Human rights violations during the Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)
This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2019)
There have been many human rights violations
committed by various groups after the Yemeni Civil War
. There are two main groups involved in the ongoing conflict: forces loyal to the current Yemeni president, Abh Rabbuh Mansur Hadi
, and Houthis
and other forces supporting Ali Abdullah Saleh
, the former Yemeni president. On 29 November 2017, fighting between forces loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh and the Houthis began in Sana'a
. al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula
and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
have also carried out attacks in Yemen.
All sides of the conflict have been accused of human rights violations.
Coalition forces led by Saudi Arabia
and backed by the United States and other nations have also been accused of violating human rights and in some cases, breaking international law. The coalition forces intervened at Hadi's request, in an attempt to defeat the Houthis and restore Hadi's government.
Coalition attacks, especially airstrikes, have been accused of causing large scale civilian deaths, but Saudi Arabia disputes these claims.
The use of force by these groups has exacerbated the humanitarian crisis situation in Yemen, as critical infrastructure has been damaged or destroyed in attacks. In addition to the attacks, blockades of critical resources, such as fuel, to Yemen by Saudi Arabia have hindered the transport of food in Yemen, and the ability of civilians to travel to locations where there are adequate medical facilities.
The situation in Yemen has been described as "one of the worst crises in the world" by the United Nations Humanitarian Coordinator for Yemen.
Human rights violations by regional groups
Regional groups have been accused of indiscriminate attacks, often resulting in the deaths of civilians, and at times, of limiting the ability of civilians to import goods and arbitrarily detaining protesters.
The rights to life and to security of person,
not to be arbitrarily deprived of one's property,
and not to be arbitrarily detained
are protected by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
and can be argued to have been breached by these regional groups.
According to Amnesty International, members of the pro Hadi and Houthi factions have often attacked each other from residential areas, which places civilians in danger of becoming caught up in the fighting. Some victims of these attacks have been children, who were caught up in conflict in Aden
, as a result of the forces not ensuring that civilians would not be harmed, and using weapons such as unguided rockets
, which can be inaccurate, especially in residential areas. These attacks have been said to violate international law,
as the forces have often not taken sufficient precautions to ensure the safety of civilians, particularly in residential areas. In addition to the use of rockets, Houthis have been accused of laying landmines
, which can gravely endanger civilians.
The use of these mines has alarmed human rights groups, the use of anti-personnel mines was banned in Yemen as a result of the Mine Ban Treaty
. Members of local human rights groups have reported finding 1,170 unexploded mines in around a month.
According to Amnesty international
annual report 2015–2016, Houthis
and allied forces loyal to former President Saleh
have expanded their arbitrary arrests, detentions and abductions of government supporters, activists, and human rights
defenders. The international organisation said that many detainees were held in an inappropriate and unofficial detention center. In October, Armed men belonging to Houthi militia arrested at least 25 men while attending a meeting at Ibb hotel. Most of them were released later after being tortured.
There are concerns around freedom of speech
in Houthi controlled areas, after reports of arbitrary detention of protestors and activists emerged.
Journalists have also been kidnapped by Houthi and other forces, and the Committee to Protect Journalists
has called for an investigation into the treatment of journalists in Yemen.
In addition to accusations of indiscriminately firing on Yemeni civilians, attacks on Saudi Arabian civilians have been attributed to the Houthis.
Rockets allegedly fired by Houthis killed two Saudi Arabian girls in late August 2016, and injured five others.
Some Saudi Arabian locals have expressed the view that these attacks may be the Houthis exerting pressure on the Saudi Arabian government to end the war.
On 17 March 2017, Houthi forces launched a missile at a mosque, which killed at least 22 pro-government worshippers.
The United Nations World Food Programme
has accused the Houthis of diverting food aid and illegally removing food lorries from distribution areas, with rations sold on the open market or given to those not entitled to it.
The WFP has also warned that aid could be suspended to areas of Yemen under the control of Houthi rebels due to "obstructive and uncooperative" Houthi leaders that have hampered the independent selection of beneficiaries.
WFP spokesman Herve Verhoosel stated "The continued blocking by some within the Houthi leadership of the biometric registration ... is undermining an essential process that would allow us to independently verify that food is reaching ... people on the brink of famine". The WFP has warned that "unless progress is made on previous agreements we will have to implement a phased suspension of aid". The Norwegian Refugee Council
has stated that they share the WPF frustrations and reiterate to the Houthis to allow humanitarian agencies to distribute food.
Other regional groups
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant has carried out indiscriminate attacks in Yemen. In March 2015, the bombing of two mosques in Sana'a
which killed around 140 people, were claimed by the Islamic State.
This type of attack has continued further into the civil war: in southern Yemen there have been reports of car bombings and published videos of executions of Yemeni shia
According to these reports, the strength of the Islamic State in Yemen has increased since the beginning of the conflict. In May 2016, Islamic State claimed responsibility for a suicide attack in Mukalla
which killed 25 Yemeni police recruits at a training compound.
On 29 August 2016, the Islamic State claimed responsibility for a suicide attack
on a training camp in Aden
which was being used by pro-government militia known as Popular Resistance.
As of August 2016, reports suggested that at least 54 people were killed and 60 injured in the attack.
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula has also been using the political situation in Yemen to their advantage: they have captured cities from government groups, and are thought to be using the conflict to gain more recruits.
However, United States officials have claimed that Islamic State now presents a higher risk than al-Qaeda.
Involvement and human rights violations by international actors
Various groups have accused Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
, of human rights violations and some have gone as far as accusing the coalition of war crimes.
The majority of these accusations stem from airstrikes undertaken by the coalition,
but others, including the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, have also criticised the coalition's approach to blockades. The UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food claimed "the deliberate starvation of civilians in both international and internal armed conflict may constitute a war crime, and could also constitute a crime against humanity in the event of deliberate denial of food and also the deprivation of food sources or supplies."
A 2019 United Nations report said the US, UK and France may be complicit in committing war crimes in Yemen by selling weapons and providing other support to the Saudi-led coalition which is using the deliberate starvation of civilians as a tactic of warfare.
Iran has been accused of supporting Houthis by supplying them with military aid and resources.
Iran has denied these accusations.
Saudi Arabian involvement in civil war
According to a UN report released in early 2016, it is believed that the Saudi Arabian-led coalition could be deliberately targeting civilians.
