Originally a sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages,
the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's tenth-largest exporter and ninth-largest importer.
Hong Kong has a major capitalist service economy characterised by low taxation and free trade, and its currency, the Hong Kong dollar
, is the eighth most traded currency in the world.
Hong Kong is home to the second-highest number of billionaires
of any city in the world,
the highest number of billionaires of any city in Asia, and the largest concentration of ultra high-net-worth individuals
of any city in the world.
Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes
in the world, severe income inequality
exists among the population.
The name of the territory, first romanised as "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780,
originally referred to a small inlet located between Aberdeen Island
and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen
was an initial point of contact between British sailors and local fishermen.
Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is generally believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese
pronunciation hēung góng
. The name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River
or to the odour from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon
. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export before Victoria Harbour developed. Sir John Davis
(the second colonial governor) offered an alternative origin; Davis said that the name derived from "Hoong-keang" ("red torrent"), reflecting the colour of soil over which a waterfall on the island flowed.
Liberation of Hong Kong in 1945. Picture taken at the Cenotaph in Central
, Hong Kong
During the Middle Neolithic
period, about 6,000 years ago, the region had been widely occupied by humans.
Neolithic to Bronze Age Hong Kong settlers were semi-coastal people. Early inhabitants are believed to be Austronesians
in the Middle Neolithic
period and later the Yueh
As hinted by the archaeological works in Sha Ha, Sai Kung, rice cultivation had been introduced since Late Neolithic
Bronze Age Hong Kong was featured with coarse pottery, hard pottery, quartz and stone jewelry, as well as small bronze implements.
After the Qing conquest
, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin
policies. The Kangxi Emperor
lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684.
Qing authorities established the Canton System
in 1757 to regulate trade more strictly, restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea, silk, and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant, so that Chinese goods could only be bought with precious metals. To reduce the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium
to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever more aggressive actions to halt the opium trade.
In 1839, the Daoguang Emperor
rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium and ordered imperial commissioner Lin Zexu
to eradicate the opium trade. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade,
triggering a British military response and the First Opium War. The Qing surrendered early in the war and ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi
. However, both countries were dissatisfied and did not ratify the agreement.
After more than a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom
in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking
Administrative infrastructure was quickly built by early 1842, but piracy, disease, and hostile Qing policies initially prevented the government from attracting commerce. Conditions on the island improved during the Taiping Rebellion
in the 1850s, when many Chinese refugees, including wealthy merchants, fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colony.
Further tensions between the British and Qing over the opium trade escalated into the Second Opium War. The Qing were again defeated and forced to give up Kowloon Peninsula
and Stonecutters Island
in the Convention of Peking
By the end of this war, Hong Kong had evolved from a transient colonial outpost into a major entrepôt
. Rapid economic improvement during the 1850s attracted foreign investment, as potential stakeholders became more confident in Hong Kong's future.
Its population rebounded quickly after the war, as skilled Chinese migrants fled from the Chinese Civil War
, and more refugees crossed the border when the Chinese Communist Party
took control of mainland China in 1949.
Hong Kong became the first of the Four Asian Tiger
economies to industrialise during the 1950s.
With a rapidly increasing population, the colonial government began reforms to improve infrastructure and public services. The public-housing estate programme
, Independent Commission Against Corruption
, and Mass Transit Railway
were all established during the post-war decades to provide safer housing, integrity in the civil service, and more-reliable transportation.
Although the territory's competitiveness in manufacturing gradually declined because of rising labour and property costs, it transitioned to a service-based economy. By the early 1990s, Hong Kong had established itself as a global financial centre and shipping hub.
The colony faced an uncertain future as the end of the New Territories lease approached, and Governor Murray MacLehose
raised the question of Hong Kong's status with Deng Xiaoping
Diplomatic negotiations with China resulted in the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration
, in which the United Kingdom agreed to transfer the colony in 1997 and China would guarantee Hong Kong's economic and political systems for 50 years after the transfer.
The impending transfer triggered a wave of mass emigration
as residents feared an erosion of civil rights, the rule of law, and quality of life.
Over half a million people left the territory during the peak migration period, from 1987 to 1996.
