History of slavery in the Muslim world The Muslim world
initially inherited the institution of slavery
from pre-Islamic Arabia
and the practice of keeping slaves
subsequently developed in radically different ways, depending on social-political factors such as the Arab slave trade
. Throughout Islamic history, slaves served in various social and economic roles, from powerful emirs
to harshly treated manual laborers. Early on in Muslim history slaves provided plantation labor
similar to that in the early-modern Americas, but this practice was abandoned after harsh treatment led to destructive slave revolts,
the most notable being the Zanj Rebellion
Slaves were widely employed in irrigation, mining, and animal husbandry, but most commonly as soldiers, guards, domestic workers,
. Many rulers relied on military slaves (often in huge standing armies
) and on slaves in administration - to such a degree that the slaves could sometimes seize power. Among black slaves, there were roughly two females to every one male.
Two rough estimates by scholars of the numbers of just one group - black slaves held over twelve centuries in the Muslim world - are 11.5 million
and 14 million,
while other estimates indicate a number between 12 and 15 million African slaves prior to the 20th century.
Islam encouraged the manumission
of Muslim slaves as a way of expiating sins.
Many early converts to Islam, such as Bilal
, were former slaves.
In theory, slavery in Islamic law does not have a racial or color basis, although this has not always been the case in practice.
In 1990 the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam
declared that "no one has the right to enslave" another human being.
Many slaves were imported from outside the Muslim world.Bernard Lewis
maintains that though slaves often suffered on the way before reaching their destination, they received good treatment and some degree of acceptance as members of their owners' households.
Slavery in pre-Islamic Arabia
Slavery was widely practiced in pre-Islamic Arabia
,[need quotation to verify]
as well as in the rest of the ancient and early medieval
world. The minority were European
slaves of foreign extraction, likely brought in by Arab caravaners (or the product of Bedouin
captures) stretching back to biblical times. Native Arab
slaves had also existed, a prime example being Zayd ibn Harithah
, later to become Muhammad's adopted son. Arab slaves, however, usually obtained as captives, were generally ransomed off amongst nomad tribes.
The slave population increased by the custom of child abandonment
(see also infanticide
), and by the kidnapping, or, occasionally, the sale of small children.
Whether enslavement for debt or the sale of children by their families was common is disputed. (Abd Brunschvig argues it was rare,
but according to Jonathan E. Brockopp debt slavery was persistent.
) Free persons could sell their offspring, or even themselves, into slavery. Enslavement was also possible as a consequence of committing certain offenses against the law, as in the Roman Empire
Two classes of slave existed: a purchased slave, and a slave born in the master's home. Over the latter, the master had complete rights of ownership, though these slaves were unlikely to be sold or disposed of by the master. Female slaves were at times forced into prostitution
for the benefit of their masters, in accordance with Near Eastern customs.
Slavery in Islamic Arabia
W. Montgomery Watt
points out that Muhammad's expansion of Pax Islamica
to the Arabian peninsula reduced warfare and raiding, and therefore cut off the sources of enslaving freemen.
According to Patrick Manning
, the Islamic legislations against the abuse of the slaves limited the extent of enslavement in Arabian peninsula and to a lesser degree for the whole area of the whole Umayyad Caliphate
where slavery existed since the most ancient times.
According to Bernard Lewis
, the growth of internal slave populations through natural increase was insufficient to maintain numbers right through to modern times, which contrasts markedly with rapidly rising slave populations in the New World. He writes that
- Liberation by freemen of their own offspring born by slave mothers was "the primary drain".
- Liberation of slaves as an act of piety, was a contributing factor. Other factors include:
- Castration: A fair proportion of male slaves were imported as eunuchs. Levy states that according to the Quran and Islamic traditions, such emasculation was objectionable. Some jurists such as al-Baydawi considered castration to be mutilation, stipulating law enforcement to prevent it. However, in practice, emasculation was frequent. In eighteenth-century Mecca, the majority of eunuchs were in the service of the mosques. Moreover, the process of castration (which included penectomy) carried a high risk of death.
- Liberation of military slaves: Military slaves that rose through the ranks were usually liberated at some stage in their careers.
- Restrictions on procreation: Among the menial, domestic, and manual worker slaves, casual sex was not permitted and marriage was not encouraged.
- High death toll: There was a high death toll among all classes of slaves. Slaves usually came from remote places and, lacking immunities, died in large numbers. Segal notes that recent slaves, weakened by their initial captivity and debilitating journey, would have been easy victim to climate changes and infection. Children were especially at risk, and the Islamic market demand for children was much greater than the American one. Many black slaves lived in conditions conducive to malnutrition and disease, with effects on their own life expectancy, the fertility of women, and the infant mortality rate. As late as the 19th century, Western travellers in North Africa and Egypt noted the high death rate among imported black slaves.
- Another factor was the Zanj Rebellion against the plantation economy of ninth-century southern Iraq. Due to fears of a similar uprising among slave gangs occurring elsewhere, Muslims came to realize that large concentrations of slaves were not a suitable organization of labour and that slaves were best employed in smaller concentrations. As such, large-scale employment of slaves for manual labour became the exception rather than the norm, and the medieval Islamic world did not need to import vast numbers of slaves.
Arab slave trade
13th-century slave market in Yemen.
Bernard Lewis writes: "In one of the sad paradoxes of human history, it was the humanitarian reforms brought by Islam that resulted in a vast development of the slave trade
inside, and still more outside, the Islamic empire." He notes that the Islamic injunctions against the enslavement of Muslims led to massive importation of slaves from the outside.
According to Patrick Manning, Islam by recognizing and codifying the slavery seems to have done more to protect and expand slavery than the reverse.
The 'Arab' slave trade is sometimes called the 'Islamic' slave trade. Bernard Lewis writes that "polytheists and idolaters were seen primarily as sources of slaves, to be imported into the Islamic world and molded-in Islamic ways, and, since they possessed no religion of their own worth the mention, as natural recruits for Islam."
Patrick Manning states that religion was hardly the point of this slavery.
Also, this term suggests comparison between Islamic slave trade and Christian slave trade
. Propagators of Islam in Africa often revealed a cautious attitude towards proselytizing because of its effect in reducing the potential reservoir of slaves.
According to Ronald Segal
, the male:female gender ratio in the Atlantic slave trade
was 2:1, whereas in Islamic lands the ratio was 1:2. Another difference between the two was, he argues, was that slavery in the west had a racial component, whereas the Qur'an explicitly condemned racism. This, in Segal's view, eased assimilation of freed slaves into society.
were used to transport goods and slaves to Oman.
In the 8th century, Africa was dominated by Arab
in the north: Islam moved southwards along the Nile
and along the desert trails. One supply of slaves was the Solomonic dynasty
which often exported Nilotic
slaves from their western borderland provinces, or from newly conquered or reconquered Muslim provinces. Native Muslim Ethiopian sultanates
exported slaves as well, such as the sometimes independent sultanate of Adal
For a long time, until the early 18th century, the Crimean Khanate
maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire
and the Middle East. Between 1530 and 1780 there were almost certainly 1 million and quite possibly as many as 1.25 million white, European Christians enslaved by the Muslims of the Barbary Coast
of North Africa.
