.
- ^ Arnd Krüger: "Historie des Wanderns", in: A. Dreyer, A. Menzel & M. Endreß (Hrsg.): Wandertourismus. München: Oldenbourg 2010, pp. 15–21.
- ^ West, Thomas (1780). A Guide to the Lakes. p. 2. ISBN 9780371947258.
- ^ "Development of tourism in the Lake District National Park". Lake District UK. Archived from the original on October 11, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
- ^ "Understanding the National Park — Viewing Stations". Lake District National Park Authority. Archived from the original on 2014-01-04. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
- ^ Stephenson, Tom (1989). Forbidden Land: The Struggle for Access to Mountain and Moorland. Manchester University Press. p. 78. Retrieved 2013-02-07.
- ^ Stephenson, T.; Holt, A.; Harding, M. (1989). "The 1939 Access to Mountains Act". Forbidden Land: The Struggle for Access to Mountain and Moorland. Manchester University Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-7190-2966-0.
- ^ "Quarrying and mineral extraction in the Peak District National Park" (PDF). Peak District National Park Authority. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- ^ "Kinder Trespass. A history of rambling". Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2013-12-17.
- ^ "Open access land: management, rights and responsibilities". GOV.UK. Retrieved 2021-03-09.
- ^ Condensed Facts About Mount Washington. Atkinson News Co. 1912.
- ^ Thoreau, Henry David. "Walking". The Atlantic. No. June 1862. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- ^ "The Life and Contributions of John Muir". Sierra Club. Retrieved October 23, 2009.
- ^ Miller, Barbara Kiely (2008). John Muir. Gareth Stevens. p. 10. ISBN 978-0836883183.
- ^ "Quick History of the National Park Service (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2021-03-09.
- ^ "National Park Service". HISTORY. Retrieved 2021-03-09.
- ^ "Congress Creates the National Park Service". National Archives. 2016-08-25. Retrieved 2021-03-09.
- ^ "Appalachian Trail Conservancy". Retrieved May 31, 2020.
- ^ "The Top 10 Hiking Trails in the US". e2e.com. Archived from the original on 2014-02-23. Retrieved 2014-02-12.
- ^ North Downs Way National Trail. Page archived (as at 2012-07-28) from the Ramblers' Association, accessed 2013-04-29
- ^ Starkie, Walter (1965) . The Roads to Santiago: Pilgrims of St. James. University of California Press.
- ^ "Abraham Path | a cultural route connecting the storied places associated with Abraham's ancient journey". abrahampath.org. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- ^ "Lycian Way". Culture Routes Society. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
- ^ Whitman Piper, Ernest (8 July 2017). "Lycian Way: Hike through the best trekking route in Turkey". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- ^ "Great Himalaya Trails :: Trekking, hiking and walking in Nepal". Great Himalaya Trails.
- ^ Dudeck, Jan. "Greater Patagonian Trail". Wikiexplora. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- ^ "How to climb Kilimanjaro without the crowds". Morgan Trimble, The Guardian, 15 November, 2016
- ^ "Mawenzi". Peakware.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- ^ O'Grady, Kyle. "The Footwear Debate: Are Trail Runners Superior to Boots?". The Trek. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
- ^ Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills (6th ed.). The Mountaineers. 1997. pp. 35–40. ISBN 0-89886-427-5.
- ^ "Ten Essential Groups Article". Texas Sierra Club. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
- ^ "Trekking Poles". American Hiking Association. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
- ^ a b Jardine, Ray (2000). Beyond Backpacking: Ray Jardine's Guide to Lightweight Hiking. AdventureLore Press. ISBN 0963235931.
- ^ "Hiking with Kids"
- ^ Alisha McDarris "What you need to know when hiking with kids" Popular Science. May 19, 2020
- ^ "Wandern mit Kindern". www.alpenverein.at (in German). Retrieved 27 December 2020.
- ^ Bloch, Romana (Sep 2017). "Bergtouren mit Kindern: Das muss man beachten!" [Mountain tours with children: You have to pay attention to this!]. Alpin (in German). Retrieved 27 December 2020.
- ^ a b c Cole, David. "Impacts of Hiking and Camping on Soils and Vegetation: A Review"(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-06.
- ^ "About Our Mission". Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics.
- ^ "Chile and Czech Republic work to restore Torres del Paine Park". MercoPress. 2009-09-30.
- ^ a b Devaughn, Melissa (April 1997). "Trail Etiquette". Backpacker Magazine. Active Interest Media, Inc. p. 40. ISSN 0277-867X. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- ^ "Leave No Trace Seven Principles (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2021-03-18.
- ^ "Do not feed wildlife", Upper Thames River Conservation Authority
- ^ Boulware, D.R.; et al. (2003). "Medical Risks of Wilderness Hiking". American Journal of Medicine. 114 (4): 288–93. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(02)01494-8. PMID 12681456.
- ^ Goldenberg, Marni; Martin, Bruce (2007). Hiking and Backpacking. Wilderness Education Association. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-7360-6801-7.
- ^ a b "Altitude Diseases - Injuries; Poisoning". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. May 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
- ^ Simancas-Racines, D; Arevalo-Rodriguez, I; Osorio, D; Franco, JV; Xu, Y; Hidalgo, R (30 June 2018). "Interventions for treating acute high altitude illness". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6: CD009567. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009567.pub2. PMC 6513207. PMID 29959871.
- ^ "Avalanche danger". Pacific Crest Trails Association. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
- ^ "How to cross a glacier". Washington Trails Association. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
- ^ "Stream crossing safety while hiking and backpacking". Pacific Crest Trail Association.
- ^ Gordon, Michael R.; Lehren, Andrew W. (2010-10-23). "Iran Seized U.S. Hikers in Iraq, U.S. Report Asserts". New York Times.
- ^ "Hiking the Via Alpina - Questions / Answers". www.via-alpina.org. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
- ^ Winter Hiking: What to Know Before You Go" Appalachian Trail
- ^ Volken, Martin; Schnell, Scott; Wheeler, Margaret (2007). Backcountry Skiing: Skills for Ski Touring and Ski Mountaineering. Mountaineers Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-59485-038-7. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- ^ "Transport in, to and out of the backcountry - Snow Safety information". mountainacademy.salomon.com. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
- ^ "Ten mistakes winter walkers make – and how to avoid them". www.thebmc.co.uk. British Mountaineering Council. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
- ^ "Hill skills: avalanche awareness". www.thebmc.co.uk. British Mountaineering Council. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
- Amata, Joseph (2004). On Foot, A History of Walking. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 9780814705025. See summary of contents
- Chamberlin, Silas. On the Trail : A History of American Hiking. Yale University Press, 2015
- Gros, Frédéric (2014). A Philosophy of Walking. Translated by Howe, John. London, New York: Verso. ISBN 9781781682708.
- Solnit, Rebecca. Wanderlust: a history of walking, New York : Viking, 2000
Look up hiking
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hiking
Last edited on 19 April 2021, at 16:28
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.