Ideology of Hezbollah
The ideology of Hezbollah has been summarized as Shiite radicalism.[1][2][3] Hezbollah was largely formed with the aid of the AyatollahRuhollah Khomeini's followers in the early 1980s in order to spread the Islamic Revolution[4] and follows a distinct version of Islamic Shia ideology (Valiyat al-faqih or Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists) developed by Ayatollah Khomeini, leader of the "Islamic Revolution" in Iran.[5][6]
Hezbollah declared its existence on 16 February 1985 in "The Hizballah Program". This document[7] was read by spokesman Sheikh Ibrahim al-Amin at the al-Ouzai Mosque in west Beirut and simultaneously published in al-Safir as "The Hizballah Program, an open letter to all the Oppressed in Lebanon and the World", and a separate pamphlet that was first published in full in English in 1987.[8]
According to "The Hizballah Program" the principles of its ideology are:[9]
  • To expel Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land.
  • To submit the phalanges to a just power and bring them all to justice for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians.
  • To permit all the sons of our people to determine their future and to choose in all the liberty the form of government their desire. We call upon all of them to pick the option of Islamic government which, alone, is capable of guaranteeing justice and liberty for all. Only an Islamic regime can stop any future tentative attempts of imperialistic infiltration onto our country.
Ayatollah Khomeini in 1979
It listed the Ayatollah Khomeini as the leader whose "orders we obey"; called on Christians to "open your hearts to our call" and "embrace Islam" and noted that "Allah has ... made it intolerable for Muslims to participate in ... a regime which is not predicated upon ... the Sharia"; explained that Israel is "the vanguard of the United States in our Islamic world".[9]
More broadly, current leader Hassan Nasrallah has described Hezbollah's ideology as having "two main axis: firstly, a belief in the rule by the just jurisconsult and adherence to Khomeini's leadership; and secondly, the continued need to struggle against the Israeli enemy".[10] In late 1980s, Nasrallah said:
Our plan, to which we, as faithful believers, have no alternative, is to establish an Islamic state under the rule of Islam. Lebanon should not be an Islamic republic on its own, but rather, part of the Greater Islamic Republic, governed by the Master of Time [the Mahdi], and his rightful deputy, the Jurisprudent Ruler, Imam Khomeini.
— [11]
In the early 1990s, Hezbollah underwent what a number of observers have called a process of "Lebanonization", which is reflected in acceptance of a multi-confessional Lebanon, rapprochement with a variety of non-Islamist forces, participation in electoral politics, and an emphasis on providing for the social welfare of its Shi'a Lebanese constituency.[12] This tendency was expressed in religious as well as strategic terms:
Christians and Jews differ with Muslims concerning the interpretation of the unity of God and the personality of God. Despite that, the Qur'an commands: Turn to the principle of unity—the unity of God and the unity of mankind. We interpret this to mean that we can meet with Marxists on the common ground of standing up to the forces of international arrogance; we can meet nationalists, even secular nationalists, on the common ground of Arab causes, which are also Islamic causes. Islam recognizes the Other.... So Islam does not negate the Other; it invites the Other to dialogue.[13]
Since then, Hizbullah published a new manifesto on 1 December 2009, which shifts its direction to better stay coherent with the current situation in their community. This new manifesto contains language that downplays the Islamic rhetoric and focuses more on integration into their community. Furthermore, the new manifesto calls for the elimination of the sectarian system in place right now in Lebanon and calls for replacement of this system by a secular modern system. However, the new manifesto states that the US and Israel are still Hizb'Allah's prime enemies. Moreover, it eliminates the possibility of open discussion on its right to bear arms. It pursues this agenda with the assistance of various like-minded allies in the region.