A depiction of slaves being transported across the Sahara desert
On the coast of the Indian Ocean
too, slave-trading posts were set up by Muslim Arabs.
The archipelago of Zanzibar
, along the coast of present-day Tanzania
, is undoubtedly the most notorious example of these trading colonies. Southeast Africa and the Indian Ocean continued as an important region for the Oriental slave trade up until the 19th century. Livingstone
were then the first Europeans to penetrate to the interior of the Congo basin
and to discover the scale of slavery there.
The Arab Tippu Tib
extended his influence and made many people slaves.
After Europeans had settled in the Gulf of Guinea
, the trans-Saharan slave trade became less important. In Zanzibar, slavery was abolished late, in 1897, under Sultan Hamoud bin Mohammed
The rest of Africa had no direct contact with Muslim slave-traders.
While slaves were sometimes employed for manual labour
during the Arab slave trade, this was usually the exception rather than the norm. The vast majority of labour in the medieval Islamic world consisted of free, paid labour. The only known exceptions to this general rule was in the plantation economy
of 9th-century southern Iraq
(which led to the Zanj Revolt
), in 9th-century Ifriqiya
), and in 11th-century Bahrain
(during the Karmatian
Roles of slaves
A system of plantation labor, much like that which would emerge in the Americas, developed early on, but with such dire consequences that subsequent engagements were relatively rare and reduced. Moreover, the need for agricultural labor, in an Islamic world with large peasant populations, was nowhere near as acute as in the Americas.
Slaves in Islam were mainly directed at the service sector – concubines and cooks, porters and soldiers – with slavery itself primarily a form of consumption rather than a factor of production.
The most telling evidence for this is found in the gender ratio; among black slaves traded in Islamic empire across the centuries, there were roughly two females to every male.
Almost all of these female slaves had domestic occupations. For some, this also included sexual relations with their masters
. This was a lawful motive for their purchase, and the most common one.
Military service was also a common role for slaves. Barbarians from the "martial races" beyond the frontiers were widely recruited into the imperial armies. These recruits often advanced in the imperial and eventually metropolitan forces, sometimes obtaining high ranks.
Arab views on African peoples
Abdelmajid Hannoum, a professor at Wesleyan University, states that racist attitudes were not prevalent until the 18th and 19th century.
According to Arnold J. Toynbee
: "The extinction of race consciousness as between Muslims is one of the outstanding achievements of Islam and in the contemporary world there is, as it happens, a crying need for the propagation of this Islamic virtue."
In 2010, at the Second Afro-Arab summit Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi
apologized for Arab involvement in the African slave trade, saying: "I regret the behavior of the Arabs... They brought African children to North Africa, they made them slaves, they sold them like animals, and they took them as slaves and traded them in a shameful way. I regret and I am ashamed when we remember these practices. I apologize for this."
Women and slavery
In Classical Arabic terminology, female slaves were generally called jawāri
, s. jāriyaArabic
). Slave-girls specifically might be called imā’
, s. ama Arabic
), while female slaves who had been trained as entertainers or courtesans were usually called qiyān
, IPA /qi'jaːn/; singular qayna
, IPA /'qaina/).
They included sometimes highly trained entertainers known as qiyan who
enjoyed special privileges and status.
Choosing elite slaves for the grooming process
Choosing slaves to undergo the grooming process was highly selective in the Moroccan empire. There are many attributes and skills slaves can possess to win the favour and trust of their masters. When examining master/slave relationships we are able to understand that slaves with white skin were especially valued in Islamic societies. Additionally, mode of acquisition, as well as age when acquired heavily influenced slave value as well as, could foster trusting master-slave relationships. Many times slaves acquired as adolescents or even young adults became trusted aides and confidants of their masters. Furthermore, acquiring a slave during adolescence typically leads to opportunities for education and training, as slaves acquired in their adolescent years were at an ideal age to begin military training. In Islamic societies it was normal to begin this process at the age of ten, lasting until the age of fifteen, at which point these young men would be considered ready for military service. Slaves with specialised skills were highly valued in Islamic slave societies. Christian slaves were often required to speak and write in Arabic. Having slaves fluent in English and Arabic
was a highly valued tool for diplomatic affairs. Bi-lingual
slaves like Thomas Pellow
used their translating ability for important manners of diplomacy. Pellow himself worked as a translator for the ambassador in Morocco
In some cases, slaves joined to rebels or even uprose against governors. The most renowned of these rebellions was the Zanj Rebellion
The Zanj Revolt took place near the city of Basra
, located in southern Iraq
over a period of fifteen years (869–883 AD). It grew to involve over 500,000 slaves who were imported from across the Muslim empire and claimed over “tens of thousands of lives in lower Iraq”.
The revolt was said to have been led by Ali ibn Muhammad
, who claimed to be a descendant of Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib
Several historians, such as Al-Tabari and Al-Masudi, consider this revolt one of the “most vicious and brutal uprising” out of the many disturbances that plagued the Abbasid
A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810
were slave soldiers who were converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs
and the Ayyubid
sultans during the Middle Ages. Over time, they became a powerful military caste
, often defeating the Crusaders
and, on more than one occasion, they seized power for themselves, for example, ruling Egypt
in the Mamluk Sultanate
Through the Middle Ages
up until the early modern period
a major source of slaves to Muslim lands was Central and Eastern Europe. Slaves of Northwestern Europe
were also favored. Slaves were normally traded from Christian lands and rarely captured destined for Islamic lands like Spain and Egypt through France and Venice
Islamic views on Slavery
, Slaving was scorned at by Muslims following the Holy Prophet
's example which is echoed in the Quran
. So many restrictions were put on Muslims; such as equal treatment, same food, and clothing of the Master. If a slave converted to Islam they must be freed. Voluntary freeing of slaves is considered virtuous act and raises ones status in paradise.
served as a major centre for castration of Slavic captives. Emirate of Bari
also served as an important port for trade of such slaves.
After the Byzantine Empire
blocked Arab merchants from European ports, they started importing slaves from Caucasus and Caspian Sea.
Despite this, slaves taken in battle or from minor raids in continental Europe remained a steady resource in many regions. Additionally, the Ottoman Empire
utilized slaves from the Balkans
and Eastern Europe. The Janissaries
were primarily composed of enslaved Europeans. They were taken as boys and sent to school if they reached a good level of education they were sent into the civil service and achieved high office as ministers of state. The remainder were trained for the army and could end up as generals. The Ottomans did not trust their own people so handed the state to Slavs. In addition slaving raids by Barbary Pirates
on the coasts of Western Europe as far as Iceland remained a source until suppressed in the early 19th century. Common roles filled by European slaves ranged from laborers, to concubines, and even soldiers.
Slavery in India
In the Muslim conquests
in the 8th century, the armies of the Umayyad commander Muhammad bin Qasim
, enslaved tens of thousands of Indian prisoners, including both soldiers and civilians.