Human Rights Watch has identified several airstrikes which have hit civilian targets: an attack on a camp for displaced people, and a dairy factory. Médecins Sans Frontières
claims it was attacked four times in three months by coalition forces.
In addition to these targets, the UN panel who worked on the report also claimed that the coalition targeted "civilian gatherings, including weddings; civilian vehicles, including buses; civilian residential areas; medical facilities; schools; mosques; markets, factories and food storage warehouses; and other essential civilian infrastructure, such as the airport in Sana'a, the port in Hudaydah and domestic transit routes", and concluded this was in violation of international law.
The panel also concluded that airstrikes contributed to 60% of civilian deaths since the beginning of the conflict.
At the end of August 2016, the United Nations revised the number of deaths during the war from around 6,000 to at least 10,000, and the U.N. Humanitarian Coordinator noted the difficulty in providing an exact number of people killed during the conflict.
Saudi Arabia's actions in Yemen have also attracted condemnation from the United Nations and other human rights groups. The United Nations placed Saudi Arabia on a suspicion of children's rights violations blacklist in 2016 as a result of the allegations against Saudi Arabia, especially with regards to the deaths of children. However, in June 2016, Saudi Arabia was removed from the blacklist by the United Nations. The decision by the United Nations to remove Saudi Arabia was met by widespread condemnation by multiple human rights groups: Amnesty International
stated it was "blatant pandering"; Oxfam
claimed it was "a moral failure", and Philippe Bolopion, Human Rights Watch's deputy director for global advocacy stated that "Yemen's children deserve better".
Yemeni capital Sanaa
after Saudi-led airstrikes in October 2015
Saudi Arabia is a major sponsor of the United Nations, and many human rights groups suggested this was the reason for the removal of Saudi Arabia from the blacklist.
In September 2016, it was reported that Saudi Arabian forces had used white phosphorus
in Yemen, which was identified as being American in origin.
As of September 2016, it is unclear what the phosphorus is being used for in Yemen, but there are several possible breaches raised by the sale: under U.S. regulations, white phosphorus is only to be sold to countries for the purposes of signalling and creating smoke screens.
Under international law, the use of white phosphorus is not prohibited, but there are requirements that it cannot be used near civilians.
White phosphorus can burn skin tissue deeply, and this can cause multiple organ failure.
If inhaled, it may cause cardiac arrest.
In late September 2016, it was reported that a Saudi airstrike had hit a residential area in Al Hudaydah
, killing at least 25 people and injuring 70.
A government official told AFP news agency that the area was probably accidentally hit while Saudi Arabian forces were targeting what they believed to be a Houthi stronghold.
In October 2016, Saudi Arabian forces were accused of being responsible for air strikes on a funeral hall, resulting in the deaths of at least 140 people.
Initial reports indicated that a further 525 people were injured in the airstrikes.
The funeral was for the father of Houthi-appointed Interior Minister Galal al-Rawishan.
Sources in Yemen claimed that due to the number of casualties, the medical staff in Sana'a
was overwhelmed and doctors who were off duty had to be called in to assist.
As of 9 October 2016, the final number of casualties is unknown, but it is likely the attack is one of the most deadly since the beginning of the Yemeni Civil War in March 2015.
On 29 October 2016, at least 17 civilians were killed in Taiz
in airstrikes carried out by the Saudi-led coalition.
It was reported that the area was targeting a suburb allegedly known to be used by Houthis.
This attack raises issues of human rights and international law breaches on both sides. The actions by the coalition in striking the civilian area raise issues of distinction
, as the harm caused to civilians and their property is possibly out of proportion to the direct military advantage that was gained in carrying out the airstrikes. The fact that the Houthis are fighting in civilian areas could be in breach of the Protocol on the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts, as their actions mean civilians are likely to be killed in the conflict.
On 30 October 2016, Saudi Arabian forces carried out airstrikes on a prison in Hudaydah
. Initial reports said inmates and rebels were killed, and Houthi media reported that 43 people were killed in the airstrikes.
Let Yemen Live protest in New York City in December 2017
In mid-February 2017, Saudi-led forces were accused of killing at least five people who had been attending a funeral near Sana'a. Many others were also injured.
On 10 March 2017, it was reported that at least 17 people died and 12 were injured in a Saudi-led airstrike on a souk in Al Hudaydah.
On 17 March 2017, a boat carrying Somali refugees out of Yemen was attacked by a military helicopter, resulting in the deaths of at least 30 Somalis.
as of 18 March, the circumstances of the attack remain unclear, with some survivors claiming the attack came from a helicopter, and others claiming a battleship, then a helicopter attacked the boat.
According to a survivor, 10 of those killed were women, and five were children. Mohammed Abdiker, emergencies director at the International Organization for Migration, said 42 bodies were recovered, and noted that the combatants should have attempted to identify the passengers before deciding whether to attack. The New York Times
cited Yemeni officials as saying that Saudi forces were responsible for the attack, but some uncertainty remains as to who carried out the attack.
The Saudi-led coalition has not commented on the attack.
On 22 April 2018, a Saudi-led airstrike hit a wedding
in the Bani Qayis district of Hajjah Governorate, Yemen. Casualty estimates vary, with Al-Masirah reporting the toll later that day to be at least 33 civilians, including the bride, while other estimates are higher. Forty-five other people were injured in the strike. The victims were mainly women and children.
The planes used to carry out the strike continued to fly over the area, preventing medical ambulances from reaching the scene to treat the wounded.
On late March the British newspaper The Mail on Sunday
reported that British Special Forces are fighting on the same side as jihadists and militia which use child soldiers.
After the report, The shadow foreign secretary Emily Thornberry
, questioned these allegations in the British parliament
suggesting that the British forces may have been witnesses to war crimes, if the allegations were true. She claimed that as many as 40% of the soldiers in the Saudi coalition were children, a breach of international humanitarian law.
In response, the UK Foreign Office minister Mark Field
called the allegations "very serious and well sourced" and promised to get to the bottom of these allegations.
In April 2019 the Qatari-based news agency Al Jazeera, reported, based in footage of the presence of child soldiers in the recruitment camps of the Saudi-UAE-led coalition. Children from 15 to 16 were recruited from poverty-driven villages from the Saudi-Yemen border.
