: استان هرمزگان
, Ostān-e Hormozgān, in Balochi meaning the Vast Garden of Dates
) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran
. It is in the south of the country, in Iran's Region 2
. Its area is 70,697 km2
(27,296 sq mi),
and its provincial capital is Bandar Abbas
. The province has fourteen islands in the Persian Gulf
and 1,000 km (620 mi) of coastline.
The province has 13 major cities: Bandar Abbas
, Bandar Lengeh
, Bandar Khamir
, and Abumusa
. The province has 13 counties (or districts), 69 municipalities, and 2,046 villages. In 2011 a little more than 1.5 million people resided in Hormozgan Province. The counties of Hormozgan Province are Parsian County
, Bastak County
, Bandar Lengeh County
, Abumusa County
, Qeshm County
, Khamir County
, Bandar Abbas County
, Hajjiabad County
, Rudan County
, Minab County
, Sirik County
, Bashagard County
& Jask County
The province is said to have been particularly prosperous between 241 BC and 211 BC, but grew even further in trade and commercial significance after the arrival of the Islamic era.
In 1497 Europeans landed in the region for the first time, headed by Vasco da Gama
. In 1508 the Portuguese
, led by Afonso de Albuquerque
invaded the area with seven warships, under the pretext of protecting their interests from Egypt
. The port of Hormuz at the time was considered strategic positioned for commercial interests in the Persian Gulf.
who was trying to counter the Ottoman Empire
to the west, was unable to save the port from the Portuguese, until Shah Abbas I
was finally able to drive them out of the Persian Gulf with the aid of the British. The name of Bandar Abbas
comes directly from the name of Shah Abbas I.
The British, meanwhile, were competing for influence in the region with Dutch colonialists, who invaded Qeshm Island
and dispatched warships to Bandar Abbas
during the final years of Shah Abbas' reign. The Persian government was unable to defend itself against this attack. However, with the souring of British and Dutch relations, military tensions grew in the region. The Dutch finally resorted to moving their base up to Kharg Island
. The Amir of Kharg, Mir Mahna Baloch and Mir Hamal Kalmati with Baloch army defeated the Europeans from Bander Abbas till Karachi, so the Dutch and other forces at Kharg, leaving the British firmly in charge of the entire region. Soon Britain took control over the entire Persian Gulf via the British East India Company
. The British adopted policy encouraging local autonomy throughout the Persian Gulf to in order to prevent a formidable unified force from threatening their establishments in the gulf.
The strategic importance of the Persian Gulf further increased after World War I
with the discovery of oil in the region.
Geography and climate
The province is primarily mountainous, consisting of the southern tip of the Zagros Range
. The province experiences a very hot and humid climate, with temperatures sometimes exceeding 120 °F (49 °C) in summers. There is very little precipitation year-round.
Hormozgan today has 11 ports, five national airports, and three international airports. The province has an active agriculture sector, ranking first in Iran in lime
production and second in date
production. 30% of Iran's fishery produce comes from this province. Three major hydro dams
serve the water needs of the province — Esteghlal Dam (i.e., Minab Dam, which supplies major part of consuming water of the Bandar Abbas), Jegin Dam, and Shemil Dam.
Germany has recently[when?]
offered to build a bridge that would connect Qeshm island to the mainland, a formidable project.
Hormozgan has four- and five-star hotels with modern amenities. The Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran lists 212 sites of historical and cultural significance in the province. Some of the more popular attractions are:
Colleges and Universities
- ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-15. Retrieved 2017-03-19.
- ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
- ^ "همشهری آنلاین-استانهای کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند (Provinces were divided into 5 regions)". Hamshahri Online (in Persian). 22 June 2014 [1 Tir 1393, Jalaali]. Archived from the original on 23 June 2014.
- ^ SCI.org[permanent dead link]
- Afshar Sistani, Iraj, Shenakht-e ostan-e Hormozgan, Tehran 2000
- Barbera, Gerardo, "Hormozgan: Situação linguística e aspectos culturais", Âyiné. International Journal of Islamic Societies and Cultures, 1, 2013, pp. 130–147
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 19:06
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