In the early 11th century Tarikh al-Yamini, the Arab historian Al-Utbi
recorded that in 1001 the armies of Mahmud of Ghazna
(capital of Gandhara) after Battle of Peshawar
(1001), "in the midst of the land of Hindustan
", and captured some 100,000 youths.
Later, following his twelfth expedition into India in 1018–19, Mahmud is reported to have returned with such a large number of slaves that their value was reduced to only two to ten dirhams each. This unusually low price made, according to Al-Utbi, "merchants [come] from distant cities to purchase them, so that the countries of Central Asia, Iraq and Khurasan were swelled with them, and the fair and the dark, the rich and the poor, mingled in one common slavery". Elliot and Dowson refer to "five hundred thousand slaves, beautiful men, and women.".
Later, during the Delhi Sultanate
period (1206–1555), references to the abundant availability of low-priced Indian slaves abound. Levi attributes this primarily to the vast human resources of India, compared to its neighbors to the north and west (India's Mughal
population being approximately 12 to 20 times that of Turan
at the end of the 16th century).
The Delhi sultanate
obtained thousands of slaves and eunuch servants from the villages of Eastern Bengal
(a widespread practice which Mughal emperor Jahangir
later tried to stop). Wars, famines, pestilences drove many villagers to sell their children as slaves. The Muslim conquest of Gujarat
in Western India had two main objectives. The conquerors demanded and more often forcibly wrested both land owned by Hindus and Hindu women. Enslavement of women invariably led to their conversion to Islam.
In battles waged by Muslims against Hindus in Malwa
and Deccan plateau
, a large number of captives were taken. Muslim soldiers were permitted to retain and enslave POWs as plunder.
The first Bahmani
sultan, Alauddin Bahman Shah
is noted to have captured 1,000 singing and dancing girls from Hindu temples after he battled the northern Carnatic
chieftains. The later Bahmanis also enslaved civilian women and children in wars; many of them were converted to Islam in captivity.
During the rule of Shah Jahan
, many peasants were compelled to sell their women and children into slavery to meet the land revenue demand.
Slavery in the Ottoman Empire
Slavery was a legal and important part of the economy of the Ottoman Empire
and Ottoman society
until the slavery of Caucasians
was banned in the early 19th century, although slaves from other groups were allowed.
), the administrative and political center of the Empire, about a fifth of the population consisted of slaves in 1609.
Even after several measures to ban slavery in the late 19th century, the practice continued largely unfazed into the early 20th century. As late as 1908, female slaves were still sold in the Ottoman Empire. Sexual slavery
was a central part of the Ottoman slave system throughout the history of the institution.
Ottoman painting of Balkan children taken as soldier-slaves.
A member of the Ottoman slave class, called a kul
, could achieve high status. Black castrated slaves
, were tasked to guard the imperial harems
, while white castrated slaves
filled administrative functions. Janissaries
were the elite soldiers of the imperial armies collected in childhood as a "blood tax
", while galley slaves
captured in slave raids
or as prisoners of war
, manned the imperial vessels. Slaves were actually often at the forefront of Ottoman politics. The majority of officials in the Ottoman government were bought slaves, raised free, and integral to the success of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century into the 19th. Many officials themselves owned a large number of slaves, although the Sultan
himself owned by far the largest amount.
By raising and specially training slaves as officials in palace schools
such as Enderun
, the Ottomans created administrators with intricate knowledge of government and fanatic loyalty.
Ottomans practiced devşirme
, a sort of "blood tax" or "child collection", young Christian boys from Eastern Europe
were taken from their homes and families, brought up as Muslims, and enlisted into the most famous branch of the Kapıkulu
, the Janissaries
, a special soldier class of the Ottoman army
that became a decisive faction in the Ottoman invasions of Europe
Most of the military commanders of the Ottoman forces, imperial administrators, and de facto
rulers of the Empire, such as Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha
and Sokollu Mehmed Pasha
, were recruited in this way.
Slavery in Sultanates of Southeast Asia
It is estimated that from 1770 to 1870, around 200,000 to 300,000 people were enslaved by Iranun
slavers. These were taken from piracy on passing ships as well as coastal raids on settlements as far as the Malacca Strait
, the southern coast of China
and the islands beyond the Makassar Strait
. Most of the slaves were Tagalogs
, and "Malays" (including Bugis
, and Makassar
). There were also occasional European and Chinese
captives who were usually ransomed off through Tausug
intermediaries of the Sulu Sultanate
The scale was so massive that the word for "pirate" in Malay
, an exonym
of the Iranun people. Male captives of the Iranun and the Banguingui were treated brutally, even fellow Muslim captives were not spared. They were usually forced to serve as galley slaves
on the lanong
warships of their captors. Female captives, however, were usually treated better. There were no recorded accounts of rapes, though some were starved for discipline. Within a year of capture, most of the captives of the Iranun and Banguingui would be bartered off in Jolo
usually for rice, opium, bolts of cloth, iron bars, brassware, and weapons. The buyers were usually Tausug datu
from the Sultanate of Sulu
who had preferential treatment, but buyers also included European (Dutch and Portuguese) and Chinese traders as well as Visayan pirates (renegados
The economy of the Sulu sultanates was largely run by slaves and the slave trade. Slaves were the primary indicators of wealth and status, and they were the source of labor for the farms, fisheries, and workshops of the sultanates. While personal slaves were rarely sold, they trafficked extensively in slaves purchased from the Iranun and Banguingui slave markets
. By the 1850s, slaves constituted 50% or more of the population of the Sulu archipelago.
Chattel slaves (known as banyaga
, or ammas
) were distinguished from the traditional debt bondsmen (the kiapangdilihan
, known as alipin
elsewhere in the Philippines). The bondsmen were natives enslaved to pay for debt or crime. They were slaves only in terms of their temporary service requirement to their master, but retained most of the rights of the freemen, including protection from physical harm and the fact that they can not be sold. The banyaga
on the other hand had little to no rights.
Most slaves were treated like serfs and servants. Educated and skilled slaves were largely treated well. Since most of the aristocratic classes in Sulu were illiterate, they were often dependent on the educated banyaga
as scribes and interpreters. Slaves part of the labor force were often given their own houses and lived in small communities with slaves of similar ethnic and religious backgrounds. However harsh punishment and abuse was not uncommon despite Islamic laws, especially for slave laborers and slaves who attempt to escape.
Spanish authorities and native Christian Filipinos responded to the Moro slave raids by building watchtowers and forts across the Philippine archipelago. Many of which are still standing today. Some provincial capitals were also moved further inland. Major command posts were built in Manila
, and Iligan
. Defending ships were also built by local communities, especially in the Visayas Islands
, including the construction of war "barangayanes
) that were faster than the Moro raiders and could give chase. As resistance against raiders increased, Lanong
warships of the Iranun were eventually replaced by the smaller and faster garay
warships of the Banguingui in the early 19th century. The Moro raids were eventually subdued by several major naval expeditions by the Spanish and local forces from 1848 to 1891, including retaliatory bombardment and capture of Moro settlements. By this time, the Spanish had also acquired steam gunboats
), which could easily overtake and destroy the native Moro warships.