The Legislative Council became a fully elected legislature
for the first time in 1995 and extensively expanded its functions and organisations throughout the last years of the colonial rule.
Hong Kong was transferred to China on 1 July 1997, after 156 years of British rule.
Government and politics
The regional government is composed of three branches:
The territory's jurisdictional independence is most apparent in its immigration
and taxation policies. The Immigration Department
issues passports for permanent residents
which differ from those of the mainland or Macau,
and the region maintains a regulated border
with the rest of the country. All travellers between Hong Kong and China and Macau must pass through border controls, regardless of nationality.
Mainland Chinese citizens do not have right of abode in Hong Kong
and are subject to immigration controls.
Public finances are handled separately from the national government; taxes levied in Hong Kong do not fund the central authority.
The territory is divided into 18 districts, each represented by a district council
. These advise the government on local issues such as public facility provisioning, community programme maintenance, cultural promotion, and environmental policy. There are a total of 479 district council seats, 452 of which are directly elected. Rural committee
chairmen, representing outlying villages and towns, fill the 27 non-elected seats.
Political reforms and sociopolitical issues
Hong Kong is governed by a hybrid regime
that is not fully representative
of the population. Legislative Council members elected by functional constituencies
composed of professional and special interest groups are accountable to those narrow corporate electorates and not the general public. This electoral arrangement has guaranteed a pro-establishment
majority in the legislature since the transfer of sovereignty. Similarly, the Chief Executive is selected by establishment politicians and corporate members of the Election Committee
rather than directly elected.
Although universal suffrage
for Chief Executive and all Legislative Council elections are defined goals of Basic Law Articles 45
the legislature is only partially directly elected and the executive continues to be nominated by an unrepresentative body.
The government has been repeatedly petitioned to introduce direct elections for these positions.
Ethnic minorities (except those of European ancestry) have marginal representation in government and often experience discrimination in housing, education, and employment.
Employment vacancies and public service appointments frequently have language requirements which minority job seekers do not meet, and language education resources remain inadequate for Chinese learners. Foreign domestic helpers
, predominantly women from the Philippines and Indonesia, have little protection under regional law. Although they live and work in Hong Kong, these workers are not treated as ordinary residents and are ineligible for right of abode in the territory. Sex trafficking in Hong Kong
is an issue. Hongkonger and foreign women and girls are forced into prostitution in brothels, homes, and businesses in the city.
The Joint Declaration guarantees the Basic Law for 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty.
It does not specify how Hong Kong will be governed after 2047, and the central government's role in determining the territory's future system of government is the subject of political debate and speculation. Hong Kong's political and judicial systems may be integrated with China's at that time, or the territory may continue to be administered separately.
In October 2020, Hong Kong authorities arrested seven pro-democracy
politicians over tussles with pro-Beijing
politicians during the Legislative Council
in May. They were charged with contempt and interfering with members of the council, while none of the pro-Beijing lawmakers were detained.
Areas of urban development and vegetation are visible in this satellite image.
Hong Kong is on China's southern coast, 60 km (37 mi) east of Macau
, on the east side of the mouth of the Pearl River estuary
. It is surrounded by the South China Sea
on all sides except the north, which neighbours the Guangdong
city of Shenzhen
along the Sham Chun River
. The territory's 1,110.18 km2
(428.64 sq mi)
area (2754.97 km2
if the maritime area is included) consists of Hong Kong Island
, the Kowloon Peninsula
, the New Territories
, Lantau Island, and over 200 other islands. Of the total area, 1,073 km2
(414 sq mi) is land and 35 km2
(14 sq mi) is water.
The territory's highest point is Tai Mo Shan
, 957 metres (3,140 ft) above sea level.
Urban development is concentrated on the Kowloon Peninsula, Hong Kong Island, and in new towns
throughout the New Territories.
Much of this is built on reclaimed land
; 70 km2
(27 sq mi) (six per cent of the total land or about 25 per cent of developed space in the territory) is reclaimed from the sea.
Undeveloped terrain is hilly to mountainous, with very little flat land, and consists mostly of grassland, woodland, shrubland, or farmland.
About 40 per cent of the remaining land area are country parks
and nature reserves.
The territory has a diverse ecosystem; over 3,000 species of vascular plants
occur in the region (300 of which are native to Hong Kong), and thousands of insect, avian, and marine species.
