; 24 February 1304 – 1368/1369)[a]
was a Muslim Moroccan
scholar and explorer who travelled extensively in Afro-Eurasia
, largely in the lands of Dar al-Islam
, travelling more than any other explorer in pre-modern history
, totalling around 117,000 km (72,000 miles), surpassing Zheng He
with about 50,000 km (30,000 miles) and Marco Polo
with 24,000 km (15,000 miles).
Over a period of thirty years, Ibn Battuta visited most of southern Eurasia
, including Central Asia
, Southeast Asia
, South Asia
and the Iberian Peninsula
. Near the end of his life, he dictated an account of his journeys, titled A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling
, but commonly known as The Rihla
A 13th-century book illustration produced in Baghdad by al-Wasiti
showing a group of pilgrims on a hajj
All that is known about Ibn Battuta's life comes from the autobiographical information included in the account of his travels, which records that he was of Berber
born into a family of Islamic legal scholars
, known as qadis in the Muslim tradition, Morocco, on 24 February 1304, during the reign of the Marinid dynasty
His family belonged to a Berber tribe known as the Lawata
As a young man, he would have studied at a Sunni Maliki madh'hab
school), the dominant form of education in North Africa at that time.
Maliki Muslims requested Ibn Battuta serve as their religious judge as he was from an area where it was practised.
In this case, ibn Battuta simply means "son of Battuta", but this may have just been a nickname since "battuta" means "duckling".
His most common "full name" is given as Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Battuta
which simply means "Father of Abdullah (and Abdullah means "worshipper of Allah"), Praiseworthy son of Battuta". But many authoritative texts will go on longer, adding more of his acquired name sequence. In his travelogue
, the Rihla
, he gives his full name as Shams al-Din Abu’AbdallahMuhammad ibn’Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf
Ibn Battuta Itinerary 1325–1332 (North Africa, Iraq, Persia, the Arabian Peninsula, Somalia, Swahili Coast)
In June 1325, at the age of twenty-one, Ibn Battuta set off from his hometown on a hajj
, or pilgrimage, to Mecca
, a journey that would ordinarily take sixteen months. He was eager to learn more about far-away lands and craved adventure. No one knew that he would not return to Morocco again for twenty-four years. Little did he know that this journey would be perhaps the most epic adventure in history. 
"I set out alone, having neither fellow-traveller in whose companionship I might find cheer, nor caravan whose part I might join, but swayed by an overmastering impulse within me and a desire long-cherished in my bosom to visit these illustrious sanctuaries. So I braced my resolution to quit my dear ones, female and male, and forsook my home as birds forsake their nests. My parents being yet in the bonds of life, it weighed sorely upon me to part from them, and both they and I were afflicted with sorrow at this separation."
He travelled to Mecca overland, following the North African coast across the sultanates of Abd al-Wadid
. The route took him through Tlemcen
, and then Tunis
, where he stayed for two months.
For safety, Ibn Battuta usually joined a caravan
to reduce the risk of being robbed. He took a bride in the town of Sfax
but soon left her due to a dispute with the father. That was the first in a series of marriages that would feature in his travels.
In the early spring of 1326, after a journey of over 3,500 km (2,200 mi), Ibn Battuta arrived at the port of Alexandria
, at the time part of the Bahri Mamluk empire
. He met two ascetic pious men in Alexandria. One was Sheikh Burhanuddin, who is supposed to have foretold the destiny of Ibn Battuta as a world traveller and told him "It seems to me that you are fond of foreign travel. You must visit my brother Fariduddin in India, Rukonuddin in Sind, and Burhanuddin in China. Convey my greetings to them". Another pious man Sheikh Murshidi interpreted the meaning of a dream of Ibn Battuta that he was meant to be a world traveller.
He spent several weeks visiting sites in the area, and then headed inland to Cairo
, the capital of the Mamluk Sultanate
and an important city. After spending about a month in Cairo,
he embarked on the first of many detours within the relative safety of Mamluk territory. Of the three usual routes to Mecca, Ibn Battuta chose the least-travelled, which involved a journey up the Nile
valley, then east to the Red Sea
port of Aydhab.[b]
Upon approaching the town, however, a local rebellion forced him to turn back.
Ibn Battuta returned to Cairo and took a second side trip, this time to Mamluk-controlled Damascus
. During his first trip he had encountered a holy man who prophesied that he would only reach Mecca by travelling through Syria
The diversion held an added advantage; because of the holy places that lay along the way, including Hebron
, and Bethlehem
, the Mamluk authorities spared no efforts in keeping the route safe for pilgrims. Without this help many travellers would be robbed and murdered.[c]
After spending the Muslim month of Ramadan
in Damascus, he joined a caravan travelling the 1,300 km (810 mi) south to Medina
, site of the Mosque of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
. After four days in the town, he journeyed on to Mecca while visiting holy sites along the way; upon his arrival to Mecca he completed his first pilgrimage and he took the honorific status of El-Hajji
. Rather than returning home, Ibn Battuta decided to continue traveling, choosing as his next destination the Ilkhanate
, a Mongol Khanate
, to the northeast.
Iraq and Persia
Ibn Battuta made a brief visit to the Persian-Azari city of Tabriz
On 17 November 1326, following a month spent in Mecca, Ibn Battuta joined a large caravan of pilgrims returning to Iraq
across the Arabian Peninsula
The group headed north to Medina and then, travelling at night, turned northeast across the Najd
plateau to Najaf
, on a journey that lasted about two weeks. In Najaf, he visited the mausoleum
, the Fourth Caliph
Then, instead of continuing to Baghdad
with the caravan, Ibn Battuta started a six-month detour that took him into Persia
. From Najaf, he journeyed to Wasit
, then followed the river Tigris
south to Basra
. His next destination was the town of Isfahan
across the Zagros Mountains
in Persia. He then headed south to Shiraz
, a large, flourishing city spared the destruction wrought by Mongol invaders on many more northerly towns. Finally, he returned across the mountains to Baghdad, arriving there in June 1327.
Parts of the city were still ruined from the damage inflicted by Hulago Khan's
invading army in 1258.
In Baghdad, he found Abu Sa'id
, the last Mongol ruler of the unified Ilkhanate, leaving the city and heading north with a large retinue.
Ibn Battuta joined the royal caravan for a while, then turned north on the Silk Road
, the first major city in the region to open its gates to the Mongols and by then an important trading centre as most of its nearby rivals had been razed by the Mongol invaders.
Ibn Battuta left again for Baghdad, probably in July, but first took an excursion northwards along the river Tigris. He visited Mosul
, where he was the guest of the Ilkhanate governor,
and then the towns of Cizre
(Jazirat ibn 'Umar) and Mardin
in modern-day Turkey. At a hermitage on a mountain near Sinjar
, he met a Kurdish
mystic who gave him some silver coins.[d]
Once back in Mosul, he joined a "feeder" caravan of pilgrims heading south to Baghdad, where they would meet up with the main caravan that crossed the Arabian Desert
to Mecca. Ill with diarrhoea, he arrived in the city weak and exhausted for his second hajj
Ibn Battuta remained in Mecca for some time (the Rihla
suggests about three years, from September 1327 until autumn 1330). Problems with chronology, however, lead commentators to suggest that he may have left after the 1328 hajj
After the hajj
in either 1328 or 1330, he made his way to the port of Jeddah
on the Red Sea coast. From there he followed the coast in a series of boats (known as a jalbah, these were small crafts made of wooden planks sewn together, lacking an established phrase) making slow progress against the prevailing south-easterly winds. Once in Yemen
he visited Zabīd
and later the highland town of Ta'izz
, where he met the Rasulid
dynasty king (Malik)
Mujahid Nur al-Din Ali. Ibn Battuta also mentions visiting Sana'a
, but whether he actually did so is doubtful.