The slave raids on merchant ships and coastal settlements disrupted traditional trade in goods in the Sulu Sea. While this was temporarily offset by the economic prosperity brought by the slave trade, the decline of slavery in the mid-19th century also led to the economic decline of the Sultanates of Brunei
, Sulu, and Maguindanao. This eventually led to the collapse of the latter two states and contributed to the widespread poverty of the Moro region
in the Philippines
today. By the 1850s, most slaves were local-born from slave parents as the raiding became more difficult. By the end of the 19th century and the conquest of the Sultanates by the Spanish and the Americans, the slave population were largely integrated into the native population as citizens under the Philippine government.
The Sultanate of Gowa
of the Bugis people
also became involved in the Sulu slave trade. They purchased slaves (as well as opium and Bengali cloth) from the Sulu Sea sultanates then sold them in the slave markets
in the rest of Southeast Asia. Several hundred slaves (mostly Christian Filipinos) were sold by the Bugis annually in Batavia
, and Palembang
by the Bugis. The slaves were usually sold to Dutch and Chinese families as servants, sailors, laborers, and concubines. The sale of Christian Filipinos (who were Spanish subjects) in Dutch-controlled cities led to formal protests by the Spanish Empire to the Netherlands and its prohibition in 1762 by the Dutch, but it had little effect due to lax or absent enforcement. The Bugis slave trade was only stopped in the 1860s when the Spanish navy from Manila started patrolling Sulu waters to intercept Bugis slave ships and rescue Filipino captives. Also contributing to the decline was the hostility of the Sama-Bajau
raiders in Tawi-Tawi
who broke off their allegiance to the Sultanate of Sulu in the mid-1800s and started attacking ships trading with the Tausug ports.
as late as 1891, there was a regular trade in Chinese slaves by Muslim slaveowners, with girls and women sold for concubinage.
19th and 20th centuries
Hamoud bin Mohammed, Sultan of Zanzibar from 1896 to 1902 was decorated by Queen Victoria
for complying with British demands that slavery be banned and slaves be freed.
The strong abolitionist movement in the 19th century in England and later in other Western countries
influenced slavery in Muslim lands. Though the "position of the domestic slave in Muslim society was in most respects better than in either classical antiquity
or the nineteenth-century Americas", due to regulation by Sharia law,
the enlightened incentives and opportunities for slaves to be emancipated meant there was a strong market for new slaves and thus strong incentive to enslave and sell human beings.
Appalling loss of life and hardships often resulted from the processes of acquisition and transportation of slaves to Muslim lands and this drew the attention of European opponents of slavery. The continuing pressure from European countries eventually overcame the strong resistance of religious conservatives who were holding that forbidding what God permits is just as great an offence as to permit what God forbids. Slavery, in their eyes, was "authorized and regulated by the holy law".
Even masters persuaded of their own piety and benevolence sexually exploited their concubines, without a thought of whether this constituted a violation of their humanity.
There were also many pious Muslims who refused to have slaves and persuaded others to do so.
Eventually, the Ottoman Empire's orders against the traffic of slaves were issued and put into effect.
According to Brockopp, in the 19th century, "Some authorities made blanket pronouncements against slavery, arguing that it violated the Qurʾānic ideals of equality and freedom. The great slave markets of Cairo were closed down at the end of the nineteenth century and even conservative Qurʾān interpreters continue to regard slavery as opposed to Islamic principles of justice and equality."
Slavery in the forms of carpet weavers, sugarcane cutters, camel jockeys
, sex slaves
, and even chattel exists even today in some Muslim countries (though some have questioned the use of the term slavery as an accurate description).
merchant (right) and his Circassian slave, between 1886 and 1887.
According to a March 1886 article in The New York Times
, the Ottoman Empire allowed a slave trade in girls to thrive during the late 1800s, while publicly denying it. Girl sexual slaves sold in the Ottoman Empire were mainly of three ethnic groups: Circassian
, and Nubian
. Circassian girls were described by the American journalist as fair and light-skinned. They were frequently sent by Circassian leaders as gifts to the Ottomans. They were the most expensive, reaching up to 500 Turkish lira
and the most popular with the Turks. The next most popular slaves were Syrian girls, with "dark eyes and hair", and light brown skin. Their price could reach to thirty lira
. They were described by the American journalist as having "good figures when young". Throughout coastal regions in Anatolia
, Syrian girls were sold. The New York Times
journalist stated Nubian girls were the cheapest and least popular, fetching up to 20 lira.
Murray Gordon said that, unlike Western societies which developed anti-slavery movements, no such organizations developed in Muslim societies. In Muslim politics, the state interpreted Islamic law. This then extended legitimacy to the traffic in slaves.
Writing about the Arabia he visited in 1862, the English traveler W. G. Palgrave met large numbers of black slaves. The effects of slave concubinage were apparent in the number of persons of mixed race and in the emancipation of slaves he found to be common.
Charles Doughty, writing about 25 years later, made similar reports.
According to British explorer (and abolitionist) Samuel Baker
, who visited Khartoum in 1862 six decades after the British had declared slave trade illegal, slave trade was the industry "that kept Khartoum going as a bustling town".
From Khartoum slave raiders attacked African villages to the south, looting and destroying so that "surviving inhabitants would be forced to collaborate with slavers on their next excursion against neighboring villages," and taking back captured women and young adults to sell in slave markets.
In the 1800s, the slave trade from Africa to the Islamic countries picked up significantly when the European slave trade dropped around the 1850s only to be ended with European colonisation of Africa around 1900.[full citation needed]
In 1814, Swiss explorer Johann Burckhardt
wrote of his travels in Egypt
, where he saw the practice of slave trading: "I frequently witnessed scenes of the most shameless indecency, which the traders, who were the principal actors, only laughed at. I may venture to state, that very few female slaves who have passed their tenth year, reach Egypt or Arabia in a state of virginity."
wrote of the slave trade in the African Great Lakes region, which he visited in the mid-nineteenth century:
To overdraw its evils is a simple impossibility ...
19th June 1866 - We passed a woman tied by the neck to a tree and dead, the people of the country explained that she had been unable to keep up with the other slaves in a gang, and her master had determined that she should not become anyone's property if she recovered.
26th June. - ...We passed a slave woman shot or stabbed through the body and lying on the path: a group of men stood about a hundred yards off on one side, and another of the women on the other side, looking on; they said an Arab who passed early that morning had done it in anger at losing the price he had given for her, because she was unable to walk any longer.
27th June 1866 - To-day we came upon a man dead from starvation, as he was very thin. One of our men wandered and found many slaves with slave-sticks on, abandoned by their masters from want of food; they were too weak to be able to speak or say where they had come from; some were quite young.
The strangest disease I have seen in this country seems really to be broken-heartedness, and it attacks free men who have been captured and made slaves... Twenty one were unchained, as now safe; however all ran away at once; but eight with many others still in chains, died in three days after the crossing. They described their only pain in the heart, and placed the hand correctly on the spot, though many think the organ stands high up in the breast-bone.