On 25 March 2020, Human Rights Watch
reported that Saudi-led intervention in Yemen has been committing serious violations of human rights since June 2019. The rights group said that the abuses included arbitrary arrests
, enforced disappearances
and illicit transfer of detainees to Saudi Arabia. The agency also took into account the testimonies of former detainees, who revealed that they were interrogated and tortured at an informal detention facility.
On March 30, 2020, the Saudi-led coalition
carried out airstrikes
in the Yemeni capital, Sanaa
. The attacks hit the presidential palace compound, a school and an air base close to Sanaa airport. The bombardment took place after calls from the United Nations
were made to maintain ceasefire during coronavirus
On June 15, 2020, the United Nations
removed the Saudi-led coalition from a blacklist of those whose actions harm children. Human rights groups have criticized the UN and accused its Secretary General António Guterres
of ignoring evidence of grave violations. The UN found that 222 children were killed or injured by the coalition in 2019. The Saudi-led coalition was also responsible for the recruitment of children, detentions, abductions, sexual violence, and attacks on schools and hospitals.
Saudi Arabia's response to accusations
On 16 May 2016, Brigadier General Ahmed Hassan Asiri
responded to Human Rights Watch's accusations, stating that Saudi Arabia's actions are not motivated by self-interest, but rather "because we saw population undermined and oppressed by the militias".
Ahmed Asiri claimed that Human Rights Watch
did not have a team on the ground in Yemen, and when told by Mary Louise Kelly
during an interview that Human Rights Watch had visited Yemen, stated "No. No one can get in Yemen without the permission of the coalition".
Human Rights Watch responded to these statements on 16 May 2016. Belkis Wille stated that "In fact, this two-week trip was the fourth I had made to Yemen since the beginning of the war in March 2015. Given what I go through to get into Yemen, al-Assiri's statement was laughable".
She stated that on each of her visits to Yemen during this time period her passport has been confiscated, with no reason being given. She claims that this indicates that the coalition knows that she is visiting Yemen.
After initially denying responsibility, on 15 October 2016, Saudi Arabia admitted responsibility for the funeral airstrikes which killed at least 140 and injured 525.
Saudi Arabian forces blamed the airstrikes on "wrong information" which was provided by an unnamed party, which had reportedly claimed the funeral was a legitimate target.
Human Rights Watch has claimed that the airstrikes likely constitute a war crime, due to the indiscriminate nature of the attack.
Western involvement in civil war
While the coalition is led by Saudi Arabia's coalition, other states, including Western forces, have assisted the campaign. In 2015, Saudi Arabia acquired approximately $24.3 billion worth of weapons from the United States and the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom has also claimed that it is helping to train Saudi Arabian forces in selecting bombing targets. The Saudi Arabian foreign minister has confirmed that British forces are assisting their Saudi Arabian counterparts in choosing targets, but are not involved in the actual attacks.
In September 2016, it was announced that two British select committees had found that British arms sales to Saudi Arabia should be halted until an independent investigation into the war in Yemen is carried out.
The sale of weapons to Saudi Arabia has been labelled "illegal and immoral",
and some commentators have claimed that the United Kingdom is breaching its own domestic laws, as well as the Arms Trade Treaty
These claims have been refuted, with the UK's Middle East minister claiming that Saudi Arabia was being criticised on the basis of "hearsay and photographs".
Despite these claims, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
recently called on the United Kingdom to halt the supply of arms to Saudi Arabia, and suggested that the United Kingdom, as a party to the Arms Trade Treaty, should set an example.
The United States has also been criticised for allegedly supplying cluster munitions
to Saudi Arabian forces. Cluster munitions are often considered unacceptable due their largely indiscriminate function and high risk of unexploded munitions. The United States is not party to the Cluster Munition Coalition
, which bans the use of Cluster munitions.
It has been argued that the United States' direct support of the Saudi forces, in particular in providing intelligence and in-air refueling has made it a party to the conflict.
In September 2016, Yemen's Houthi leader, Abdel-Malek al-Houthi, claimed that the United States is providing political cover for Saudi Arabia, including "protection from pressure by human rights groups and the United Nations".
In October 2016, it was revealed that the British Government has been involved in training the Saudi Air Force.
The Defence Secretary Michael Fallon
claimed the British Government's assistance was to "improve their targeting processes" and that this was therefore not in breach of international law.
Michael Fallon stated that the United Kingdom has not provided specific operational advice to Saudi Arabia as part of the training.
On 29 January 2017, the first United States raid authorised by President Donald Trump
ended in multiple civilian deaths, including the death of Anwar al-Awlaki
's eight-year-old daughter.
According to the Guardian, the raid had been planned under the Obama
administration, but it had been thought that the underlying intelligence did not justify the risks involved in carrying out the raid. Colonel John Thomas, a spokesman for U.S. Central Command stated that the United States military forces were neither aware of the presence of Nawar al-Awlaki in the compound, nor that any of the estimated 14 people killed in the raid were civilians.
According to the human rights organisation Reprieve
, as many as 23 civilians were killed in the raid, including a newborn baby boy, and ten children.
The baby killed was born as a result of his heavily pregnant mother being shot in the stomach, which left the baby severely injured.
According to Reprieve, strikes in countries where the United States is not at war are largely considered to violate international law.
In early February 2017, Yemen withdrew its permission for United States ground raids in Yemen.
The United States acknowledged that the raid which took place on 29 January resulted in civilian casualties.
In late February, 2017, NBC
reported that the raid had yielded no significant information, according to senior U.S. officials. The White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer
claimed that "the mission was successful in helping prevent a future attack or attacks on this nation".
This claim was disputed by officials who spoke to NBC.
On 2–3 March 2017, U.S. forces carried out dozens of airstrikes on alleged al-Qaeda targets in southern Yemen.
According to locals, the airstrikes, which were carried out in the Shabwa, Abyan and al-Bayda provinces, killed women and children.
Protesters against the U.S.-backed Saudi-led war on Yemen were led away handcuffed by New York police outside the U.S. mission to the UN
on 11 December 2017.
It was reported that U.S. forces also engaged in gun fights with suspected al-Qaeda targets on 3 March 2017. The Pentagon confirmed that the airstrikes had taken place, but denied that American troops were involved in ground combat.