In all likelihood, he went directly from Ta'izz to the important trading port of Aden
, arriving around the beginning of 1329 or 1331.
The port and waterfront of Zeila
When Ibn Battuta arrived in 1331, Mogadishu stood at the zenith of its prosperity. He described it as "an exceedingly large city" with many rich merchants, noted for its high-quality fabric that was exported to other countries, including Egypt
Ibn Battuta added that the city was ruled by a Somali Sultan
, Abu Bakr ibn Sayx 'Umar,
who was originally from Berbera
in northern Somalia and spoke both Somali
(referred to by Battuta as Mogadishan
, the Benadir
dialect of Somali) and Arabic with equal fluency.
The Sultan also had a retinue of wazirs
(ministers), legal experts, commanders, royal eunuchs
, and assorted hangers-on at his beck and call.
Ibn Battuta continued by ship south to the Swahili Coast
, a region then known in Arabic as the Bilad al-Zanj
("Land of the Zanj
with an overnight stop at the island town of Mombasa
Although relatively small at the time, Mombasa would become important in the following century.
After a journey along the coast, Ibn Battuta next arrived in the island town of Kilwa
in present-day Tanzania
which had become an important transit centre of the gold trade.
He described the city as "one of the finest and most beautifully built towns; all the buildings are of wood, and the houses are roofed with dīs
Ibn Battuta Itinerary 1332–1346 (Black Sea Area, Central Asia, India, South East Asia and China)
After his third pilgrimage to Mecca, Ibn Battuta decided to seek employment with the Muslim Sultan of Delhi
, Muhammad bin Tughluq
. In the autumn of 1330 (or 1332), he set off for the Seljuk
controlled territory of Anatolia
with the intention of taking an overland route to India.
He crossed the Red Sea
and the Eastern Desert
to reach the Nile valley and then headed north to Cairo. From there he crossed the Sinai Peninsula
to Palestine and then travelled north again through some of the towns that he had visited in 1326. From the Syrian port of Latakia
, a Genoese
ship took him (and his companions) to Alanya
on the southern coast of modern-day Turkey.
He then journeyed westwards along the coast to the port of Antalya
In the town he met members of one of the semi-religious fityan
These were a feature of most Anatolian towns in the 13th and 14th centuries. The members were young artisans and had at their head a leader with the title of Akhis
The associations specialised in welcoming travellers. Ibn Battuta was very impressed with the hospitality that he received and would later stay in their hospices in more than 25 towns in Anatolia.
From Antalya Ibn Battuta headed inland to Eğirdir
which was the capital of the Hamidids
. He spent Ramadan (June 1331 or May 1333) in the city.
From this point the itinerary across Anatolia in the Rihla
is confused. Ibn Battuta describes travelling westwards from Eğirdir to Milas
and then skipping 420 km (260 mi) eastward past Eğirdir to Konya
. He then continues travelling in an easterly direction, reaching Erzurum
from where he skips 1,160 km (720 mi) back to Birgi
which lies north of Milas
Historians believe that Ibn Battuta visited a number of towns in central Anatolia, but not in the order that he describes.[f]
he took a sea route to the Crimean Peninsula
, arriving in the Golden Horde
realm. He went to the port town of Azov
, where he met with the emir
of the Khan, then to the large and rich city of Majar
. He left Majar to meet with Uzbeg Khan
's travelling court (Orda
), which was at the time near Beshtau
mountain. From there he made a journey to Bolghar
, which became the northernmost point he reached, and noted its unusually short nights in summer (by the standards of the subtropics). Then he returned to the Khan's court and with it moved to Astrakhan
Ibn Battuta recorded that while in Bolghar he wanted to travel further north into the land of darkness. The land is snow-covered throughout (northern Siberia) and the only means of transport is dog-drawn sled. There lived a mysterious people who were reluctant to show themselves. They traded with southern people in a peculiar way. Southern merchants brought various goods and placed them in an open area on the snow in the night, then returned to their tents. Next morning they came to the place again and found their merchandise taken by the mysterious people, but in exchange they found fur-skins which could be used for making valuable coats, jackets, and other winter garments. The trade was done between merchants and the mysterious people without seeing each other. As Ibn Battuta was not a merchant and saw no benefit of going there he abandoned the travel to this land of darkness.
Arriving in Constantinople towards the end of 1332 (or 1334), he met the Byzantine
emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. He visited the great church of Hagia Sophia
and spoke with an Eastern Orthodox
priest about his travels in the city of Jerusalem. After a month in the city, Ibn Battuta returned to Astrakhan, then arrived in the capital city Sarai al-Jadid
and reported the accounts of his travels to Sultan Öz Beg Khan
(r. 1313–1341). Then he continued past the Caspian
and Aral Seas
, where he visited the court of another Mongolian king, Tarmashirin
(r. 1331–1334) of the Chagatai Khanate
From there, he journeyed south to Afghanistan
, then crossed into India via the mountain passes of the Hindu Kush
In the Rihla
, he mentions these mountains and the history of the range in slave trading.
After this I proceeded to the city of Barwan, in the road to which is a high mountain, covered with snow and exceedingly cold; they call it the Hindu Kush, that is Hindu-slayer, because most of the slaves brought tither from India die on account of the intenseness of the cold.
— Ibn Battuta, Chapter XIII, Rihla – Khorasan
Tomb of Feroze Shah Tughluq, successor of Muhammad bin Tughluq
in Delhi. Ibn Battuta served as a qadi
or judge for six years during Muhammad bin Tughluq's reign.
Muhammad bin Tughluq
was renowned as the wealthiest man in the Muslim world at that time. He patronized various scholars, Sufis, qadis
and other functionaries in order to consolidate his rule. As with Mamluk Egypt, the Tughlaq Dynasty was a rare vestigial example of Muslim rule after a Mongol invasion.
On the strength of his years of study in Mecca, Ibn Battuta was appointed a qadi
, or judge, by the sultan.
However, he found it difficult to enforce Islamic law
beyond the sultan's court in Delhi, due to lack of Islamic appeal in India.
It is uncertain by which route Ibn Battuta entered the Indian subcontinent
but it is known that he was kidnapped and robbed by Hindu rebels on his journey to the indian coast. He may have entered via the Khyber Pass
, or further south.
He crossed the Sutlej river
near the city of Pakpattan
in modern-day Pakistan, where he paid obeisance at the shrine of Baba Farid
before crossing southwest into Rajput country. From the Rajput
kingdom of Sarsatti, Battuta visited Hansi
in India, describing it as "among the most beautiful cities, the best constructed and the most populated; it is surrounded with a strong wall, and its founder is said to be one of the great infidel kings, called Tara".