Zanzibar was once East Africa's main slave-trading port, and under Omani Arabs in the 19th century as many as 50,000 slaves were passing through the city each year.
Livingstone wrote in a letter to the editor of the New York Herald
And if my disclosures regarding the terrible Ujijian slavery should lead to the suppression of the East Coast slave trade, I shall regard that as a greater matter by far than the discovery of all the Nile sources together.
20th-century suppression and prohibition
A photograph of a slave boy in the Sultanate of Zanzibar
. 'An Arab master's punishment for a slight offence.' c. 1890. From at least the 1860s onwards, photography was a powerful weapon in the abolitionist arsenal.
, the sale of black and Circassian
women was conducted openly until the granting of the Constitution in 1908.
Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, slavery gradually became outlawed and suppressed in Muslim lands, due to a combination of pressure exerted by Western nations such as Britain and France, internal pressure from Islamic abolitionist movements, and economic pressures.
By the Treaty of Jeddah
, May 1927 (art.7), concluded between the British Government and Ibn Sa'ud
(King of Nejd
and the Hijaz
) it was agreed to suppress the slave trade in Saudi Arabia
. Then by a decree issued in 1936, the importation of slaves into Saudi Arabia was prohibited unless it could be proved that they were slaves at that date.
In 1962, that all slavery practices or trafficking in Saudi Arabia was prohibited.
By 1969, it could be observed that most Muslim states had abolished slavery although it existed in the deserts of Iraq bordering Arabia and it still flourished in Saudi Arabia, the Yemen
Slavery was not formally abolished in Yemen and Oman until the following year.
The last nation to formally enact the abolition of slavery practice and slave trafficking was the Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Slavery in Mauritania
was legally abolished by laws passed in 1905, 1961, and 1981.
It was finally criminalized in August 2007.
It is estimated that up to 600,000 Mauritanians, or 20% of Mauritania
's population, are currently[when?]
in conditions which some consider to be "slavery", namely, many of them used as bonded labour
due to poverty.
Slavery in the late 20th and 21st-century Muslim world
The issue of slavery in the Islamic world in modern times is controversial. Critics argue there is hard evidence of its existence and destructive effects. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Islam, slavery in central Islamic lands has been "virtually extinct" since the mid-20th century, though there are reports indicating that it is still practiced in some areas of Sudan and Somalia as a result of warfare.
Earlier in the 20th century, prior to the "reopening" of slavery by Salafi
scholars like Shaykh al-Fawzan, Islamist authors declared slavery outdated without actually clearly supporting its abolition. This has caused at least one scholar (William Clarence-Smith
) to bemoan the "dogged refusal of Mawlana Mawdudi
to give up on slavery"
and the notable "evasions and silences of Muhammad Qutb
, brother and promoter of the famous Sayyid Qutb
, vigorously defended Islamic slavery from Western criticism, telling his audience that "Islam gave spiritual enfranchisement to slaves" and "in the early period of Islam the slave was exalted to such a noble state of humanity as was never before witnessed in any other part of the world."
He contrasted the adultery, prostitution,
and (what he called) "that most odious form of animalism" casual sex, found in Europe,
with (what he called) "that clean and spiritual bond that ties a maid [i.e. slave girl] to her master in Islam."
Salafi support for slavery
In recent years, according to some scholars,
there has been a "reopening"
of the issue of slavery by some conservative Salafi
Islamic scholars after its "closing" earlier in the 20th century when Muslim countries
In 2003, Shaykh Saleh Al-Fawzan
, a member of Saudi Arabia's highest religious body, the Senior Council of Clerics
, issued a fatwa claiming "Slavery is a part of Islam. Slavery is part of jihad, and jihad will remain as long there is Islam."
Muslim scholars who said otherwise were "infidels". In 2016, Shaykh al-Fawzan responded to a question about taking Yazidi women as sex slaves by reiterating that "Enslaving women in war is not prohibited in Islam", he added that those who forbid enslavement are either "ignorant or infidel".
While Saleh Al-Fawzan
's fatwa does not repeal Saudi laws against slavery,
the fatwa carries weight among many Salafi
Muslims. According to reformist jurist and author Khaled Abou El Fadl, it "is particularly disturbing and dangerous because it effectively legitimates the trafficking in and sexual exploitation of so-called domestic workers in the Gulf region and especially Saudi Arabia."
Organized criminal gangs smuggle children into Saudi Arabia where they are enslaved, sometimes mutilated, and forced to work as beggars. When caught, the children are deported as illegal aliens.
Mauritania and Sudan
In Mauritania slavery was abolished in the country's first constitution of 1961 after independence, and abolished yet again, by presidential decree, in July 1980. The "catch" of these abolitions was that slave ownership was not abolished. The edict "recognized the rights of owners by stipulating that they should be compensated for their loss of property". No financial payment was provided by the state, so that the abolition amounted to "little more than propaganda for foreign consumption". Religious authorities within Mauritania assailed abolition. One leader, El Hassan Ould Benyamine, imam of a mosque in Tayarat attacked it as
"not only illegal because it is contrary to the teachings of the fundamental text of Islamic law, the Koran. The abolition also amounts to the expropriation from Muslims of their goods, goods that were acquired legally. The state, if it is Islamic, does not have the right to seize my house, my wife or my slave.`
In 1994–95, a Special Rapporteur of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights documented the physical and emotional abuse of captives by the Sudanese Army and allied militia and army. The captives were "sold as slaves or forced to work under conditions amounting to slavery". The Sudanese government responded with "fury", accusing the author, Gaspar Biro of "harboring anti-Islam and Anti-Arab sentiments". In 1999, the UN Commission sent another Special Rapporteur who "also produced a detailed examination of the question of slavery incriminating the government of Sudan."
At least in the 1980s, slavery in Sudan was developed enough for slaves to have a market price – the price of a slave boy fluctuating between $90 and $10 in 1987 and 1988.
Saudi Arabia abolished slavery officially; however, unofficial slavery is rumored to exist.
Saudi Arabia is a destination for men and women from South and East Asia and East Africa trafficked for the purpose of labor exploitation, and for children from Yemen, Afghanistan, and Africa trafficking for forced begging. Hundreds of thousands of low-skilled workers from India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka
, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Kenya migrate voluntarily to Saudi Arabia; some fall into conditions of involuntary servitude
, suffering from physical and sexual abuse
, non-payment or delayed payment of wages, the withholding of travel documents, restrictions on their freedom of movement
and non-consensual contract alterations. The Government of Saudi Arabia does not comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so.
Libya and Algeria
Libya is a major exit point
for African migrants heading to Europe. International Organization for Migration
(IOM) published a report in April 2017 showing that many of the migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa
heading to Europe are sold as slaves after being detained by people smugglers
or militia groups. African countries south of Libya were targeted for slave trading and transferred to Libyan slave markets instead. According to the victims, the price is higher for migrants with skills like painting and tiling.