Shi'a Islamism
Hezbollah's original 1985 manifesto reads:
We are the sons of the ummah (Muslim community) – the party of God (Hizb Allah) the vanguard of which was made victorious by God in Iran. There the vanguard succeeded to lay down the bases of a Muslim state which plays a central role in the world. We obey the orders of one leader, wise and just, that of our tutor and faqih (jurist) who fulfills all the necessary conditions: Ruhollah Musawi Khomeini.... We are an umma linked to the Muslims of the whole world by the solid doctrinal and religious connection of Islam, whose message God wanted to be fulfilled by the Seal of the Prophets, i.e., Muhammad. Our behavior is dictated to us by legal principles laid down by the light of an overall political conception defined by the leading jurist.... As for our culture, it is based on the Holy Koran, the Sunna and the legal rulings of the faqih who is our source of imitation.[14]
Hezbollah was largely formed with the aid of the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's followers in the early eighties in order to spread Islamic revolution[4] and follows a distinct version of Islamic Shi'a ideology ("Willayat Al-Faqih") developed by Ayatollah Khomeini, leader of the Islamic Revolution in Iran.[15] Although Hezbollah believes in one-person-one-vote system and disagree with the multi-confessional quotas under the Ta'if Accord, it does not intend to force a one-person-one-vote system onto the country's Christians.[16]
Hezbollah views its conflict with Israel and the Jewish people as religiously motivated. The history of the Arab-Israeli conflict to them is a repeat of the negative interactions between the Jews of medieval Arabia and Muhammad and the early umma described in the Koran and other classical Islamic texts. God, according to Hezbollah theology, cursed all Jews as blasphemers damned for all time and throughout history.[17][18] Hezbollah (as well as the political/religious leaders of Iran) believe that the destruction of Israel will bring about the "reappearance of the Imam (the Shiite Islamic Messiah)".[19] These issues exist independently of Israeli treatment of Palestinians or even the existence of the State of Israel, although Hezbollah has strong objections to these more earthly matters as well. Hezbollah leader Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah has said in an interview that "Israel is an illegitimate entity and it is a threat to the region. It is a constant threat to the whole region. We cannot coexist with this threat. That is why the ultimate goal of the [Arab and Islamic] nation is to end Israel's existence irrespective of the problems, sensitivities and everything that has happened and could happen between Palestinians and non-Palestinians, Shia and Sunni, Muslims and Christians."[20]
Attitudes, statements, and actions concerning
Israel and Zionism
From the inception of Hezbollah to the present[21][22][23][24] the elimination of the state of Israel has been a primary goal for Hezbollah. Hezbollah not only opposes the government and policies of the State of Israel, but also each and every Jewish civilian who lives in Israel.[25] Its 1985 manifesto reportedly states "our struggle will end only when this entity [Israel] is obliterated. We recognize no treaty with it, no ceasefire, and no peace agreements."[9][26] Secretary-General Nasrallah has stated, "Israel is an illegal usurper entity, which is based on falsehood, massacres, and illusions,"[27] and considers that the elimination of Israel will bring peace in the Middle East: "There is no solution to the conflict in this region except with the disappearance of Israel."[28][29] In an interview with The Washington Post, Nasrallah said, "I am against any reconciliation with Israel. I do not even recognize the presence of a state that is called 'Israel.' I consider its presence both unjust and unlawful. That is why if Lebanon concludes a peace agreement with Israel and brings that accord to the Parliament our deputies will reject it; Hezbollah refuses any conciliation with Israel in principle.... When a peace agreement is concluded between the Lebanese government and Israel, we would surely disagree with the Lebanese government about that, but we would not make any turmoil out of it."[30] In 1993, during the Oslo peace process, Nasrallah and several other top Hezbollah generals came out staunchly opposed to any final peace agreement between the Israelis and Palestinians to the point that they accused Palestinian National Authority PresidentYasser Arafat of blasphemy and treachery to the Muslim people.[31] Their strong objections to the Israeli-Palestinian peace process is held to this day.[32][33] Jerusalem and the Dome of the Rock is used as a rallying point in Hezbollah literature, media, and music for the destruction of Israel and support for Palestine.[34]
In a 1999 interview, Nasrallah outlined the group's three "minimal demand[s]: an [Israeli] withdrawal from South Lebanon and the Western Bqa' Valley, a withdrawal from the Golan, and the return of the Palestinian refugees".[27] An additional objective is the freeing of prisoners held in Israeli jails,[5][35][36] some of whom have been imprisoned for eighteen years.[37]
Israel's occupation of the Shebaa Farms, along with the presence of Lebanese prisoners in Israeli jails, is often used as a pretext and stated as justification for the Hezbollah's continued hostilities against Israel even after Israel's verified withdrawal from Lebanon in 2000. Hezbollah's spokesperson Hassan Ezzedin, however, said that