Upon his arrival in Sindh
, Ibn Battuta mentions the Indian rhinoceros
that lived on the banks of the Indus
The Sultan was erratic even by the standards of the time and for six years Ibn Battuta veered between living the high life of a trusted subordinate and falling under suspicion of treason for a variety of offences. His plan to leave on the pretext of taking another hajj
was stymied by the Sultan. The opportunity for Battuta to leave Delhi finally arose in 1341 when an embassy arrived from Yuan dynasty
China asking for permission to rebuild a Himalayan Buddhist temple popular with Chinese pilgrims.[g]
Ibn Battuta was given charge of the embassy but en route to the coast at the start of the journey to China, he and his large retinue were attacked by a group of bandits
Separated from his companions, he was robbed, kidnapped, and nearly lost his life.
Despite this setback, within ten days he had caught up with his group and continued on to Khambhat
in the Indian state of Gujarat
. From there, they sailed to Calicut
(now known as Kozhikode), where Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama
would land two centuries later. While in Calicut, Battuta was the guest of the ruling Zamorin
While Ibn Battuta visited a mosque on shore, a storm arose and one of the ships of his expedition sank.
The other ship then sailed without him only to be seized by a local Sumatran
king a few months later.
Afraid to return to Delhi and be seen as a failure, he stayed for a time in southern India under the protection of Jamal-ud-Din
, ruler of the small but powerful Nawayath sultanate
on the banks of the Sharavathi
river next to the Arabian Sea
. This area is today known as Hosapattana and lies in the Honavar administrative district
of Uttara Kannada
. Following the overthrow of the sultanate, Ibn Battuta had no choice but to leave India. Although determined to continue his journey to China, he first took a detour to visit the Maldive Islands
where he worked as a judge.
He spent nine months on the islands, much longer than he had intended. When he arrived at the capital, Malé
, Ibn Battuta did not plan to stay. However, the leaders of the formerly Buddhist
nation that had recently converted to Islam
were looking for a chief judge, someone who knew Arabic and Qur’an. To convince him to stay they gave him pearls, gold jewelry and slaves, while at the same time making it impossible for him to leave by ship. Compelled into staying, he became a chief judge and married into the royal family of Omar I
Ibn Battuta took on his duties as a judge with keenness and strived to transform local practices to conform to a stricter application of Muslim law. He commanded that men who did not attend Friday prayer be publicly whipped, and that robbers’ right hand be cut off. He forbade women from being topless in public, which had previously been the custom.
However, these and other strict judgments began to antagonize the island nation’s rulers, and involved him in power struggles and political intrigues. Ibn Battuta resigned from his job as chief qadi
, although in all likelihood it was inevitable that he would have been dismissed.
Throughout his travels, Ibn Battuta kept close company with women, usually taking a wife whenever he stopped for any length of time at one place, and then divorcing her when he moved on. While in the Maldives, Ibn Battuta took four wives. In his Travels he wrote that in the Maldives the effect of small dowries and female non-mobility combined to, in effect, make a marriage a convenient temporary arrangement for visiting male travellers and sailors.
From the Maldives, he carried on to Sri Lanka
and visited Sri Pada
and Tenavaram temple
. Ibn Battuta's ship almost sank on embarking from Sri Lanka, only for the vessel that came to his rescue to suffer an attack by pirates. Stranded onshore, he worked his way back to the Madurai
kingdom in India. Here he spent some time in the court of the short-lived Madurai Sultanate
under Ghiyas-ud-Din Muhammad Damghani,
from where he returned to the Maldives and boarded a Chinese junk
, still intending to reach China and take up his ambassadorial post.
He reached the port of Chittagong
in modern-day Bangladesh
intending to travel to Sylhet
to meet Shah Jalal
, who became so renowned that Ibn Battuta, then in Chittagong, made a one-month journey through the mountains of Kamaru
near Sylhet to meet him. On his way to Sylhet, Ibn Battuta was greeted by several of Shah Jalal's disciples who had come to assist him on his journey many days before he had arrived. At the meeting in 1345 CE, Ibn Battuta noted that Shah Jalal was tall and lean, fair in complexion and lived by the mosque in a cave, where his only item of value was a goat he kept for milk, butter, and yogurt. He observed that the companions of the Shah Jalal were foreign and known for their strength and bravery. He also mentions that many people would visit the Shah to seek guidance. Ibn Battuta went further north into Assam
, then turned around and continued with his original plan.
In 1345, Ibn Battuta travelled on to Samudra Pasai
Sultanate in present-day Aceh
, Northern Sumatra
, where he notes in his travel log that the ruler of Samudra Pasai was a pious Muslim named Sultan Al-Malik Al-Zahir Jamal-ad-Din, who performed his religious duties with utmost zeal and often waged campaigns against animists in the region. The island of Sumatra
, according to Ibn Battuta, was rich in camphor
, areca nut
, and tin
he observed was Imam Al-Shafi‘i
, whose customs were similar to those he had previously seen in coastal India
, especially among the Mappila
Muslims, who were also followers of Imam Al-Shafi‘i. At that time Samudra Pasai marked the end of Dar al-Islam
, because no territory east of this was ruled by a Muslim. Here he stayed for about two weeks in the wooden walled town as a guest of the sultan, and then the sultan provided him with supplies and sent him on his way on one of his own junks
Ibn Battuta first sailed to Malacca
on the Malay Peninsula
which he called "Mul Jawi". He met the ruler of Malacca and stayed as a guest for three days.
Ibn Battuta then sailed to a state called Kaylukari in the land of Tawalisi
, where he met Urduja
, a local princess. Urduja was a brave warrior, and her people were opponents of the Yuan dynasty
. She was described as an "idolater", but could write the phrase Bismillah
in Islamic calligraphy
. The locations of Kaylukari and Tawalisi are disputed. Kaylukari might referred to Po Klong Garai
(now southern Vietnam), and Urduja might be an aristocrat of Champa
or Dai Viet
. Filipinos widely believe that Kaylukari was in present-day Pangasinan Province
of the Philippines
In modern times, Urduja has been featured in Filipino textbooks and films as a national heroine. Numerous other locations have been proposed, ranging from Java
to somewhere in Guangdong Province
, China. However, Sir Henry Yule
and William Henry Scott
consider both Tawilisi and Urduja to be entirely fictitious. (See Tawalisi
From Kaylukari, Ibn Battuta finally reached Quanzhou
Ibn Battuta provides the earliest mention of the Great Wall of China
with regard to medieval geographic studies, although he did not see it.
In the year 1345 Ibn Battuta arrived at Quanzhou
in China's Fujian
province, then under the rule of the Mongols
. One of the first things he noted was that Muslims referred to the city as "Zaitun" (meaning olive
), but Ibn Battuta could not find any olives anywhere. He mentioned local artists and their mastery in making portraits of newly arrived foreigners; these were for security purposes. Ibn Battuta praised the craftsmen and their silk
; as well as fruits such as plums and watermelons and the advantages of paper money.