Slaves are often ransomed
to their families and in the meantime until ransom
can be paid tortured, forced to work, sometimes to death and eventually executed or left to starve if they can't pay for too long. Women are often raped and used as sex slaves
and sold to brothels
and private Libyan clients.
Many child migrants also suffer from abuse and child rape
In November 2017, hundreds of African migrants were being forced into slavery by human smugglers who were themselves facilitating their arrival in the country. Most of the migrants are from Nigeria
. They however end up in cramped warehouses due to the crackdown by the Libyan Coast Guard, where they are held until they are ransomed or are sold for labor.
Libyan authorities of the Government of National Accord
announced that they had opened up an investigation into the auctions.
A human trafficker told Al-Jazeera
that hundreds of the migrants are bought and sold across the country every week.
Dozens of African migrants headed for a new life in Europe in 2018 said they were sold for labor and trapped in slavery in Algeria.
In 2014, Islamic terrorist
groups in the Middle East (ISIS
also known as Islamic State) and Northern Nigeria (Boko Haram
) have not only justified the taking of slaves in war but actually enslaved women and girls. Abubakar Shekau
, the leader of the Nigerian extremist group Boko Haram
said in an interview, "I shall capture people and make them slaves".
In the digital magazine Dabiq
, ISIS claimed religious justification for enslaving Yazidi
women whom they consider to be from a heretical sect. ISIS claimed that the Yazidi are idol worshipers and their enslavement part of the old shariah
practice of spoils of war
. The Economist
reports that ISIS
has taken "as many as 2,000 women and children" captive, selling and distributing them as sexual slaves.
ISIS appealed to apocalyptic beliefs
and "claimed justification by a Hadith that they interpret as portraying the revival of slavery as a precursor to the end of the world."
Geography of the slave trade
There is historical evidence of North African Muslim slave raids all along the Mediterranean coasts across Christian Europe.
The majority of slaves traded across the Mediterranean region were predominantly of European origin from the 7th to 15th centuries.
Slaves were also brought into the Arab world via Central Asia, mainly of Turkic or Tartar
origin. Many of these slaves later went on to serve in the armies forming an elite rank.
- Nubia and Ethiopia were also "exporting" regions: in the 15th century, Ethiopians sold slaves from western borderland areas (usually just outside the realm of the Emperor of Ethiopia) or Ennarea, which often ended up in India, where they worked on ships or as soldiers. They eventually rebelled and took power (dynasty of the Habshi Kings).
- The Sudan region and Saharan Africa formed another "export" area, but it is impossible to estimate the scale, since there is a lack of sources with figures.
- Finally, the slave traffic affected eastern Africa, but the distance and local hostility slowed this section of the Oriental trade.
shells were used as money in the slave trade.
Slaves were often bartered for objects of various kinds: in the Sudan, they were exchanged for cloth, trinkets and so on. In the Maghreb, slaves were swapped for horses. In the desert cities, lengths of cloth, pottery, Venetian glass slave beads
, dyestuffs and jewels were used as payment. The trade in black slaves was part of a diverse commercial network. Alongside gold coins, cowrie shells
from the Indian Ocean or the Atlantic (Canaries
) were used as money throughout sub-saharan Africa (merchandise was paid for with sacks of cowries).
Slave markets and fairs
A slave market in Khartoum
, Sudan, c. 1876.
Enslaved Africans were sold in the towns of the Arab World
. In 1416, al-Maqrizi told how pilgrims coming from Takrur
(near the Senegal River
) brought 1,700 slaves with them to Mecca
. In North Africa, the main slave markets were in Morocco, Algiers
and Cairo. Sales were held in public places or in souks
Potential buyers made a careful examination of the "merchandise": they checked the state of health of a person who was often standing naked with wrists bound together. In Cairo, transactions involving eunuchs
happened in private houses. Prices varied according to the slave's quality. Thomas Smee, the commander of the British research ship Ternate
, visited such a market in Zanzibar in 1811 and gave a detailed description:
'The show' commences about four o'clock in the afternoon. The slaves, set off to the best advantage by having their skins cleaned and burnished with cocoa-nut oil, their faces painted with red and white stripes and the hands, noses, ears and feet ornamented with a profusion of bracelets of gold and silver and jewels, are ranged in a line, commencing with the youngest, and increasing to the rear according to their size and age. At the head of this file, which is composed of all sexes and ages from 6 to 60, walks the person who owns them; behind and at each side, two or three of his domestic slaves, armed with swords and spears, serve as guard. Thus ordered the procession begins, and passes through the market-place and the principle streets... when any of them strikes a spectator's fancy the line immediately stops, and a process of examination ensues, which, for minuteness, is unequalled in any cattle market in Europe. The intending purchaser having ascertained there is no defect in the faculties of speech, hearing, etc., that there is no disease present, next proceeds to examine the person; the mouth and the teeth are first inspected and afterwards every part of the body in succession, not even excepting the breasts, etc., of the girls, many of whom I have seen handled in the most indecent manner in the public market by their purchasers; indeed there is every reasons to believe that the slave-dealers almost universally force the young girls to submit to their lust previous to their being disposed of. From such scenes one turns away with pity and indignation.
Africa: 8th through 19th centuries
In April 1998, Elikia M'bokolo, wrote in Le Monde diplomatique
. "The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth)." He continues: "Four million slaves exported via the Red Sea, another four million through the Swahili
ports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean"
In the 8th century, Africa was dominated by Arab-Berbers in the north: Islam moved southwards along the Nile and along the desert trails.
- The Sahara was thinly populated. Nevertheless, since antiquity there had been cities living on a trade in salt, gold, slaves, cloth, and on agriculture enabled by irrigation: Tiaret, Oualata, Sijilmasa, Zaouila, and others.
- In the Middle Ages, the general Arabic term bilâd as-sûdân ("Land of the Blacks") was used for the vast Sudan region (an expression denoting West and Central Africa), or sometimes extending from the coast of West Africa to Western Sudan. It provided a pool of manual labour for North and Saharan Africa. This region was dominated by certain states and people: the Ghana Empire, the Empire of Mali, the Kanem-Bornu Empire, the Fulani and Hausa.
- In the Horn of Africa, the coasts of the Red Sea and Indian Ocean were controlled by local Somali and other Muslims, and Yemenis and Omanis had merchant posts along the coasts. The Ethiopian coast, particularly the port of Massawa and Dahlak Archipelago, had long been a hub for the exportation of slaves from the interior by the Kingdom of Aksum and earlier polities. The port and most coastal areas were largely Muslim, and the port itself was home to a number of Arab and Indian merchants. The Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia often exported Nilotic slaves from their western borderland provinces, or from newly conquered southern provinces. The Somali and Afar Muslim sultanates, such as the Adal Sultanate, also exported Nilotic slaves that they captured from the interior.