Adam Baron, visiting fellow at the Europe Council on Foreign Relations in Beirut claimed he believed there was "a huge danger" of civilians being caught in the crossfire of U.S. airstrikes targeting al-Qaeda.
On 8 March 2017, it was reported that two boys were killed by a U.S. drone while walking along a road in Ghabat Yakla.
On 10 March 2017, The Intercept
reported eyewitness accounts about the 29 January 2017 U.S. raid, including the fact that the first person killed was a 13-year-old neighbour of the alleged target of the strike.
Family members of the injured and killed who spoke to Iona Craig
stated that the attack helicopters "fired on anything that moved".
According to a U.S. special operations adviser and a former senior special operations officer who spoke to The Intercept, the target of the raid was Qassim al Rimi
, the current leader of al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula
, who was not killed or injured during the raid. The White House has denied that al Rimi was the target of the raid.
On 25 March 2017, it was revealed that Australian firms had secured four military export deals with Saudi Arabia in the past year.
The Australian government has refused to provide details of the approved military sales.
The Australian Defence Industry Minister, Christopher Pyne
, has outlined that in order to approve the sales, five criteria must be considered; international obligations, national security, human rights, regional security and foreign policy. While Australia has called for a ceasefire, both Christopher Pyne and the Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Julie Bishop
, would not comment on Saudi Arabia's use of force.
United States' response to accusations
In late May, 2016, the United States halted the supply of cluster bombs to Saudi Arabia.
In June 2016, John Kerry
, then the United States Secretary of State
denied that the Saudi Arabian led campaign had been "indiscriminate, or not sufficiently careful", and claimed he thought that Saudi Arabia was attempting to act responsibly and avoid endangering civilians.
Kerry added that the Houthis "have a pretty good, practiced way of putting civilians into danger."
United Arab Emirates involvement in civil war
According to Human Rights Watch
(HRW), the United Arab Emirates
is supporting Yemeni forces that arbitrarily detained dozens of people during security operations. The UAE finances, arms and trains these forces, which are ostensibly fighting Yemeni affiliates of al-Qaeda
or the Islamic State
. HRW documented 49 cases, including 4 children
, who were arbitrarily detained or forcibly disappeared in the provinces of Aden
in 2016. UAE-backed security forces seems to have arrested at least 38 of them. Several sources, including Yemeni officials, reported that there were a number of unofficial places of detention and secret prisons in Aden and Hadramout, including two run by the UAE and one run by Yemeni security forces backed by the UAE. Former detainees and their relatives told HRW that some detainees had been subjected to abuse
in detention centers, often severely beaten, with security agents using their fists, weapons
or other metal objects. Others also reported that security forces used electric shock
, stripping clothes, and threatening detainees.
According to UN panel of experts in Yemen, witnesses have described persistent and pervasive aggressive behavior from UAE supported Security Belt
forces and United Arab Emirates personnel.
The United States
is working closely with the UAE to fight al-Qaeda, and U.S. government members have repeatedly praised the UAE operations. In 2016, the United States sent a small number of special operations forces to Yemen
to assist the UAE in its fight against armed groups. Some reports reported that the United States has conducted joint operations with the UAE against al-Qaeda in eastern and central Yemen, according to The New York Times
and The Intercept
In a press release, the Geneva-based Euro-Mediterranean
warned that detainees in the UAE-controlled "Bir Ahmed" prison were subjected to "the most severe methods of intimidation and psychological and physical torture
" which reflected the security situation in Aden
. Euro-Mediterranean pointed out that there were more than 170 detainees arbitrarily and without charge in the 60 dungeons, which does not exceed 40 square meters only. The detainees live in harsh conditions because of inhumane practices they have been subjected to since 18 months of detention, which forced them to go on hunger strike
According to the Pentagon
, U.S. forces had interrogated detainees in those prisons in an attempt to get intelligence about al-Qaeda, but denied witnessing any abuse or mistreatment. The UAE responded and denied having operational control of local or federal governance, judicial, prison systems, or secret detention centers in Yemen.
According to Amnesty International
, scores of detainees were released from formal and informal detention facilities run by UAE-backed local forces and the UAE military in June/July 2018.
Iranian involvement in civil war
In March 2017, Reuters published an exclusive story in which it cited regional and Western sources as saying that Iran was sending "advanced weapons and military advisers" to Yemen to assist the Houthis.
Sources claimed Iran has stepped up its involvement in the civil war over the last few months, and an Iranian official claimed that Qasem Soleimani
discussed ways to "empower" Houthis at a meeting in Tehran in February, 2017.
Blockades imposed by coalition forces, particularly Saudi Arabia, have been extremely detrimental to Yemen, as the country relies heavily on the import of essential items, such as fuel and medicine.
Joanne Liu, the head of Doctors Without Borders, has claimed that the blockades imposed on Yemen "killing as (many people as) the current conflict".
The blockades imposed could be argued to breach the right to food
, especially in a country such as Yemen, which imports 90% of its food.
On 6 November 2017, Saudi Arabia closed all entry points to Yemen, two days after intercepting a ballistic missile fired from a Houthi
controlled area over Riyadh
's international airport. As of 8 November 2017, virtually all of the aid deliveries to Yemen were halted, and three United Nations airplanes carrying emergency planes had been turned back.
In mid November 2017, government-controlled sea and airports were allowed to reopen.
On 22 November 2017, the Saudi-led coalition announced it would allow aid deliveries into the ports of Sana'a
However, it was reported that UN aid teams did not have access to Hodeida on 24 November 2017.
Planes arrived in Sana'a on 25 November, carrying 1.9 million vaccines, though UNICEF officials stated this is a small portion of what is required.
On 26 November 2017, a UN aid ship was allowed to dock in the port of Saleef.
The ship is carrying enough food to feed 1.8 million people in northern Yemen for a month, according to the World Food Programme
On 28 November 2017, it was reported that Theresa May
planned to demand that Saudi Arabia end the blockade of Yemen's ports.
Secondary impact of attacks on human rights
Right to an adequate standard of living
Yemen has ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights which provides for an adequate standard of living, including the right to adequate food.
The Covenant implicitly provides for the right to water. The Covenant also provides for the right to housing and defines it as: "the right to live somewhere in security, peace and dignity".It requires "adequate privacy, adequate space, adequate security, adequate lighting and ventilation, adequate basic infrastructure and adequate location with regard to work and basic facilities—all at a reasonable cost".