He described the manufacturing process of large ships in the city of Quanzhou.
He also mentioned Chinese cuisine and its usage of animals such as frogs, pigs and even dogs which were sold in the markets, and noted that the chickens in China were larger than those in the west. Scholars however have pointed out numerous errors given in Ibn Battuta's account of China, for example confusing the Yellow River
with the Grand Canal
and other waterways, as well as believing that porcelain was made from coal.
In Quanzhou, Ibn Battuta was welcomed by the head of the local Muslim merchants (possibly a fānzhǎng or "Leader of Foreigners" simplified Chinese
: 番长; traditional Chinese
: 番長; pinyin
）and Sheikh al-Islam (Imam
), who came to meet him with flags
Ibn Battuta noted that the Muslim populace lived within a separate portion in the city where they had their own mosques, bazaars and hospitals. In Quanzhou, he met two prominent Persians, Burhan al-Din of Kazerun
and Sharif al-Din from Tabriz
(both of whom were influential figures noted in the Yuan History
as "A-mi-li-ding" and "Sai-fu-ding", respectively).
While in Quanzhou he ascended the "Mount of the Hermit
" and briefly visited a well-known Taoist
monk in a cave.
He then travelled south along the Chinese coast to Guangzhou
, where he lodged for two weeks with one of the city's wealthy merchants.
From Guangzhou he went north to Quanzhou and then proceeded to the city of Fuzhou
, where he took up residence with Zahir al-Din and was proud to meet Kawam al-Din and a fellow countryman named Al-Bushri of Ceuta
, who had become a wealthy merchant in China. Al-Bushri accompanied Ibn Battuta northwards to Hangzhou
and paid for the gifts that Ibn Battuta would present to the Mongolian Emperor Togon-temür
of the Yuan Dynasty
Ibn Battuta said that Hangzhou
was one of the largest cities he had ever seen,
and he noted its charm, describing that the city sat on a beautiful lake
surrounded by gentle green hills.
He mentions the city's Muslim quarter and resided as a guest with a family of Egyptian origin.
During his stay at Hangzhou he was particularly impressed by the large number of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships, with coloured sails and silk awnings, assembling in the canals. Later he attended a banquet of the Yuan Mongol administrator of the city named Qurtai, who according to Ibn Battuta, was very fond of the skills of local Chinese conjurers
Ibn Battuta also mentions locals who worship the Solar deity
He described floating through the Grand Canal
on a boat watching crop fields, orchids, merchants in black silk, and women in flowered silk and priests also in silk.
, Ibn Battuta referred to himself as the long-lost ambassador from the Delhi Sultanate
and was invited to the Yuan
imperial court of Togon-temür
(who according to Ibn Battuta was worshipped by some people in China). Ibn Batutta noted that the palace of Khanbaliq
was made of wood and that the ruler's "head wife" (Empress Gi
) held processions in her honour.
Ibn Battuta travelled from Beijing
to Hangzhou, and then proceeded to Fuzhou
. Upon his return to Quanzhou, he soon boarded a Chinese junk owned by the Sultan
of Samudera Pasai Sultanate
heading for Southeast Asia, whereupon Ibn Battuta was unfairly charged a hefty sum by the crew and lost much of what he had collected during his stay in China.
Battuta claimed that the Mongol Khan (Qan) had interned with him in his grave six slave soldiers and four girl slaves.
Silver, gold, weapons, and carpets were put into the grave.
After returning to Quanzhou in 1346, Ibn Battuta began his journey back to Morocco.
In Kozhikode, he once again considered throwing himself at the mercy of Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi, but thought better of it and decided to carry on to Mecca. On his way to Basra
he passed through the Strait of Hormuz
, where he learned that Abu Sa'id
, last ruler of the Ilkhanate Dynasty
had died in Persia. Abu Sa'id's territories had subsequently collapsed due to a fierce civil war between the Persians and Mongols.
In 1348, Ibn Battuta arrived in Damascus with the intention of retracing the route of his first hajj
. He then learned that his father had died 15 years earlier
and death became the dominant theme for the next year or so. The Black Death
had struck and he stopped in Homs
as the plague spread through Syria, Palestine
, and Arabia. He heard of terrible death tolls in Gaza
, but returned to Damascus that July where the death toll had reached 2,400 victims each day.
When he stopped in Gaza he found it was depopulated, and in Egypt he stayed at Abu Sir
. Reportedly deaths in Cairo has reached levels of 1,100 each day.
He made hajj
to Mecca then he decided to return to Morocco, nearly a quarter of a century after leaving home.
On the way he made one last detour to Sardinia
, then in 1349, returned to Tangier by way of Fez
, only to discover that his mother had also died a few months before.
Ibn Battuta Itinerary 1349–1354 (North Africa, Spain and West Africa)
Spain and North Africa
After a few days in Tangier, Ibn Battuta set out for a trip to the Muslim-controlled territory of al-Andalus
on the Iberian Peninsula
. King Alfonso XI of Castile and León
had threatened to attack Gibraltar
, so in 1350, Ibn Battuta joined a group of Muslims leaving Tangier with the intention of defending the port.
By the time he arrived, the Black Death had killed Alfonso and the threat of invasion had receded, so he turned the trip into a sight-seeing tour, travelling through Valencia
and ending up in Granada
After his departure from al-Andalus he decided to travel through Morocco. On his return home, he stopped for a while in Marrakech
, which was almost a ghost town following the recent plague and the transfer of the capital to Fez
Mali and Timbuktu
In the autumn of 1351, Ibn Battuta left Fez and made his way to the town of Sijilmasa
on the northern edge of the Sahara in present-day Morocco.
There he bought a number of camels and stayed for four months. He set out again with a caravan in February 1352 and after 25 days arrived at the dry salt lake bed of Taghaza
with its salt mines. All of the local buildings were made from slabs of salt by the slaves of the Masufa tribe, who cut the salt in thick slabs for transport by camel. Taghaza was a commercial centre and awash with Malian gold, though Ibn Battuta did not form a favourable impression of the place, recording that it was plagued by flies and the water was brackish.
After a ten-day stay in Taghaza, the caravan set out for the oasis of Tasarahla (probably Bir al-Ksaib)[h]
where it stopped for three days in preparation for the last and most difficult leg of the journey across the vast desert. From Tasarahla, a Masufa scout was sent ahead to the oasis town of Oualata
, where he arranged for water to be transported a distance of four days travel where it would meet the thirsty caravan. Oualata was the southern terminus of the trans-Saharan trade
route and had recently become part of the Mali Empire. Altogether, the caravan took two months to cross the 1,600 km (990 mi) of desert from Sijilmasa.
From there, Ibn Battuta travelled southwest along a river he believed to be the Nile (it was actually the river Niger
), until he reached the capital of the Mali Empire.[i]
There he met Mansa Suleyman
, king since 1341. Ibn Battuta disapproved of the fact that female slaves, servants and even the daughters of the sultan went about exposing parts of their bodies
not befitting a Muslim.
He left the capital in February accompanied by a local Malian merchant and journeyed overland by camel to Timbuktu
Though in the next two centuries it would become the most important city in the region, at that time it was a small city and relatively unimportant.