In the African Great Lakes region, Omani and Yemeni traders set up slave-trading posts along the southeastern coast of the Indian Ocean; most notably in the archipelago of Zanzibar, along the coast of present-day Tanzania. The Zanj
region or Swahili Coast flanking the Indian Ocean continued to be an important area for the Oriental slave trade up until the 19th century. Livingstone
and Stanley were then the first Europeans to penetrate to the interior of the Congo Basin
and to discover the scale of slavery there. The Arab Tippu Tip
extended his influence there and captured many people as slaves. After Europeans had settled in the Gulf of Guinea
, the trans-Saharan slave trade became less important. In Zanzibar, slavery was abolished late, in 1897, under Sultan Hamoud bin Mohammed
The history of the slave trade has given rise to numerous debates amongst historians. For one thing, specialists are undecided on the number of Africans taken from their homes; this is difficult to resolve because of a lack of reliable statistics: there was no census system in medieval Africa. Archival material for the transatlantic trade in the 16th to 18th centuries may seem useful as a source, yet these record books were often falsified. Historians have to use imprecise narrative documents to make estimates which must be treated with caution: Luiz Felipe de Alencastro states that there were 8 million slaves taken from Africa between the 8th and 19th centuries along the Oriental and the Trans-Saharan
Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau has put forward a figure of 17 million African people enslaved (in the same period and from the same area) on the basis of Ralph Austen's work.[page needed]Ronald Segal
estimates between 11.5 and 14 million were enslaved by the Arab slave trade.[page needed]
Other estimates place it around 11.2 million.
There has also been a considerable genetic impact on Arabs throughout the Arab world from pre-modern African and European slaves.
An 1816 illustration of Christian slaves in Algiers
These are given in chronological order. Scholars and geographers
from the Arab world had been travelling to Africa since the time of Muhammad
in the 7th century.
- Al-Masudi (died 957), Muruj adh-dhahab or The Meadows of Gold, the reference manual for geographers and historians of the Muslim world. The author had travelled widely across the Arab world as well as the Far East.
- Ya'qubi (9th century), Kitab al-Buldan or Book of Countries
- Abraham ben Jacob (Ibrahim ibn Jakub) (10th century), Jewish merchant from Córdoba
- Al-Bakri, author of Kitāb al-Masālik wa'l-Mamālik or Book of Roads and Kingdoms, published in Córdoba around 1068, gives us information about the Berbers and their activities; he collected eyewitness accounts on Saharan caravan routes.
- Muhammad al-Idrisi (died circa 1165), Description of Africa and Spain
- Ibn Battuta (died circa 1377), Moroccan geographer who travelled to sub-Saharan Africa, to Gao and to Timbuktu. His principal work is called A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling.
- Ibn Khaldun (died in 1406), historian and philosopher from North Africa. Sometimes considered as the historian of Arab, Berber and Persian societies. He is the author of Muqaddimah or Historical Prolegomena and History of the Berbers.
- Al-Maqrizi (died in 1442), Egyptian historian. His main contribution is his description of Cairo markets.
- Leo Africanus (died circa 1548), author of Descrittione dell' Africa or Description of Africa, a rare description of Africa.
- Rifa'a al-Tahtawi (1801–1873), who translated medieval works on geography and history. His work is mostly about Muslim Egypt.
- Joseph Cuoq, Collection of Arabic sources concerning Western Africa between the 8th and 16th centuries (Paris 1975)
European texts (16th–19th centuries)
- João de Castro, Roteiro de Lisboa a Goa (1538)
- James Bruce, (1730–1794), Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (1790)
- René Caillié, (1799–1838), Journal d'un voyage à Tombouctou
- Robert Adams, The Narrative of Robert Adams (1816)
- Mungo Park, (1771–1806), Travels in the Interior of Africa (1816)
- Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, (1784–1817), Travels in Nubia (1819)
- Heinrich Barth, (1821–1865), Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa (1857)
- Richard Francis Burton, (1821–1890), The Lake Regions of Central Africa (1860)
- David Livingstone, (1813–1873), Travel diaries (1866–1873)
- Henry Morton Stanley, (1841–1904), Through the Dark Continent (1878)
- Historical manuscripts such as the Tarikh al-Sudan, the Adalite Futuh al-Habash, the Abyssinian Kebra Nagast, and various Arabic and Ajam documents
- African oral tradition
- Kilwa Chronicle (16th century fragments)
- Numismatics: analysis of coins and of their diffusion
- Archaeology: architecture of trading posts and of towns associated with the slave trade
- Iconography: Arab and Persian miniatures in major libraries
- European engravings, contemporary with the slave trade, and some more modern
- Photographs from the 19th century onward
- ^ Lewis 1994, Ch.1 Archived 2001-04-01 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b c d e f Segal, Islam's Black Slaves, 2001: p.4
- ^ Clarence-Smith (2006), pp. 2–5
- ^ [Total of black slave trade in the Muslim world from Sahara, Red Sea and Indian Ocean routes through the 19th century comes to an estimated 11,500,000, "a figure not far short of the 11,863,000 estimated to have been loaded onto ships during the four centuries of the Atlantic slave trade." (Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformation in Slavery (CUP, 1983).
- ^ Raymond Mauny estimates a total of 14 million black slaves were traded in Islam through the 20th Century, including 300,000 for part of the 20th century. (p.57, source: "Les Siecles obscurs de l'Afrique Noire (Paris: Fayard, 1970)]
- ^ HOCHSCHILD, ADAM (March 4, 2001). "Human Cargo". New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 December 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2015. Early on in Islam's Black Slaves, his history of slavery in the Muslim world, Ronald Segal cites some estimates. One scholar puts the rough total at 11.5 million slaves during more than a dozen centuries, and another at 14 million.
- ^ Beigbeder, Yves (2006). Judging War Crimes and Torture: French Justice and International Criminal Tribunals and Commissions (1940-2005). Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 42. ISBN 978-90-04-15329-5. Historian Roger Botte estimates that Arab slave trade of Africans until the 20th century has involved from 12 to 15 million persons, with the active participation of African leaders.
- ^ Gordon 1987, p. 40.
- ^ The Qur'an with Annotated Interpretation in Modern English By Ali Ünal, p. 1323 Archived 2015-09-05 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, Slaves and Slavery
- ^ Bilal b. Rabah, Encyclopedia of Islam
- ^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p.36
- ^ Bernard Lewis, Race and Color in Islam, Harper and Yuow, 1970, quote on page 38. The brackets are displayed by Lewis.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-11-03. Retrieved 2018-02-25.
- ^ Slavery in Islam Archived 2018-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. 7 September 2009. BBC.
- ^ Lewis, Bernard (1994). Race and Slavery in the Middle East. Oxford Univ Press. Archived from the original on 2018-03-07. Retrieved 2018-03-06. In later times, for which we have more detailed evidence, it would seem that while the slaves often suffered appalling privations from the moment of their capture until their arrival at their final destination, once they were placed with a family they were reasonably well treated and accepted in some degree as members of the household. In commerce, slaves were often apprenticed to their masters, sometimes as assistants, sometimes advancing to become agents or even business partners.