Hong Kong has a humid subtropical climate
), characteristic of southern China
, despite being located south of the Tropic of Cancer
. Summer is hot and humid, with occasional showers and thunderstorms and warm air from the southwest. Typhoons
occur most often then, sometimes resulting in floods or landslides. Winters are mild and usually sunny at the beginning, becoming cloudy towards February; an occasional cold front brings strong, cooling winds from the north. Autumn is the sunniest season, whilst spring is generally cloudy.
When there is snowfall, which is extremely rare, it is usually at high elevations. Hong Kong averages 1,709 hours of sunshine per year;
the highest and lowest recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory
are 36.6 °C (97.9 °F) on 22 August 2017 and 0.0 °C (32.0 °F) on 18 January 1893.
The highest and lowest recorded temperatures in all of Hong Kong are 39.0 °C (102 °F) at Wetland Park
on 22 August 2017,
and −6.0 °C (21.2 °F) at Tai Mo Shan on 24 January 2016
Hong Kong has the world's largest number of skyscrapers
, with 317 towers taller than 150 metres (490 ft),
and the third-largest number of high-rise buildings in the world.
The lack of available space restricted development to high-density residential tenements and commercial complexes packed closely together on buildable land. Single-family detached homes
are extremely rare and generally only found in outlying areas.
City view of Kowloon, Hong Kong Island, and the Hong Kong skyline
The Census and Statistics Department
estimated Hong Kong's population at 7,482,500 in mid-2019. The overwhelming majority (92 per cent) is Han Chinese
most of whom are Taishanese
, and a number of other Cantonese peoples
The remaining eight per cent are non-ethnic Chinese minorities, primarily Filipinos
, and South Asians
About half the population have some form of British nationality
, a legacy of colonial rule; 3.4 million residents have British National (Overseas)
status, and 260,000 British citizens live in the territory.
The vast majority also hold Chinese nationality
, automatically granted to all ethnic Chinese residents at the transfer of sovereignty.
Headline population density of about 6,800 people/km2
does not reflect true densities since only 6.9% of land is residential, the residential average population density calculates closer to a highly cramped 100,000/km2
The predominant language is Cantonese
, a variety of Chinese
originating in Guangdong
. It is spoken by 94.6 per cent of the population, 88.9 per cent as a first language and 5.7 per cent as a second language.
Slightly over half the population (53.2 per cent) speaks English, the other official language;
4.3 per cent are native speakers, and 48.9 per cent speak English as a second language. Code-switching
, mixing English and Cantonese in informal conversation, is common among the bilingual population.
Post-handover governments have promoted Mandarin
, which is currently about as prevalent as English; 48.6 per cent of the population speaks Mandarin, with 1.9 per cent native speakers and 46.7 per cent speaking it as a second language. Traditional Chinese characters
are used in writing, rather than the simplified characters
used on the mainland.
Among the religious population, the traditional "three teachings
" of China, Buddhism
, and Taoism
, have the most adherents (20 per cent), and are followed by Christianity
(12 per cent) and Islam
(4 per cent).
Followers of other religions, including Sikhism
, and the Baháʼí Faith
, generally originate from regions where their religion predominates.
Income inequality has risen since the transfer of sovereignty, as the region's ageing population has gradually added to the number of nonworking people.
Although median household income steadily increased during the decade to 2016, the wage gap remained high;
the 90th percentile of earners receive 41 per cent of all income.
The city has the most billionaires per capita, with one billionaire per 109,657 people.
Despite government efforts to reduce the growing disparity,
median income for the top 10 per cent of earners is 44 times that of the bottom 10 per cent.
Hong Kong is the tenth-largest trading entity in exports
(2017), trading more goods in value than its gross domestic product.
Over half of its cargo throughput consists of transshipments
(goods travelling through Hong Kong). Products from mainland China account for about 40 per cent of that traffic.
The city's location allowed it to establish a transportation and logistics infrastructure which includes the world's seventh-busiest container port
and the busiest airport for international cargo.
The territory's largest export markets are mainland China and the United States.