It was during this journey that Ibn Battuta first encountered a hippopotamus
. The animals were feared by the local boatmen and hunted with lances to which strong cords were attached.
After a short stay in Timbuktu, Ibn Battuta journeyed down the Niger to Gao
in a canoe carved from a single tree. At the time Gao was an important commercial center.
After spending a month in Gao, Ibn Battuta set off with a large caravan for the oasis of Takedda
. On his journey across the desert, he received a message from the Sultan of Morocco
commanding him to return home. He set off for Sijilmasa in September 1353, accompanying a large caravan transporting 600 female slaves, and arrived back in Morocco early in 1354.
Ibn Battuta's itinerary gives scholars a glimpse as to when Islam
first began to spread into the heart of west Africa.
A house in the city of Tangier
, the possible site of Ibn Battuta's grave.
Historic copy of selected parts of the Travel Report by Ibn Battuta, 1836 CE, Cairo
After returning home from his travels in 1354, and at the suggestion of the Marinid
ruler of Morocco, Abu Inan Faris
, Ibn Battuta dictated an account in Arabic of his journeys to Ibn Juzayy
, a scholar whom he had previously met in Granada. The account is the only source for Ibn Battuta's adventures. The full title of the manuscript may be translated as A Masterpiece to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling
(تحفة النظار في غرائب الأمصار وعجائب الأسفار
, Tuḥfat an-Nuẓẓār fī Gharāʾib al-Amṣār wa ʿAjāʾib al-Asfār
However, it is often simply referred to as The Travels
in reference to a standard form of Arabic literature
There is no indication that Ibn Battuta made any notes or had any journal during his twenty-nine years of travelling.[k]
When he came to dictate an account of his experiences he had to rely on memory and manuscripts produced by earlier travellers. Ibn Juzayy did not acknowledge his sources and presented some of the earlier descriptions as Ibn Battuta's own observations. When describing Damascus, Mecca, Medina and some other places in the Middle East, he clearly copied passages from the account by the Andalusian Ibn Jubayr
which had been written more than 150 years earlier.
Similarly, most of Ibn Juzayy's descriptions of places in Palestine were copied from an account by the 13th-century traveller Muhammad al-Abdari
do not believe that Ibn Battuta visited all the places he described and argue that in order to provide a comprehensive description of places in the Muslim world, he relied on hearsay evidence and made use of accounts by earlier travellers. For example, it is considered very unlikely that Ibn Battuta made a trip up the Volga River
from New Sarai
to visit Bolghar
and there are serious doubts about a number of other journeys such as his trip to Sana'a in Yemen,
his journey from Balkh
and his trip around Anatolia.
Ibn Battuta's claim that a Maghrebian
called "Abu'l Barakat the Berber" converted the Maldives to Islam is contradicted by an entirely different story which says that the Maldives were converted to Islam
after miracles were performed by a Tabrizi
named Maulana Shaikh Yusuf Shams-ud-din according to the Tarikh, the official history of the Maldives.
Some scholars have also questioned whether he really visited China.
Ibn Battuta may have plagiarized entire sections of his descriptions of China lifted from works by other authors like "Masalik al-absar fi mamalik al-amsar" by Shihab al-Umari
, Sulaiman al-Tajir
, and possibly from Al Juwayni
, Rashid al din
and an Alexander romance
. Furthermore, Ibn Battuta's description and Marco Polo's writings share extremely similar sections and themes, with some of the same commentary, e.g. it is unlikely that the 3rd Caliph Uthman ibn Affan
had someone with the identical name in China who was encountered by Ibn Battuta.
However, even if the Rihla
is not fully based on what its author personally witnessed, it provides an important account of much of the 14th-century world. Concubines were used by Ibn Battuta such as in Delhi.:111–13, 137, 141, 238
He wedded several women, divorced at least some of them, and in Damascus, Malabar, Delhi, Bukhara, and the Maldives had children by them or by concubines.
Ibn Battuta insulted Greeks as "enemies of Allah", drunkards and "swine eaters", while at the same time in Ephesus he purchased and used a Greek girl who was one of his many slave girls in his "harem" through Byzantium, Khorasan, Africa, and Palestine.
It was two decades before he again returned to find out what happened to one of his wives and child in Damascus.
Ibn Battuta often experienced culture shock
in regions he visited where the local customs of recently converted peoples did not fit in with his orthodox Muslim background. Among the Turks and Mongols, he was astonished at the freedom and respect enjoyed by women and remarked that on seeing a Turkish couple in a bazaar one might assume that the man was the woman's servant when he was in fact her husband.
He also felt that dress customs in the Maldives, and some sub-Saharan
regions in Africa were too revealing.
Little is known about Ibn Battuta's life after completion of his Rihla
in 1355. He was appointed a judge in Morocco and died in 1368 or 1369.
Ibn Battuta's work was unknown outside the Muslim world until the beginning of the 19th century, when the German traveller-explorer Ulrich Jasper Seetzen
(1767–1811) acquired a collection of manuscripts in the Middle East, among which was a 94-page volume containing an abridged version of Ibn Juzayy's text. Three extracts were published in 1818 by the German orientalist Johann Kosegarten
A fourth extract was published the following year.
French scholars were alerted to the initial publication by a lengthy review published in the Journal de Savants
by the orientalist Silvestre de Sacy
Three copies of another abridged manuscript were acquired by the Swiss traveller Johann Burckhardt
and bequeathed to the University of Cambridge. He gave a brief overview of their content in a book published posthumously in 1819.
The Arabic text was translated into English by the orientalist Samuel Lee
and published in London in 1829.
In the 1830s, during the French occupation of Algeria, the Bibliothèque Nationale
(BNF) in Paris
acquired five manuscripts of Ibn Battuta's travels, in which two were complete.[l]
One manuscript containing just the second part of the work is dated 1356 and is believed to be Ibn Juzayy's autograph.
The BNF manuscripts were used in 1843 by the Irish-French orientalist Baron de Slane
to produce a translation into French of Ibn Battuta's visit to the Sudan.
They were also studied by the French scholars Charles Defrémery
and Beniamino Sanguinetti. Beginning in 1853 they published a series of four volumes containing a critical edition
of the Arabic text together with a translation into French.
In their introduction Defrémery and Sanguinetti praised Lee's annotations but were critical of his translation which they claimed lacked precision, even in straightforward passages.[m]
In 1929, exactly a century after the publication of Lee's translation, the historian and orientalist Hamilton Gibb
published an English translation of selected portions of Defrémery and Sanguinetti's Arabic text.
Gibb had proposed to the Hakluyt Society
in 1922 that he should prepare an annotated translation of the entire Rihla
His intention was to divide the translated text into four volumes, each volume corresponding to one of the volumes published by Defrémery and Sanguinetti. The first volume was not published until 1958.
Gibb died in 1971, having completed the first three volumes. The fourth volume was prepared by Charles Beckingham and published in 1994.
Defrémery and Sanguinetti's printed text has now been translated into number of other languages.
The German Islamic studies scholar Ralph Elger views Battuta's travel account as an important literary work but doubts the historicity of much of its content, which he suspects to be a work of fiction being compiled and inspired from other contemporary travel reports.