- ^ a b c d e f Brunschvig. 'Abd; Encyclopedia of Islam
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-10-06. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
- ^ Martin A. Klein (2002), Historical Dictionary of Slavery and Abolition, p. xxii, ISBN 0810841029
- ^ a b Segal, Islam's Black Slaves, 1568: p.206
- ^ Segal, Islam's Black Slaves, 2001: p.222
- ^ a b Lewis (1992) p. 4
- ^ a b Encyclopedia of the Bible, Slaves and Slavery
- ^ Mendelsohn (1949) pp. 54–58
- ^ John L Esposito (1998) p. 79
- ^ Watt, Muhammad at Medina, 1956, p. 296
- ^ a b Manning (1990) p. 28
- ^ Levy (1957) p. 77
- ^ Brunschvig. 'Abd; Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 16.
- ^ a b Segal, Islam's Black Slaves, 2001: p.62
- ^ Hansen, Suzy (2001). "Islam's black slaves". Salon.com book review. Salon.com. Archived from the original on 2007-03-01. Retrieved 2007-04-05. - See under 'What about eunuchs?'
- ^ William D. Phillips Jr. (1985). Slavery from Roman times to the early transatlantic trade. Manchester University Press. pp. 76–7. ISBN 978-0-7190-1825-1. Archived from the original on 2017-10-24. Retrieved 2017-07-14.
- ^ a b William D. Phillips (1985). Slavery from Roman times to the early transatlantic trade. Manchester University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-7190-1825-1.
- ^ Lewis 1990, p. 10.
- ^ Lewis (1990), p. 42.
- ^ Manning (1990) p.10
- ^ Murray Gordon, Slavery in the Arab World. New Amsterdam Press, New York, 1989. Originally published in French by Editions Robert Laffont, S.A. Paris, 1987, p. 28.
- ^ Interview with Ronald Segal on the subject of his book Islam's Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora. Suzy Hansen, "Islam’s black slaves,"Archived 2007-03-01 at the Wayback MachineSalon, April 5, 2001. Quote: "Here we get to a further dimension of the difference between the two trades. Slavery in the West...the concept of race developed and was popularized...The Koran very explicitly attacks [racism]...This is important for the assimilation aspect too, because once you were freed, there was no discrimination in law against you...I don't think that there's any disputing that slavery was a more benevolent institution in Islam than it was in the West."
- ^ Pankhurst (1997) p. 59
- ^ "Ohio State Research News with reference to "Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500–1800" (Palgrave Macmillan)". Archived from the original on 2011-07-25.
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- ^ Ingrams (1967) p.175
- ^ Brunschvig. 'Abd; Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 13.
- ^ Lewis 1990, p. 63.
- ^ Hannoum, Abdelmajid (1 January 2003). "Translation and the Colonial Imaginary: Ibn Khaldûn Orientalist". History and Theory. 42 (1): 61–81. doi:10.1111/1468-2303.00230. JSTOR 3590803.
- ^ A. J. Toynbee, Civilization on Trial, New York, 1948, p. 205
- ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p9bI_5MKdQ0
- ^ Fuad Matthew Caswell, The Slave Girls of Baghdad: The 'Qiyān' in the Early Abbasid Era (London: I. B. Tauris, 2011), pp. ix-x, 1–2.
- ^ a b c Furlonge, Nigel D. (1999). "Revisiting the Zanj and Re-Visioning Revolt: Complexities of the Zanj Conflict - 868-883 AD - slave revolt in Iraq". Negro History Bulletin. 62 (4). Archived from the original on 2016-03-06. Retrieved 2017-12-06.
- ^ Ibrahim, Raymond (2018). Sword and Scimitar: Fourteen Centuries of War between Islam and the West. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0306825552.
- ^ Charlemagne, Muhammad, and the Arab Roots of Capitalism by Gene W. Heck. Munich: Walter de Gruyter. 2009. p. 316. ISBN 978-3-406-58450-3.
- ^ Atlas of the Year 1000. Munich: Harvard University Press. 2009. p. 72. ISBN 978-3-406-58450-3.
- ^ Packard, Sidney Raymond (1973). 12th century Europe: an interpretive essay. p. 62.
- ^ Pargas, Damian Alan; Roşu, Felicia (2017-12-07). Critical Readings on Global Slavery (4 vols.). pp. 653, 654. ISBN 9789004346611.
- ^ Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, tr., The Chachnamah, an Ancient History of Sind, 1900, reprint (Delhi, 1979), pp. 154, 163. This thirteenth-century source claims to be a Persian translation of an (apparently lost) eighth-century Arabic manuscript detailing the Islamic conquests of Sind.
- ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, vol. 1, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, Seventh to Eleventh Centuries (Leiden, 1990)
- ^ Muhammad Qasim Firishta, Tarikh-i-Firishta (Lucknow, 1864).
- ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, vol. 2, The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th–13th centuries (Leiden, 1997)
- ^ Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Utbi, Tarikh al-Yamini (Delhi, 1847), tr. by James Reynolds, The Kitab-i-Yamini (London, 1858),
- ^ Wink, Al-Hind, II
- ^ Henry M. Elliot and John Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 vols (London, 1867–77), II,
- ^ Dale, Indian Merchants,
- ^ Satish C. Misra, The Rise of Muslim Power in Gujarat (Bombay, 1963), p. 205.
- ^ Cambridge History of India ed. Wolseley Haig, Vol. III pp.356, 449.
- ^ Cambridge History of India ed. Wolseley Haig, Vol. III, pp. 391, 397–398
- ^ Sewell, Robert. A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar) pp. 57–58.
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- ^ Travels of Fray Sebāstien Manrique, 1629-1643 vol. II, p.272. (Ashgate, 2010 reprint)
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- ^ Wolf Von Schierbrand (March 28, 1886 (news was reported on March 4)). "Slaves sold to the Turk; How the vile traffic is still carried on in the East. Sights our correspondent saw for twenty dollars--in the house of a grand old Turk of a dealer" (PDF). The New York Times. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 19 January 2011. Check date values in: |date= (help)
- ^ Madeline C. Zilfi Women and slavery in the late Ottoman Empire Cambridge University Press, 2010
- ^ Eric Dursteler (2006). Venetians in Constantinople: Nation, Identity, and Coexistence in the Early Modern Mediterranean. JHU Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-8018-8324-8. Archived from the original on 2016-06-09. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
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- ^ a b James Francis Warren (2007). The Sulu Zone, 1768–1898: The Dynamics of External Trade, Slavery, and Ethnicity in the Transformation of a Southeast Asian Maritime State. NUS Press. pp. 257–258. ISBN 9789971693862.
- ^ a b Domingo M. Non (1993). "Moro Piracy during the Spanish Period and its Impact" (PDF). Southeast Asian Studies. 30 (4): 401–419. doi:10.20495/tak.30.4_401. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-11-04. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
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- ^ Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, Verspreide Geschriften (Bonn, 1923), II, II ff
- ^ a b Bernard Lewis, (1992), pp. 78–79
- ^ Lewis, Bernard Race and Slavery in the Middle East (1990) pp. 9–11
- ^ Lewis, Bernard Race and Slavery in the Middle East (1990) pp. 111, 149–156
- ^ Segal, Islam's Black Slaves, 2001: p. 5
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