Ostensibly, the alliance was formed to instill the divine right of kings
and Christian values in European political life, as pursued by Alexander I under the influence of his spiritual adviser Baroness Barbara von Krüdener
. Under the treaty European rulers would agree to govern as "branches" of the Christian community and offer mutual service. The agreement was at first secret, and mistrusted by liberals though liberalism was effectively restrained in this political culture until the Revolutions of 1848
About three months after the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna
, the monarchs of Catholic
(Prussia), and Orthodox
(Russia) confession promised to act on the basis of "justice, love, and peace", both in internal and foreign affairs, for "consolidating human institutions and remedying their imperfections".
In practice, the Austrian state chancellor and foreign minister, Prince Klemens von Metternich
made it a bastion against democracy
, and secularism
(although it is said that his first reaction was to call it "a resounding nothing"). The monarchs in the Alliance used it to suppress revolutionary influence (especially from the French Revolution
) from entering their own nations.
Contemporary caricature of the Congress of Verona, 1822
The last meetings had revealed the rising antagonism with Britain and France, especially on Italian unification
, the right to self-determination
, and the Eastern Question
. The Alliance is conventionally taken to have become defunct with Alexander's death in 1825. France ultimately went her separate way following the July Revolution
of 1830, leaving the core of Austria, Prussia, and Russia as a Central
block which once again congregated to suppress the Revolutions of 1848
. The Austro-Russian alliance finally broke up in the Crimean War
. Though Russia had helped to suppress the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
, Austria did not take any action to support her ally, declared herself neutral, and even occupied the Wallachian
lands on the Danube
upon the Russian retreat in 1854. Thereafter, Austria remained isolated, which added to the loss of her leading role in the German states, culminating in her defeat during the Austro-Prussian War
- ^ Holy Alliance, Catholic Encyclopedia
- ^ E.J. Knapton, "The Origins of the Treaty of Holy Alliance." History 26.102 (1941): 132-140. online
- ^ Eastern Europe: An Historical Geography, 1815-1945 p23
- ^ Stephen A. Fischer-Galati, "The Nature and Immediate Origins of the Treaty of Holy Alliance". History 38.132 (1953): 27–39.
- Fischer-Galati, Stephen A. "The Nature and Immediate Origins of the Treaty of Holy Alliance." History 38.132 (1953): 27-39. online
- Jarrett, Mark (2013). The Congress of Vienna and its Legacy: War and Great Power Diplomacy after Napoleon. London: I. B. Tauris & Company, Ltd. ISBN 978-1780761169.
- Knapton, E.J. "The Origins of the Treaty of Holy Alliance." History 26.102 (1941): 132-140. online
Last edited on 1 March 2021, at 00:41
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