Various other scholars have raised similar doubts.[who?]
Ross E. Dunn
in 1987 has similarly expressed doubts that any evidence would be found to support the narrative of the Rihla
, but in 2010 Tim Mackintosh-Smith
completed a multi-volume field study in dozens of the locales mentioned in the Rihla
, in which he reports on previously unknown manuscripts of Islamic law kept in the archives of Al-Azhar University
that were copied by Ibn Battuta in Damascus
in 1326, corroborating the date in the Rihla
of his sojourn in Syria.
- ^ Arabic: ابن بطوطة; fully: Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Yūsuf al-Lawātī al-Ṭanji; Arabic: شمس الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله بن محمد بن إبراهيم بن محمد بن إبراهيم بن يوسف اللواتي الطنجي
- ^ Aydhad was a port on the west coast of the Red Sea at 22°19′51″N 36°29′25″E.
- ^ Ibn Battuta left Cairo on around 16 July 1326 and arrived in Damascus three weeks later on 9 August 1326. He described travelling on a complicated zig-zag route across Palestine in which he visited more than twenty cities. Such a journey would have been impossible in the allotted time and both Gibb (1958) and Hrbek (1962) have argued that Ibn Battuta conflated this journey with later journeys that he made in the region. Elad (1987) has shown that Ibn Battuta's descriptions of most of the sites in Palestine were not original but were copied (without acknowledgement) from the earlier rihla by the traveller Mohammed al-Abdari. Because of these difficulties, it is not possible to determine an accurate chronology of Ibn Battuta's travels in the region.
- ^ Most of Ibn Battuta's descriptions of the towns along the Tigris are copied from Ibn Jabayr's Rihla from 1184.
- ^ Ibn Battuta states that he stayed in Mecca for the hajj of 1327, 1328, 1329 and 1330 but gives comparatively little information on his stays. After the hajj of 1330 he left for East Africa, arriving back again in Mecca before the 1332 hajj. He states that he then left for India and arrived at the Indus river on 12 September 1333; however, although he does not specify exact dates, the description of his complex itinerary and the clues in the text to the chronology suggest that this journey to India lasted around three years. He must have therefore either left Mecca two years earlier than stated or arrived in India two years later. The issue is discussed by Gibb 1962, pp. 528–37 Vol. 2, Hrbek 1962 and Dunn 2005, pp. 132–33.
- ^ This is one of several occasions where Ibn Battuta interrupts a journey to branch out on a side trip only to later skip back and resume the original journey. Gibb describes these side trips as "divagations". The divagation through Anatolia is considered credible as Ibn Battuta describes numerous personal experiences and there is sufficient time between leaving Mecca in mid-November 1330 and reaching Eğirdir on the way back from Erzurum at the start of Ramadan (8 June) in 1331. Gibb still admits that he found it difficult to believe that Ibn Battuta actually travelled as far east as Erzurum.
- ^ In the Rihla the date of Ibn Battuta's departure from Delhi is given as 17 Safar 743 AH or 22 July 1342. Dunn has argued that this is probably an error and to accommodate Ibn Battuta's subsequent travels and visits to the Maldives it is more likely that he left Delhi in 1341.
- ^ Bir al-Ksaib (also Bir Ounane or El Gçaib) is in northern Mali at 21°17′33″N 5°37′30″W. The oasis is 265 km (165 mi) south of Taghaza and 470 km (290 mi) north of Oualata.
- ^ The location of the Malian capital has been the subject of considerable scholarly debate but there is no consensus. The historian, John Hunwick has studied the times given by Ibn Battuta for the various stages of his journey and proposed that the capital is likely to have been on the left side of the Niger River somewhere between Bamako and Nyamina.
- ^ Dunn gives the clunkier translation A Gift to the Observers Concerning the Curiosities of the Cities and the Marvels Encountered in Travels.
- ^ Though he mentions being robbed of some notes
- ^ Neither de Slane's 19th century catalogue nor the modern online equivalent provide any information on the provenance of the manuscripts. Dunn states that all five manuscripts were "found in Algeria" but in their introduction Defrémery and Sanguinetti mention that the BNF had acquired one manuscript (MS Supplément arabe 909/Arabe 2287) from M. Delaporte, a former French consul to Morocco.
- ^ French: "La version de M. Lee manque quelquefois d'exactitude, même dans des passage fort simples et très-faciles".
- ^ Parker, John (2004), "Marco Polo", The World Book Encyclopedia, 15 (illustrated ed.), United States: World Book, Inc., ISBN 978-0-7166-0104-3
- ^ Nehru, Jawaharlal (1989). Glimpses of World History. Oxford University Press. p. 752. ISBN 978-0-19-561323-0. After outlining the extensive route of Ibn Battuta's Journey, Nehru notes: "This is a record of travel which is rare enough today with our many conveniences.... In any event, Ibn Battuta must be amongst the great travellers of all time."
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 19
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 1 Vol. 1; Dunn 2005, p. 19
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 22
- ^ Goitein, Shelomo Dov (1967). A Mediterranean Society. Volume I: Economic Foundations. University of California Press. pp. 67–. OCLC 611714368.
- ^ The Sahara: A Cultural History
- ^ Ibn Battuta — Famous Scientists.org
- ^ Ibn Battuta — Ancient History Encyclopedia
His full name, as given in the Rihla, was Shams al-Din Abu’Abdallah Muhammad ibn’Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Lawati al-Tanji ibn Battuta and all that is known of his family comes from the Rihla which records references to his education and provides his lineage.
- ^ Ibn Battuta — Encyclopedia.com
- ^ Ibn Battuta — Encyclopedia Britannica
Ibn Battuta, also spelled Ibn Baṭṭūṭah, in full Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-Lawātī al-Ṭanjī ibn Baṭṭūṭah, (born February 24, 1304, Tangier, Morocco—died 1368/69 or 1377, Morocco), the greatest medieval Muslim traveler and the author of one of the most famous travel books, the Riḥlah (Travels).
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 30–31.
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 13 Vol. 1; Gibb 1958, p. 8
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 37; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 21 Vol. 1
- ^ "Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325–1354". Deborah Mauskopf Deliyannis. Indiana University Bloomington. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 39; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 26 Vol. 1
- ^ The Travels of Ibn Battuta, A.D. 1325-1354: Volume I, translated by H.A.R Gibb, pp. 23-24
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 27 Vol. 1
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 49; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 67 Vol. 1
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 53–54
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 105 Vol. 1; Gibb 1958, p. 66; Dunn 2005, p. 53
- ^ Hrbek 1962, pp. 421–25.
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 66–79.
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 88–89; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 404 Vol. 1; Gibb 1958, p. 249 Vol. 1
- ^ Gibb 1958, pp. 255–57 Vol. 1; Dunn 2005, pp. 89–90
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 97; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1854, p. 100 Vol. 2
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 98–100; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1854, p. 125 Vol. 2
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 100–01; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1854, pp. 128–31 Vol. 2
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1854, pp. 134–39 Vol. 2.