Before the civil war began, Yemen was one of the poorest countries in the Middle East, with 61% of the population requiring humanitarian assistance, and widespread violations of human rights reported. The conflict and actions by the coalition, particularly the blockades, have been argued to have crippled the Yemeni economy. At the beginning of 2016 it was reported that 6 of every 10 Yemenis is not food secure, and as access to food is mostly dependent on its ability to be transported, it can be difficult for many Yemenis to buy the food they need. In June 2016, it was reported that 19 out of 22 of Yemen's governorates face severe food insecurity, and a quarter of the population is living under emergency levels of food insecurity.
On 2 March 2017, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Stephen O'Brien, stated that 19 million Yemenis (approximately two thirds of the total population) are in need of humanitarian assistance or protection assistance.
O'Brien also stated that seven million Yemenis are not food secure, and urged parties to the conflict to allow facilitate humanitarian access to those in need.
The availability of water is an even more urgent need, with only 1 in 4 Yemenis having access to clean water. The number of Yemenis requiring assistance to meet their needs with regards to sanitation and clean water has increased by around 9.8 million people since the beginning of the civil war.
Some areas of Yemen, such as Saada
, are almost completely without power: 95% of the electrical sources in the city have been bombed.
According to the United Nations' Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance, one in ten Yemenis has been displaced by the conflict, and 21.2 million people (of Yemen's population of 26 million) are in need of some form of humanitarian assistance.
On 3 May 2017, Norwegian Refugee Council Secretary General Jan Egeland
wrote that "the world is letting some 7 million men, women and children slowly but surely, be engulfed by unprecedented famine. It is not a drought that is at fault. This preventable catastrophe is man-made".
Right to health
Article 12 of the Covenant gives everybody "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health".
According to the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), this includes a healthcare system which is available to all.
In August 2016, a Doctors without Borders hospital was hit in a Saudi airstrike, resulting in the deaths of at least 15 people and injuring 20.
This bombing occurred only two days after a school in Northern Yemen was hit in a Saudi airstrike.
Ban Ki-moon condemned the attack, saying "that civilians, including children, continue to bear the brunt of increased fighting and military operations in Yemen", and calling for a swift investigation.
In October 2016, it was reported that a cholera outbreak was severely affecting many Yemenis.
UNICEF supported struggling health clinics by supplying water, water purifiers, and hygiene kits.
On 28 October, the World Health Organization
announced that there were 1,410 cases of cholera in 10 of Yemen's 23 governates.
In July 2017, it was reported that the cholera epidemic was beginning to slow.
As of late July 2017, it is estimated that the epidemic infected approximately 400,000 people.
Of the 400,000 people over the three-month period, approximately 2,000 died.
The fact that rubbish is not being collected, along with the fact that water pumps cannot operate due to lack of fuel, have been named as causes of the outbreak.
In September 2017, Al Jazeera
reported that more than 2,000 people had died since late April as a result of the outbreak.
Al Jazeera also reported that there were at least a million cholera cases in the country and around 5,000 new cases were being discovered each day.
On 29 September 2017 the International Committee of the Red Cross
stated that it expected at least 900,000 cholera cases in Yemen by the end of 2017.
In October 2017, it was reported that the cholera epidemic was expected to affect at least 600,000 children by the end of the year.
As of 12 October 2017, the World Health Organization had reported more than 815,000 cholera cases in Yemen.
Of the estimated 4,000 new cases each day, more than half are cases involving children under the age of 18.
Multiple groups have commented on the cholera outbreak. A representative of Save the Children
has commented that "the existence of a cholera outbreak in general is unforgivable in the 21st century because it means there's no access to clean water or sanitation".
Others, such as Homer Venters of the Physicians for Human Rights
, have stated that the ongoing blockade and closure of airports in Yemen has prevented humanitarian aid from reaching those in need.
has noted that the rate of infection began to ease in September 2017.
Despite the reduction in infection rate, as of 12 November 2017, there were an estimated 900,000 cases of cholera and over 2,190 deaths related deaths recorded in Yemen.
A major concern for the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance is the rights of children, who are being extremely adversely affected by the current situation in Yemen. Despite Yemen's international commitment to uphold the rights of children, UNICEF has claimed that approximately a third of the fighters from various regional groups are children.
The conflict is also having an effect on the health of Yemeni children; the number of children who died from preventable diseases per year increased by around 10,000 since the beginning of the conflict. This is likely due to the closure of around 600 medical facilities in Yemen, and also affects Yemenis of all ages.
Some cancer patients have been unable to access critical treatment such as radiation therapy, due to pressure on the resources of hospitals in some areas.
The hospitals and other medical facilities which have remained open often suffer from a lack of staff, equipment, medicine, and power cuts.
Education has also suffered as a result of the conflict, with 1,100 schools unfit to reopen as of April 2016, and 1.8 million children have out of school since the beginning of the conflict due to Iran. In August 2016, a school was hit by a Saudi Arabian airstrike, resulting in the death of at least 19 people, most of whom were children.
It has been reported that around 180,000 Yemeni children are suffering from malnutrition.
As of May 2016, The United Nations claimed it had only been able to reach a third of the children suffering from acute malnutrition.
According to UNICEF, as of May 2016, 1.3 million Yemeni children are at risk of malnutrition.
In September 2016, it was claimed that 320,000 children were severely malnourished, with 2.2 million children in need of urgent humanitarian assistance.
On 2 March 2017, Stephen O'Brien stated that also 500,000 children under the age of five suffer from malnutrition and that a child dies every 10 minutes due to preventable causes in Yemen.
On 24 March 2017, it was reported that doctors in Yemen were seeing an increase in premature births and birth defects.
Doctors in the capital, Sana'a
, claim this is a result of the war and the bombs and other weapons being deployed in Yemen by various forces.
One doctor, Abdulkarim al-Najjar, said the number of brain, backbone, throat, digestive and nervous system birth deformities was unprecedented.
Another doctor, Wafa al-Mamari, said the deformities could be caused by several factors, including diseases and poor nutrition of the mother. Al-Mamari noted that many of the women whose children are suffering from birth defects came from Sa'adah, Sana'a, Ta'izz and Hudaydah, areas which have been heavily bombarded.
On 28 November 2017, Gert Cappelaere, the UNICEF regional director for the Middle East and North Africa, stated that Yemen is "one of the worst places on Earth to be a child".