Hong Kong is part of the Maritime Silk Road
that runs from the Chinese coast via the Suez Canal
to the Mediterranean, there to the Upper Adriatic region of Trieste
with its rail connections to Central
and Eastern Europe
It has little arable land and few natural resources, importing most of its food and raw materials. More than 90 per cent of Hong Kong's food is imported, including nearly all its meat and rice.
Agricultural activity is 0.1% of GDP, and consists of growing premium food and flower varieties.
Although the territory had one of Asia's largest manufacturing economies during the latter half of the colonial era, Hong Kong's economy is now dominated by the service sector. The sector generates 92.7 per cent of economic output, with the public sector accounting for about 10 per cent.
Between 1961 and 1997 Hong Kong's gross domestic product increased by a factor of 180, and per capita GDP increased by a factor of 87.
The territory's GDP relative to mainland China's peaked at 27 per cent in 1993; it fell to less than three per cent in 2017, as the mainland developed and liberalised its economy.
Economic and infrastructure integration with China has increased significantly since the 1978 start of market liberalisation
on the mainland. Since resumption of cross-boundary train service
in 1979, many rail and road links have been improved and constructed (facilitating trade between regions).
The Closer Partnership Economic Arrangement
formalised a policy of free trade between the two areas, with each jurisdiction pledging to remove remaining obstacles to trade and cross-boundary investment.
A similar economic partnership with Macau details the liberalisation of trade between the special administrative regions.
Chinese companies have expanded their economic presence in the territory since the transfer of sovereignty. Mainland firms represent over half of the Hang Seng Index
value, up from five per cent in 1997.
As the mainland liberalised its economy, Hong Kong's shipping industry faced intense competition from other Chinese ports. Fifty per cent of China's trade goods were routed through Hong Kong in 1997, dropping to about 13 per cent by 2015.
The territory's minimal taxation, common law system, and civil service attract overseas corporations wishing to establish a presence in Asia.
The city has the second-highest number of corporate headquarters in the Asia-Pacific region.
Hong Kong is a gateway for foreign direct investment
in China, giving investors open access to mainland Chinese markets through direct links with the Shanghai
and Shenzhen stock exchanges
. The territory was the first market outside mainland China for renminbi-denominated bonds
, and is one of the largest hubs for offshore renminbi
In November 2020, Hong Kong's Financial Services and the Treasury Bureau proposed a new law that will restrict cryptocurrency trading to professional investors only, leaving amateur traders (93% of Hong Kong's trading population) out of the market.
The government has had a passive role in the economy. Colonial governments had little industrial policy
, and implemented almost no trade controls
. Under the doctrine of "positive non-interventionism
", post-war administrations deliberately avoided the direct allocation of resources; active intervention was considered detrimental to economic growth.
While the economy transitioned to a service basis during the 1980s,
late colonial governments introduced interventionist policies. Post-handover administrations continued and expanded these programmes, including export-credit
guarantees, a compulsory pension scheme
, a minimum wage, anti-discrimination laws
, and a state mortgage backer.
Hong Kong has a highly developed, sophisticated transport network. Over 90 per cent of daily trips are made on public transport, the highest percentage in the world.
The Octopus card
, a contactless smart payment
card, is widely accepted on railways, buses and ferries, and can be used for payment in most retail stores.
Although public transport systems handle most passenger traffic, there are over 500,000 private vehicles registered in Hong Kong.
Automobiles drive on the left
(unlike in mainland China), due to historical influence of the British Empire
Vehicle traffic is extremely congested in urban areas, exacerbated by limited space to expand roads and an increasing number of vehicles.
More than 18,000 taxicabs
, easily identifiable by their bright colour, are licensed to carry riders in the territory. Bus services
operate more than 700 routes across the territory,
with smaller public light buses
(also known as minibuses) serving areas standard buses do not reach as frequently or directly.
Highways, organised with the Hong Kong Strategic Route and Exit Number System
, connect all major areas of the territory.
The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge
provides a direct route to the western side of the Pearl River estuary.
Meridian Star of the Star Ferry crossing Victoria Harbour
The Star Ferry
operates two lines across Victoria Harbour
for its 53,000 daily passengers.
Ferries also serve outlying islands
inaccessible by other means. Smaller kai-to
boats serve the most remote coastal settlements.