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 102; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1854, p. 142 Vol. 2
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 102–03; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1854, p. 149 Vol. 2
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 115–116, 134
- ^ Gibb 1962, p. 373 Vol. 2
- ^ Sanjay Subrahmanyam, The Career and Legend of Vasco Da Gama, (Cambridge University Press: 1998), pp. 120–21.
- ^ J.D. Fage, Roland Oliver, Roland Anthony Oliver, The Cambridge History of Africa, (Cambridge University Press: 1977), p. 190.
- ^ George Wynn Brereton Huntingford, Agatharchides, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: With Some Extracts from Agatharkhidēs "On the Erythraean Sea", (Hakluyt Society: 1980), p. 83.
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- ^ Versteegh, Kees (2008). Encyclopedia of Arabic language and linguistics, Volume 4. Brill. p. 276. ISBN 978-90-04-14476-7. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.
- ^ a b c David D. Laitin, Said S. Samatar, Somalia: Nation in Search of a State, (Westview Press: 1987), p. 15.
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- ^ Chittick 1977, p. 191
- ^ Gibb 1962, p. 379 Vol. 2
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 126
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1854, p. 192 Vol. 2
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 126–27
- ^ Gibb 1962, p. 380 Vol. 2; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1854, p. 193, Vol. 2
- ^ "The Red Sea to East Africa and the Arabian Sea: 1328–1330". orias.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 137–39.
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- ^ Gibb 1971, p. 592 Vol. 3; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1855, p. 92 Vol. 3; Dunn 2005, pp. 178, 181 Note 26
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- ^ Gibb 1971, p. 596 Vol. 3; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1855, p. 100 Vol. 3
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1858, p. 4 Vol. 4.
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- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 215; Gibb & Beckingham 1994, p. 777 Vol. 4
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- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 260
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- ^ Haw, Stephen G. (2006), Marco Polo's China: a Venetian in the realm of Khubilai Khan, Volume 3 of Routledge studies in the early history of Asia, Psychology Press, pp. 52–57, ISBN 978-0-415-34850-8, archived from the original on 24 December 2016
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 259–61
- ^ Aubrey W. Bonnett; Calvin B. Holder (2009). Continuing Perspectives on the Black Diaspora. University Press of America. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-7618-4662-8.
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- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 261
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 268–69
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 269
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 274–75
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 278
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 282
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 283–84
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 286–87
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1858, p. 376 Vol. 4; Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 282; Dunn 2005, p. 295
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1858, pp. 378–79 Vol. 4; Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 282; Dunn 2005, p. 297
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1858, p. 385 Vol. 4; Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 284; Dunn 2005, p. 298
- ^ Jerry Bently, Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 131.
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1858, p. 430 Vol. 4; Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 299; Gibb & Beckingham 1994, pp. 969–970 Vol. 4; Dunn 2005, p. 304
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1858, pp. 425–26 Vol. 4; Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 297
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1858, pp. 432–36 Vol. 4; Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 299; Dunn 2005, p. 305
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1858, pp. 444–445 Vol. 4; Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 303; Dunn 2005, p. 306
- ^ Noel King (ed.), Ibn Battuta in Black Africa, Princeton 2005, pp. 45–46. Four generations before Mansa Suleiman who died in 1360 CE, his grandfather's grandfather (Saraq Jata) had embraced Islam.
- ^ M-S p. ix.
- ^ p. 310
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 310–11; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, pp. 9–10 Vol. 1
- ^ a b Battutah, Ibn (2002). The Travels of Ibn Battutah. Picador. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-330-41879-9.
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 313–14; Mattock 1981
- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 63–64; Elad 1987
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 179; Janicsek 1929
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 134 Note 17
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 180 Note 23
- ^ Dunn 2005, p. 157 Note 13
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- ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 253, 262 Note 20
- ^ Ralf Elger; Yavuz Köse (2010). Many Ways of Speaking about the Self: Middle Eastern Ego-documents in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish (14th–20th Century). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 79–82. ISBN 978-3-447-06250-3. Archived from the original on 11 December 2017.
- ^ Stewart Gordon (2009). When Asia was the World. Perseus Books Group. pp. 114–. ISBN 978-0-306-81739-7.
- ^ Michael N. Pearson (2003). The Indian Ocean. Routledge. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-134-60959-8. He had a son to a Moroccan woman/wife in Damascus ... a daughter to a slave girl in Bukhara ... a daughter in Delhi to a wife, another to a slave girl in Malabar, a son in the Maldives to a wife ... in the Maldives at least he divorced his wives before he left.
- ^ William Dalrymple (2003). City of Djinns: A Year in Delhi. Penguin Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-101-12701-8.
- ^ Kate S. Hammer (1999). The Role of Women in Ibn Battuta's Rihla. Indiana University. p. 45.
- ^ Gibb 1958, pp. 480–81; Dunn 2005, p. 168
- ^ Gibb 1958, pp. ix–x Vol. 1; Dunn 2005, p. 318
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, Vol. 1 pp. xiii–xiv; Kosegarten 1818.
- ^ Burckhardt 1819, pp. 533–37 Note 82; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, Vol. 1 p. xvi
- ^ de Slane 1883–1895, p. 401.
- ^ MS Arabe 2287; MS Arabe 2288; MS Arabe 2289; MS Arabe 2290; MS Arabe 2291.
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, Vol. 1 p. xxiii.
- ^ de Slane 1843b; MS Arabe 2291
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1854; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1855; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1858
- ^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, Vol. 1 p. xvii.
- ^ Lewis Gropp: Zeitzeuge oder Fälscher?. Deutschlandfunk,. 17 August 2010 (German, retrieved 11 May 2029)
- ^ Roxanne L. Euben: Journeys to the Other Shore: Muslim and Western Travelers in Search of Knowledge. Princeton University Press, 2008, ISBN 9781400827497, p. 220
- ^ Dunn, Ross E. (2012). The Adventures of Ibn Battuta: A Muslim Traveler of the 14th Century. University of California Press.
- Aiya, V. Nagam (1906). Travancore State Manual. Travancore Government press.
- Apetz, Heinrich (1819). Descriptio terrae Malabar ex Arabico Ebn Batutae Itinerario Edita (in Latin and Arabic). Jena: Croecker. OCLC 243444596.
- Burckhardt, John Lewis (1819). Travels in Nubia. London: John Murray. OCLC 192612.
- Chittick, H. Neville (1977), "The East Coast, Madagascar and the Indian Ocean", in Oliver, Roland (ed.), Cambridge History of Africa Vol. 3. From c. 1050 to c. 1600, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 183–231, ISBN 978-0-521-20981-6.
- Defrémery, C.; Sanguinetti, B.R., eds. (1853), Voyages d'Ibn Batoutah (Volume 1) (in French and Arabic), Paris: Société Asiatic. The text of these volumes has been used as the source for translations into other languages.
- Defrémery, C.; Sanguinetti, B.R., eds. (1854), Voyages d'Ibn Batoutah (Volume 2) (in French and Arabic), Paris: Société Asiatic.
- Defrémery, C.; Sanguinetti, B.R., eds. (1855), Voyages d'Ibn Batoutah (Volume 3) (in French and Arabic), Paris: Société Asiatic.