Women have also been heavily affected by the conflict: they make up 52% of displaced people, and gender based violence has increased since the beginning of the conflict.
At the end of 2016, it was estimated that there had been more than 10,000 reported incidents of gender based violence.
The Middle East Eye
reported the story of a refugee family in al-Shimayateen, who stated that their 13-year-old daughter had been kidnapped, raped and killed by a man who had previously provided the family with food and been considered a "benefactor".
- ^ "Yemen: Conflict intensifies between former rebel allies". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ Baron, Adam (1 April 2015). "Understanding the Forces at Play in Yemen's Civil War". Morning Edition (Interview). Interviewed by Steve Inskeep. NPR. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- ^ World Report 2015: Yemen (Report). Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- ^ "Arab League to discuss Yemen intervention plea on Thursday". Reuters. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- ^ "Yemen War, Saudi Coalition 'causing the most civilian casualties'". BBC News. 18 March 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- ^ "Yemen Crisis: How bad is the humanitarian situation?". BBC News. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- ^ a b c d Sharif Abdel Kouddous (22 December 2015). "Yemen is now the world's worst humanitarian crisis". GlobalPost. Public Radio International. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- ^ "More than half of Yemen's population now food insecure – UN". UN News. 21 June 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), 8 June 1977
- ^ Protocol II, Article 13(1)
- ^ Customary IHL, International Association of the Red Cross, retrieved 22 April 2016
- ^ Yemen 2015/2016 (Report). Amnesty International. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- ^ "Yemen: Houthis Block Vital Goods into Taizz" (Press release). Human Rights Watch. 31 January 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- ^ "Yemen: Arbitrarily Held by the Houthis" (Press release). Human Rights Watch. 10 January 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- ^ "Article 3", Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- ^ "Article 17(2)", Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- ^ "Article 9", Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- ^ ""Nowhere is safe for civilians": Airstrikes and Ground Attacks in Yemen" (Press release). Amnesty International. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- ^ "Fearing landmines, displaced Yemenis wary of return". Al Jazeera. 21 August 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- ^ Craig, Iona (19 August 2015). "Yemeni rebels "mining civilian areas"". IRIN. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- ^ "Yemen 2015/2016". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- ^ Yemen: events of 2015 (Report). Human Rights Watch. 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- ^ "CPJ urges full, independent investigation into killing of journalists in Yemen" (Press release). Committee to Protect Journalists. 2 February 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
- ^ a b c Omran, Ahmed Al (28 August 2016). "Yemen Houthi Rocket Attack Kills Two Girls in Saudi Arabia". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "Houthi missile attack kills dozens in Yemen mosque". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "Yemen war: WFP accuses Houthi rebels of diverting food aid". BBC. 31 December 2018.
- ^ "World Food Programme to consider suspension of aid in Houthi-controlled areas of Yemen". Releifweb. 20 May 2019.
- ^ "Yemen's Houthis and WFP dispute aid control as millions starve". Reuters. 4 June 2019.
- ^ "UN warns food aid to Yemen could be suspended". Al Jazeera. 20 May 2019.
- ^ "US to declare Yemen's Houthi rebels as 'terrorist organization'". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
- ^ Mendelsohn, Barak (21 March 2015). "Islamic State in Yemen: Why IS is seeking to expand". BBC News. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ Almosawa, Shuaib; Fahim, Kareem; Schmitt, Eric (14 December 2015). "Islamic State Gains Strength in Yemen, Challenging Al Qaeda". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ "Yemen police killed in suicide attack". RNZ. 15 May 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "Yemen suicide attack claimed by IS 'kills dozens' in Aden". BBC News. 29 August 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "Isis suicide bomb attack kills at least 54 in Yemen". The Independent. 29 August 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "Al Qaeda frees 300 inmates from Yemeni jail". New York Post. Associated Press. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
- ^ Perez, Evan; LoBianco, Tom (23 June 2015). "FBI head: Khorasan Group diminished; ISIS bigger threat than al Qaeda". CNN. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ "365 Days of War in Yemen". Amnesty International. 24 March 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- ^ "Joint statement: Fanning the flames of the Yemen Conflict" (Press release). Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ "Yemen spiraling into major food crisis – UN expert warns against deliberate starvation of civilians". Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "UN Report on Yemen: US, UK Accomplices to Atrocities, While Inaction Continues". The Real News. 4 September 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- ^ Wintour, Patrick (3 September 2019). "UK, US and France may be complicit in Yemen war crimes – UN report". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- ^ a b "Yemen crisis: Kerry warns Iran over Houthi rebel 'support'". BBC News. 9 April 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "UN: Houthi rebels in Yemen recruited teenage girls". Al Jazeera. 9 September 2020.
- ^ "Yemen conflict: Saudi-led coalition targeting civilians, UN says". BBC. 27 January 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ "Saudi Coalition/US: Curb Civilian Harm in Yemen". Human Rights Watch. 13 April 2015.
- ^ "Yemen: Factory Airstrike Killed 31 Civilians". Human Rights Watch. 15 April 2015.