Ferry travel to Macau and mainland China is also available. Junks
, once common in Hong Kong waters, are no longer widely available and are used privately and for tourism.
Hong Kong generates most of its electricity locally.
The vast majority of this energy comes from fossil fuels, with 46 per cent from coal and 47 per cent from petroleum.
The rest is from other imports, including nuclear energy generated in mainland China.
Renewable sources account for a negligible amount of energy generated for the territory.
Small-scale wind-power sources have been developed,
and a small number of private homes and public buildings have installed solar panels.
With few natural lakes and rivers, high population density, inaccessible groundwater sources, and extremely seasonal rainfall, the territory does not have a reliable source of freshwater. The Dongjiang River
in Guangdong supplies 70 per cent of the city's water,
and the remaining demand is filled by harvesting rainwater.
Toilets in most built-up areas of the territory flush with seawater, greatly reducing freshwater use.
Broadband Internet access is widely available, with 92.6 per cent of households connected. Connections over fibre-optic infrastructure
are increasingly prevalent,
contributing to the high regional average connection speed of 21.9 Mbit/s (the world's fourth-fastest).
Mobile-phone use is ubiquitous;
there are more than 18 million mobile-phone accounts
more than double the territory's population.
Hong Kong is characterised as a hybrid of East
. Traditional Chinese values emphasising family and education blend with Western ideals, including economic liberty and the rule of law.
Although the vast majority of the population is ethnically Chinese, Hong Kong has developed a distinct identity. The territory diverged from the mainland due to its long period of colonial administration and a different pace of economic, social, and cultural development. Mainstream culture is derived from immigrants originating from various parts of China
. This was influenced by British-style education, a separate political system, and the territory's rapid development during the late 20th century.
Most migrants of that era fled poverty and war, reflected in the prevailing attitude toward wealth; Hongkongers tend to link self-image and decision-making to material benefits.
Residents' sense of local identity has markedly increased post-handover: 53 per cent of the population identify as "Hongkongers", while 11 per cent describe themselves as "Chinese". The remaining population purport mixed identities, 23 per cent as "Hongkonger in China" and 12 per cent as "Chinese in Hong Kong".
Traditional Chinese family values, including family honour
, filial piety
, and a preference for sons
, are prevalent. Nuclear families
are the most common households, although multi-generational and extended families are not unusual.
Spiritual concepts such as feng shui
are observed; large-scale construction projects often hire consultants to ensure proper building positioning and layout. The degree of its adherence to feng shui
is believed to determine the success of a business. Bagua
mirrors are regularly used to deflect evil spirits,
and buildings often lack floor numbers with a 4
the number has a similar sound to the word for "die" in Cantonese.
Food in Hong Kong is primarily based on Cantonese cuisine
, despite the territory's exposure to foreign influences and its residents' varied origins. Rice
is the staple food, and is usually served plain with other dishes.
Freshness of ingredients is emphasised. Poultry and seafood are commonly sold live at wet markets
, and ingredients are used as quickly as possible.
There are five daily meals: breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea, dinner, and siu yeh
. Dim sum
, as part of yum cha
(brunch), is a dining-out tradition with family and friends. Dishes include congee
, cha siu bao
, siu yuk
, egg tarts
, and mango pudding
. Local versions of Western food are served at cha chaan teng
(fast, casual restaurants). Common cha chaan teng
menu items include macaroni in soup, deep-fried French toast, and Hong Kong-style milk tea
Statue of Bruce Lee on the Avenue of Stars
, a tribute to the city's film industry
Hong Kong developed into a filmmaking hub during the late 1940s as a wave of Shanghai filmmakers migrated to the territory, and these movie veterans helped rebuild the colony's entertainment industry over the next decade.
By the 1960s, the city was well known to overseas audiences through films such as The World of Suzie Wong
When Bruce Lee
's Way of the Dragon
was released in 1972, local productions became popular outside Hong Kong. During the 1980s, films such as A Better Tomorrow
, As Tears Go By
, and Zu Warriors from the Magic Mountain
expanded global interest beyond martial arts films
; locally made gangster films, romantic dramas, and supernatural fantasies became popular.