- Defrémery, C.; Sanguinetti, B.R., eds. (1858), Voyages d'Ibn Batoutah (Volume 4) (in French and Arabic), Paris: Société Asiatic.
- Dunn, Ross E. (2005), The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-24385-9. First published in 1986, ISBN 0-520-05771-6.
- Elad, Amikam (1987), "The description of the travels of Ibn Baṭūṭṭa in Palestine: is it original?", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 119 (2): 256–72, doi:10.1017/S0035869X00140651.
- Gibb, H.A.R., ed. (1929), Ibn Battuta Travels in Asia and Africa (selections), London: Routledge. Reissued several times. Extracts are available on the Fordham University site.
- Gibb, H.A.R., ed. (1958), The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, A.D. 1325–1354 (Volume 1), London: Hakluyt Society.
- Gibb, H.A.R., ed. (1962), The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, A.D. 1325–1354 (Volume 2), London: Hakluyt Society.
- Gibb, H.A.R., ed. (1971), The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, A.D. 1325–1354 (Volume 3), London: Hakluyt Society.
- Gibb, H.A.R.; Beckingham, C.F., eds. (1994), The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, A.D. 1325–1354 (Volume 4), London: Hakluyt Society, ISBN 978-0-904180-37-4. This volume was translated by Beckingham after Gibb's death in 1971. A separate index was published in 2000.
- Hrbek, Ivan (1962), "The chronology of Ibn Battuta's travels", Archiv Orientální, 30: 409–86.
- Hunwick, John O. (1973), "The mid-fourteenth century capital of Mali", Journal of African History, 14 (2): 195–208, doi:10.1017/s0021853700012512, JSTOR 180444.
- Janicsek, Stephen (1929), "Ibn Baṭūṭṭa's journey to Bulghàr: is it a fabrication?", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 61 (4): 791–800, doi:10.1017/S0035869X00070015.
- Kosegarten, Johann Gottfried Ludwig (1818). De Mohamedde ebn Batuta Arabe Tingitano ejusque itineribus commentatio academica (in Latin and Arabic). Jena: Croecker. OCLC 165774422.
- Lee, Samuel (1829), The Travels of Ibn Batuta, London: Oriental Translation Committee. A translation of an abridged manuscript. The text is discussed in Defrémery & Sanguinetti (1853) Volume 1 pp. xvi–xvii.
- Levtzion, Nehemia; Hopkins, John F.P., eds. (2000), Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West Africa, New York: Marcus Weiner Press, ISBN 978-1-55876-241-1. First published in 1981. pp. 279–304 contain a translation of Ibn Battuta's account of his visit to West Africa.
- Mattock, J.N. (1981), "Ibn Baṭṭūṭa's use of Ibn Jubayr's Riḥla", in Peters, R. (ed.), Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the Union Européenne des Arabisants et Islamisants: Amsterdam, 1st to 7th September 1978, Leiden: Brill, pp. 209–218, ISBN 978-90-04-06380-8.
- "MS Arabe 2287 (Supplément arabe 909)". Bibliothèque de France: Archive et manuscrits. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "MS Arabe 2288 (Supplément arabe 911)". Bibliothèque de France: Archive et manuscrits. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "MS Arabe 2289 (Supplément arabe 910)". Bibliothèque de France: Archive et manuscrits. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "MS Arabe 2290 (Supplément arabe 908)". Bibliothèque de France: Archive et manuscrits. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "MS Arabe 2291 (Supplément arabe 907)". Bibliothèque de France: Archive et manuscrits. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Peacock, David; Peacock, Andrew (2008), "The enigma of 'Aydhab: a medieval Islamic port on the Red Sea coast", International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 37: 32–48, doi:10.1111/j.1095-9270.2007.00172.x.
- de Sacy, Silvestre (1820). "Review of: De Mohamedde ebn Batuta Arabe Tingitano". Journal des Savants (15–25).
- de Slane, Baron (1843a). "Voyage dans la Soudan par Ibn Batouta". Journal Asiatique. Series 4 (in French). 1 (March): 181–240.
- de Slane, Baron (1843b). "Lettre á M. Reinaud". Journal Asiatique. Series 4 (in French). 1 (March): 241–46.
- de Slane, Baron (1883–1895). Département des Manuscrits: Catalogue des manuscrits arabes (in French). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale.
- Taeschner, Franz (1986) . "Akhī". The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Volume 1: A–B. Leiden: Brill. pp. 321–23.
- Yule, Henry (1916), "IV. Ibn Battuta's travels in Bengal and China", Cathay and the Way Thither (Volume 4), London: Hakluyt Society, pp. 1–106. Includes the text of Ibn Battuta's account of his visit to China. The translation is from the French text of Defrémery & Sanguinetti (1858) Volume 4.
- Chittick, H. Neville (1968). "Ibn Baṭṭūṭa and East Africa". Journal de la Société des Africanistes. 38 (2): 239–41. doi:10.3406/jafr.1968.1485.
- Euben, Roxanne L. (2006), "Ibn Battuta", Journeys to the Other Shore: Muslim and Western Travelers in Search of Knowledge, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 63–89, ISBN 978-0-691-12721-7
- Ferrand, Gabriel (1913), "Ibn Batūtā", Relations de voyages et textes géographiques arabes, persans et turks relatifs à l'Extrème-Orient du 8e au 18e siècles (Volumes 1 and 2) (in French), Paris: Ernest Laroux, pp. 426–37.
- Gordon, Stewart (2008), When Asia was the World: Traveling Merchants, Scholars, Warriors, and Monks who created the "Riches of the East", Philadelphia: Da Capo Press, Perseus Books, ISBN 978-0-306-81556-0.
- Harvey, L.P. (2007), Ibn Battuta, New York: I.B. Tauris, ISBN 978-1-84511-394-0.
- Mackintosh-Smith, Tim (2002), Travels with a Tangerine: A Journey in the Footnotes of Ibn Battutah, London: Picador, ISBN 978-0-330-49114-3.
- Mackintosh-Smith, Tim (ed.) (2003), The Travels of Ibn Battutah, London: Picador, ISBN 978-0-330-41879-9. Contains an introduction by Mackintosh-Smith and then an abridged version (around 40 percent of the original) of the translation by H.A.R. Gibb and C.E. Beckingham (1958–1994).
- Mackintosh-Smith, Tim (2005), Hall of a Thousand Columns: Hindustan to Malabar with Ibn Battutah, London: John Murray, ISBN 978-0-7195-6710-0.
- Mackintosh-Smith, Tim (2010), Landfalls: On the Edge of Islam with Ibn Battutah, London: John Murray, ISBN 978-0-7195-6787-2.
- Mžik, Hans von, ed. (1911). Die Reise des Arabers Ibn Baṭūṭa durch Indien und China (in German). Hamburg: Gutenberg. OCLC 470669765.
- Norris, H.T. (1994), "Ibn Baṭṭūṭa's journey in the north-eastern Balkans", Journal of Islamic Studies, 5 (2): 209–20, doi:10.1093/jis/5.2.209.
- Waines, David (2010), The Odyssey of Ibn Battuta: Uncommon Tales of a Medieval Adventurer, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-86985-8.
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