- ^ "Yemen: Health facilities under attack - MSF wants answers". Médecins Sans Frontières. 25 January 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ MacAskill, Ewan (27 January 2016). "UN report into Saudi-led strikes in Yemen raises questions over UK role". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ "UN panel calls for international inquiry in Yemen". Agence France-Presse. 27 January 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ "UN: At least 10,000 killed in Yemen conflict". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "Rights groups condemn removal of Saudi Arabia from UN blacklist". the Guardian. 7 June 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ Nations, Reuters at the United (8 June 2016). "Saudi Arabian allies pressured UN chief to issue blacklist reversal, sources say". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b c Gibbons-Neff, Thomas. "Saudi Arabia appears to be using U.S.-supplied white phosphorus in its war in Yemen". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). "White Phosphorus: Health Effects"
- ^ a b "Yemen conflict: Saudi-led air strike 'kills 25 in Hudaydah'". BBC News. 22 September 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Saudis to probe deadly air strikes on Yemen funeral hall". BBC News. 9 October 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ Press, Associated (9 October 2016). "Saudi-led airstrike kills over 140 mourners in Yemen". New York Post. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b Almosawa, Shuaib; Hubbard, Ben (8 October 2016). "Saudi-Led Airstrikes Blamed for Massacre at Funeral in Yemen". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Air strikes kill 17 in Yemen's Taiz province". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "Yemen conflict: Dozens killed as air strikes hit prison in Hudaydah". BBC News. 30 October 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ Yemen, Associated Press in Sanaa (15 February 2017). "At least five killed and dozens wounded in Saudi-led airstrike on Yemen funeral". the Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Over 20 dead in airstrike on market in Yemen (GRAPHIC VIDEO)". RT International. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b c Hubbard, Ben; Almosawa, Shuaib (17 March 2017). "Airstrike Kills Dozens of Somali Migrants Off Yemen's Coast". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Unknown attackers kill UN refugees off Yemen". RNZ. 18 March 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "Yemen war: Saudi-led air strike on wedding 'kills 20'". BBC News. 23 April 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- ^ "Up to 50 killed in Saudi-led air strikes on Yemen wedding – local health officials". RT. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- ^ Sharman, Jon; Ghantous, Ghaida; al-Haj, Ahmed (23 April 2018). "Yemen: 'At least 20 killed including bride' after airstrike by Saudi-led coalition hits wedding party". The Independent. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- ^ Wheeler, Richard; Thomas, Josh; Channon, Max (26 March 2019). "Probe into Royal Navy Special Forces child soldiers claim". plymouthherald. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- ^ a b editor, Patrick Wintour Diplomatic (27 March 2019). "'Serious' questions over SAS involvement in Yemen war". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- ^ Exclusive: Yemeni child soldiers recruited by Saudi-UAE coalition
- ^ "Human Rights Group Accuses Saudi forces in Yemen of Abuses". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- ^ "Air strikes hit Houthi-held Yemeni capital Sanaa: witnesses". Reuters. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- ^ "Yemen war: UN takes Saudi-led coalition off child rights 'list of shame'". BBC. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- ^ a b "Saudi Arabia Regrets Civilian Casualties During Operations In Yemen". NPR.org. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Dispatches: Saudi Spokesman Denies Human Rights Watch's Yemen Findings". Human Rights Watch. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b agencies, Staff and (15 October 2016). "Saudi-led coalition admits to bombing Yemen funeral". the Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "Yemen: Saudi-Led Funeral Attack Apparent War Crime". Human Rights Watch. 13 October 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ Whitson, Sarah Leah (30 March 2016). "The U.S. is quietly helping Saudi Arabia wage a devastating aerial campaign in Yemen". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ Spencer, Richard (15 January 2016). "UK military 'working alongside' Saudi bomb targeters in Yemen war". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ "Shelve UK arms sales to Saudis over Yemen, say two MPs' committees". the Guardian. 15 September 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ Abbott, Diane (25 March 2016). "British arms sales to Saudi Arabia are immoral and illegal". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- ^ Doward, Jamie; Dare, Tom (9 January 2016). "Saudi arms sales are in breach of international law, Britain is told". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- ^ "UK minister dismisses UN report on human rights violations in Yemen". Middle East Eye. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- ^ Wintour, Patrick (5 February 2016). "Ban Ki-moon adds to pressure on UK to stop arms sales to Saudis". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- ^ Emmons, Alex (16 April 2016). "U.S. Report on Saudi Arabia Downplays Civilian Casualties in Yemen". The Intercept. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ "Congress Needs to Press the Pentagon, Saudi Arabia on Abuses in Yemen War". Human Rights Watch. 18 August 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ Staff, Reuters (2 September 2016). "Yemen's Houthi leader says U.S. provides political cover for Saudi strikes". Reuters. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b c "British government training Saudi Air Force as it carries out 'atrocities' in Yemen". The Independent. 26 October 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Eight-year-old American girl 'killed in Yemen raid approved by Trump'". the Guardian. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b c "Media Centre". Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b Sanger, David E.; Schmitt, Eric (8 February 2017). "Yemen Withdraws Permission for U.S. Antiterror Ground Missions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Yemen SEAL raid has yielded no significant intelligence, officials say". NBC News. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Civilians wounded as US jets target al-Qaeda in Yemen". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Civilians wounded as US jets target al-Qaeda in Yemen". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- ^ "Two children killed in Yemen drone strike". Newshub. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Women and Children in Yemeni Village Recall Horror of Trump's "Highly Successful" SEAL Raid". Retrieved 31 March 2021.
- ^ CraigMarch 9 2017, Iona CraigIona; P.m, 2:00. "Women and Children in Yemeni Village Recall Horror of Trump's "Highly Successful" SEAL Raid". The Intercept. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
- ^ a b c Begley, Patrick (24 March 2017). "Australia selling military equipment to Saudi Arabia during brutal Yemen conflict". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
- ^ Hudson, John. "Exclusive: White House Blocks Transfer of Cluster Bombs to Saudi Arabia". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
- ^ "Secy. Kerry on Yemen conflict". MSNBC.com. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
- ^ EmmonsJune 3 2016, Alex EmmonsAlex; P.m, 4:15. "John Kerry Gives Saudis a Big Pass on Indiscriminate Bombing of Civilians in Yemen". The Intercept. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
- ^ a b c EmmonsMarch 22 2017, Alex EmmonsAlex; P.m, 9:25. "Aid Officials Beg Congress to Help Yemen, While Trump Sends More Bombs". The Intercept. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
- ^ Emmons, Alex. "TOP SAMANTHA POWER AIDE IS NOW LOBBYING TO UNDERMINE OPPONENTS OF YEMEN WAR". The Intercept. The Intercept. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- ^ "اليمن: الإمارات تدعم قوات محلية ترتكب انتهاكات". Human Rights Watch (in Arabic). 22 June 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- ^ "Yemen: United Nations Experts point to possible war crimes by parties to the conflict". United Nations Human Rights Commission. 28 August 2018.
- ^ "Yemen: UAE Backs Abusive Local Forces". Human Rights Watch. 22 June 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- ^ Observer, Euromid. "Yemen: Euro-Med warns of security deterioration, suppression of detainees in a UAE prison". Euro-Mid. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- ^ The Intercept (7 January 2019), SEE NO EVIL: PENTAGON ISSUES BLANKET DENIAL THAT IT KNOWS ANYTHING ABOUT DETAINEE ABUSE IN YEMEN
- ^ "Timeline: UAE's role in southern Yemen's secret prisons". Amnesty International. 12 July 2018.