Hong Kong cinema continued to be internationally successful over the following decade with critically acclaimed dramas such as Farewell My Concubine
, To Live
, and Chungking Express
. The city's martial arts film roots are evident in the roles of the most prolific Hong Kong actors. Jackie Chan
, Donnie Yen
, Jet Li
, Chow Yun-fat
, and Michelle Yeoh
frequently play action-oriented roles in foreign films. At the height of the local movie industry in the early 1990s, over 400 films were produced each year; since then, industry momentum shifted to mainland China. The number of films produced annually has declined to about 60 in 2017.
Leslie Cheung (left)
is considered a pioneering Cantopop artist, and Andy Lau
has been an icon of Hong Kong music and film for several decades as a member of the Four Heavenly Kings.
is a genre of Cantonese popular music which emerged in Hong Kong during the 1970s. Evolving from Shanghai-style shidaiqu
, it is also influenced by Cantonese opera
and Western pop.
Local media featured songs by artists such as Sam Hui
, Anita Mui
, Leslie Cheung
, and Alan Tam
; during the 1980s, exported films and shows exposed Cantopop to a global audience.
The genre's popularity peaked in the 1990s, when the Four Heavenly Kings
dominated Asian record charts.
Despite a general decline since late in the decade,
Cantopop remains dominant in Hong Kong; contemporary artists such as Eason Chan
, Joey Yung
, and Twins
are popular in and beyond the territory.
Western classical music has historically had a strong presence in Hong Kong, and remains a large part of local musical education.
The publicly funded Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra
, the territory's oldest professional symphony orchestra, frequently host musicians and conductors from overseas. The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra
, composed of classical Chinese instruments
, is the leading Chinese ensemble and plays a significant role in promoting traditional music in the community.
Sport and recreation
races originated as a religious ceremony conducted during the annual Tuen Ng Festival
. The race was revived as a modern sport as part of the Tourism Board
's efforts to promote Hong Kong's image abroad. The first modern competition was organised in 1976, and overseas teams began competing in the first international race in 1993.
The Hong Kong Jockey Club
, the territory's largest taxpayer,
has a monopoly on gambling and provides over seven per cent of government revenue.
Three forms of gambling are legal in Hong Kong: lotteries and betting on horse racing and football.
Education in Hong Kong is largely modelled after that of the United Kingdom
, particularly the English system
Children are required to attend school from the age of six until completion of secondary education, generally at age 18.
At the end of secondary schooling, all students take a public examination and awarded the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education
on successful completion.
Of residents aged 15 and older, 81.3 per cent completed lower-secondary education, 66.4 per cent graduated from an upper secondary school, 31.6 per cent attended a non-degree tertiary program, and 24 per cent earned a bachelor's degree or higher.
Mandatory education has contributed to an adult literacy rate of 95.7 per cent.
Lower than that of other developed economies, the rate is due to the influx of refugees from mainland China during the post-war colonial era. Much of the elderly population were not formally educated due to war and poverty.
Comprehensive schools fall under three categories: public schools, which are government-run; subsidised schools, including government aid-and-grant schools; and private schools, often those run by religious organisations and that base admissions on academic merit. These schools are subject to the curriculum guidelines as provided by the Education Bureau. Private schools subsidised under the Direct Subsidy Scheme
and international schools fall outside of this system and may elect to use differing curricula and teach using other languages.
The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction"; most schools use Cantonese as the medium of instruction
, with written education in both Chinese and English. Other languages being used as medium of instruction in non-international school education includes English and Putonghua (Standard Mandarin Chinese). Secondary schools emphasise "bi-literacy and tri-lingualism", which has encouraged the proliferation of spoken Mandarin language education.
, headquarters of Hong Kong's first over-the-air television station
Hong Kong's major English-language newspaper is the South China Morning Post
, with The Standard
serving as a business-oriented alternative. A variety of Chinese-language newspapers are published daily; the most prominent are Ming Pao
, Oriental Daily News
, and Apple Daily
. Local publications are often politically affiliated, with pro-Beijing or pro-democracy sympathies. The central government has a print-media presence in the territory through the state-owned Ta Kung Pao
and Wen Wei Po
Several international publications have regional operations in Hong Kong, including The Wall Street Journal
, The Financial Times
, The New York Times International Edition
, USA Today
, Yomiuri Shimbun
, and The Nikkei
television broadcasters operate in the territory; TVB
, and Hong Kong Open TV
air eight digital
TVB, Hong Kong's dominant television network, has an 80 per cent viewer share. Pay TV services
operated by Cable TV Hong Kong
offer hundreds of additional channels and cater to a variety of audiences. RTHK
is the public broadcaster, providing seven radio channels and three television channels.