- ^ a b Georgy, Jonathan Saul, Parisa Hafezi and Michael (23 March 2017). "War in Yemen: Iran steps up support for Houthis". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
- ^ Gatten, Emma (20 September 2015). "Saudi blockade starves Yemen of vital supplies, as bombing raids continue". The Independent. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ Timberlake, Ian (31 July 2015). "Yemen blockade 'killing' civilians: humanitarian chief". Yahoo. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ Gladstone, Rick. "Saudi Blockade of Yemen Threatens to Starve Millions, U.N. Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
- ^ a b BCC, BBC. "Yemen war: Saudi coalition 'to let aid reach rebel-held port'". BBC News. BBC News. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
- ^ a b c d "Yemen war: First food aid arrives at port after blockade eased". BBC News. 26 November 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
- ^ Peter Walker, May to demand Saudi Arabia ends blockade on Yemen's ports, 28 November 2017, The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2017/nov/28/may-to-demand-saudi-arabia-ends-blockade-on-yemens-ports Retrieved 29 November 2017
- ^ a b Article 11, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
- ^ More than half of Yemen’s population now food insecure – UN, UN News Centre, 21 June 2016. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=54277#.V2-7vjVqKao Retrieved 26 June 2016
- ^ a b c Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Stephen O’Brien Remarks to the Media, Sana’a, Yemen, 2 March 2017. http://reliefweb.int/report/yemen/under-secretary-general-humanitarian-affairs-and-emergency-relief-coordinator-14 . Retrieved 4 March 2017
- ^ a b Cans, Charlotte (November 2015). Humanitarian Needs Overview 2016: Yemen(PDF) (Report). OCHA. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ Humanitarian Bulletin Yemen: Issue 10, OCHA, 4 April. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Yemen%20HB%20Issue%2010%20Issued%20on%2004%20April%202016%20Eng.pdf Retrieved 22 April 2016}}
- ^ A man-made famine on our watch, Norwegian Refugee Council, 3 May 2017. https://www.nrc.no/news/2017/may/a-man-made-famine-on-our-watch/ Retrieved 9 May 2017
- ^ Article 12, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
- ^ CESCR General Comment 14, paragraphs 11–12
- ^ a b Bombing of Doctors Without Borders Hospital in Yemen Kills at Least 15, Shuaib Almosawa and Rod Nordland, The New York Times, 15 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016
- ^ Statement attributable to the Spokesperson for the Secretary-General on Yemen, United Nations, 14 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016
- ^ a b The fight against cholera in Yemen, Rajat Madhok, UNICEF, 25 October 2016. http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/yemen_92955.html Retrieved 29 October 2016
- ^ More than 1,400 suspected cholera cases in Yemen: WHO, 29 October 2016, Al Jazeera English. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/10/1400-suspected-cases-cholera-yemen-161029052332932.html Retrieved 29 October 2016
- ^ a b Yemen cholera epidemic slowing after infecting 400,000, Tom Miles, Reuters, 25 July 2017 https://www.reuters.com/article/us-yemen-cholera-idUSKBN1AA15D Retrieved 28 July 2017
- ^ a b Filth spreads Yemen's deadly cholera outbreak, Thomson Reuters, 27 July 2017 https://www.aol.com/article/news/2017/07/27/filth-spreads-yemens-deadly-cholera-outbreak/23050968/ Retrieved 28 July 2017
- ^ a b Asrar, Shakeeb. "Yemen: 'World's worst cholera outbreak' mapped". Al Jazeera English. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- ^ Nebehay, Stephanie. "Yemen cholera cases could hit 1 million by year-end: Red Cross". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
- ^ a b c Lyons, Kate. "Yemen's cholera outbreak now the worst in history as millionth case looms". Al Jazeera English. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
- ^ a b De Luce, Dan. "Yemen's Man-Made Cholera Outbreak is About to Break a Record". Foreign Policy Magazine. Foreign Policy Magazine. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
- ^ a b Craig, Iona. "'Only God can save us': Yemeni children starve as aid is held at border". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
- ^ Child soldiers make up a third of Yemeni fighters, says Unicef, Emma Gatten, The Independent, 9 February 2016. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/child-soldiers-make-up-a-third-of-yemeni-fighters-says-unicef-a6861341.html Retrieved 6 June 2016
- ^ Cumming-Bruce, Nick (29 March 2016). "Children Pay "highest price" as Yemen falls apart, says U.N." New York Times. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- ^ In Yemen's war, untreated cancer patients wait for death, Fox News, 19 May 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016. http://www.foxnews.com/health/2016/05/19/in-yemens-war-untreated-cancer-patients-wait-for-death.html
- ^ Saudi Coalition Airstrikes in Yemen Kill at Least 19, Mostly Children, Shuaib Almosawa and Rod Nordland, The New York Times, 13 August 2016. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/14/world/middleeast/saudi-airstrikes-yemen.html Retrieved 16 August 2016
- ^ a b Michael Jansen, Yemen on ‘verge of famine’ due to funds, warns UN, Irish Times, 19 May 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016. http://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/middle-east/yemen-on-verge-of-famine-due-to-funds-warns-un-1.2654140
- ^ Michael Sandler, "The Children of Yemen Need Urgent Help, and They Need It Now" UNICEF USA. Retrieved 21 May 2016. https://www.unicefusa.org/stories/children-yemen-need-urgent-help-and-they-need-it-now/29869
- ^ Shocking images of starved kid show horrors of Yemen’s civil war, RT, 14 September 2016. https://www.rt.com/news/359343-yemen-children-suffering-war/ Retrieved 16 September 2016
- ^ a b c d Infant deformities in Yemen linked to Saudi-led bombardment, 24 March 2017, RT, https://www.rt.com/news/382224-yemen-deformed-babies-saudi/ Retrieved 25 March 2017
- ^ Sarah Ferguson, 28 November 2017, UNICEF USA, https://www.unicefusa.org/stories/yemen-one-worst-places-earth-be-child/33675 Retrieved 29 November 2017
- ^ a b 'He killed my child's innocence': Sexual abuse soars in war-torn Yemen, Middle East Eye, 2 March 2017, http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/yemen-refugees-sexual-exploitation-1211162745 . Retrieved 4 March 2017
Last edited on 18 April 2021, at 03:21
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.