Ten non-domestic broadcasters air programming for the territory's foreign population.
Access to media and information over the Internet is not subject to mainland Chinese regulations, including the Great Firewall
, yet local control applies.
Notes and references
- ^ a b No specific variety of Chinese is official in the territory. Residents predominantly speak Cantonese, the de facto regional standard.
- ^ a b For all government use, documents written using Traditional Chinese characters are authoritative over ones inscribed with Simplified Chinese characters. English shares equal status with Chinese in all official proceedings.
- ^ Except for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Hong Kong Link Road, which drives on the right.
- ^ Hong Kong permanent residents can be of any nationality. A person without Chinese nationality who has entered Hong Kong with a valid travel document, has ordinarily resided there for a continuous period not less than seven years, and is permanently domiciled in the territory would be legally recognised as a Hongkonger.
- ^ However decisions made by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress override any territorial judicial process. Furthermore, the State Council may enforce national law in the region under specific circumstances.
- ^ Leung 2016.
- ^ a b Official Languages Ordinance.
- ^ a b c d Population By-Census 2016, pp. 31, 51–52
- ^ Legislative Council Disclaimer and Copyright Notice
- ^ Use of Chinese in Court Proceedings 2011
- ^ a b c Population By-Census 2016, p. 46.
- ^ a b Cheung 2017.
- ^ a b "Survey and Mapping Office – Circulars and Publications". Survey and Mapping Office. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- ^ "Population - Overview | Census and Statistics Department". Censtatd.gov.hk. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
- ^ Population By-Census 2016, p. 34.
- ^ a b c d e "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- ^ a b Household Income Distribution 2016, p. 7
- ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- ^ Technical Legislative Amendments on Traffic Arrangements for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge 2017
- ^ Basic Law Chapter III Article 24.
- ^ a b c Carroll 2007, pp. 15–21.
- ^ a b Carroll 2007, pp. 21–24.
- ^ a b Scott 1989, p. 6.
- ^ Snow, Philip.  (2004). The fall of Hong Kong: Britain, China and the Japanese occupation. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10373-5, ISBN 978-0-300-10373-1.
- ^ a b Gargan 1997.
- ^ Sino-British Joint Declaration Article 3
- ^ Global Financial Centres Index 2017
- ^ a b "Country Comparison: Exports". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- ^ a b "Country Comparison: Imports". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- ^ Triennial Central Bank Survey 2016, p. 10
- ^ Giacomo Tognini. "World's Richest Cities: The Top 10 Cities Billionaires Call Home". Forbes. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- ^ Liu 2018.
- ^ Frank 2018.
- ^ "Country Comparison: GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- ^ a b c d "Hong Kong". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
- ^ a b "Hong Kong". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
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Legislation and case law
- Amendment to the Basic Law Annex I (Instrument A111)
- Basic Law Chapter II
- Basic Law Chapter III
- Basic Law Chapter IV
- Basic Law Chapter V
- Basic Law Chapter VII
- Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Another v the President of the Legislative Council, HCAL 185/2016, at para. 20
- Constitution of the People's Republic of China (Instrument A1)
- District Councils Ordinance (Cap. 547) Schedule 3
- Emergency Regulations Ordinance (Cap. 241)
- Hong Kong Baptist University Ordinance (Cap. 1126)
- Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passports Ordinance (Cap. 539)
- Lingnan University Ordinance (Cap. 1165)
- Ng Ka Ling and Another v the Director of Immigration, FACV 14/1998, at para. 63
- Official Languages Ordinance (Cap. 5) § 3(1)
- Sino-British Joint Declaration (Instrument A301)
- Standing Committee Interpretation Concerning Implementation of Chinese Nationality Law in Hong Kong (Instrument A204)
- The Education University of Hong Kong Ordinance (Cap. 444)
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Last edited on 12 June 2021, at 20:02
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