the Hezbollah campaign to rid Shebaa of Israeli troops is a pretext for something larger. 'If they go from Shebaa, we will not stop fighting them', he told [The New Yorker]. 'Our goal is to liberate the 1948 borders of Palestine,... The Jews who survive this war of liberation can go back to Germany or wherever they came from.' He added, however, that the Jews who lived in Palestine before 1948 will be 'allowed to live as a minority and they will be cared for by the Muslim majority.'[38]
On 26 May 2000, after the Israeli withdrawal from south Lebanon Hassan Nassrallah said: "I tell you: this "Israel" that owns nuclear weapons and the strongest air force in this region is more fragile than a spiderweb."[39][40] Arie W. Kruglanski, Moshe Ya'alon, Bruce Hoffman, Efraim Inbar, and YNET interpret the "spider web" theory as the notion, articulated by Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah, that Israel's reverence for human life, the hedonistic nature of the Israeli society, and its self-indulgent Western values make it weak, soft, and vulnerable. Such a society, though technologically advanced, will crumble under continued war and bloodshed.​[41]​[42]​[43]​[44]
In 2002, according to the BBC, Hezbollah, "said publicly that it is ready to open a second front against Israel in support of the intifada."[45] In a 2003 interview, Nasrallah has answered questions concerning the establishment of a Palestinian state established alongside an Israeli state stating "that he would not sabotage what is finally a 'Palestinian matter.' But until such a settlement is reached, he will, he said, continue to encourage Palestinian suicide bombers."[46] In the same interview, Nasrallah stated that "at the end of the road no one can go to war on behalf of the Palestinians, even if that one is not in agreement with what the Palestinians agreed on," adding, "Of course, it would bother us that Jerusalem goes to Israel ... [but] let it happen. I would not say O.K. I would say nothing."[46] Similarly, in 2004, when asked whether he was prepared to live with a two-state settlement between Israel and Palestine, Nasrallah said he would not sabotage what is a Palestinian matter.[21] He also said that outside of Lebanon, Hezbollah will act only in a defensive manner towards Israeli forces, and that Hezbollah's missiles were acquired to deter attacks on Lebanon.[47]
In a 2003 interview, Nasrallah answered questions concerning the renewed peace talks between the Palestinians and the Israelis, stating that he would not interfere in what he regarded as "... primarily a Palestinian matter." However, in his speeches to his followers, he provides rationalizations for suicide bombings.[48] Similarly, in 2004, when asked whether he was prepared to live with a two-state settlement between Israel and Palestine, Nasrallah said again that he would not sabotage what is finally a "... Palestinian matter."[21] He also said that outside of Lebanon, Hezbollah would act only in a defensive manner towards Israeli forces, and that Hezbollah's missiles were acquired to deter attacks on Lebanon.[47]
In 2004 the Hezbollah-owned television station Al-Manar was banned in France on the grounds that it was inciting racial hatred. The court cited a 23 November 2004 broadcast in which a speaker accused Israel of deliberately disseminating AIDS in Arab nations.[49]
Hezbollah's desire for Israeli prisoners to be that could be exchanged with Israel led to Hezbollah's abduction of Israeli soldiers, which triggered the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict.[50]
In March 2009, in a speech marking the birthday of Muhammad, Nasrallah said, "As long as Hezbollah exists, it will never recognize Israel." rejecting a US precondition for dialogue.[51][52][53] A prominent Hezbollah poster at a May 2009 rally had an image of a mushroom cloud along with the message, "O Zionists, if you want this type of war then so be it!"[54]
The United States
During the years prior to its official founding, Hezbollah was held responsible or partially responsible for several attacks on Western (mostly American) targets and it has been blamed for killing many Americans.[55] Hezbollah has denied involvement in the attacks, but its manifesto does claim that "the whole world knows that whoever wishes to oppose the US, that arrogant superpower, cannot indulge in marginal acts which may make deviate from its major objective. We combat abomination and we shall tear out its very roots, its primary roots, which are the US."[9] Hezbollah supporters chant "Death to America" in demonstrations every year.[56] This attitude mirrors the attitude of the Iranian government.[57]
Hezbollah leader Fadlallah has told an interviewer,
We believe there is no difference between the United States and Israel; the latter is a mere extension of the former. The United States is ready to fight the whole world to defend Israel's existence and security. The two countries are working in complete harmony, and the United States is certainly not inclined to exert pressure on Israel.[58]
On its Al-Manar Television network, which is viewed by "an estimated 10–15 million people a day across the world", the United States is portrayed by an animated image of "the Statue of Liberty as a ghoul, her gown dripping blood, a knife instead of a torch in her raised hand. In Arabic the video ... concludes with the words: 'America owes blood to all of humanity.'"[59]
Jews and Judaism
Hezbollah has declared that it distinguishes between Zionism and Judaism and that it opposes Zionism.
However, the group has been accused of using antisemitism.
Robert S. Wistrich devotes an entire chapter of his comprehensive, worldwide history of anti-Semitism, A Lethal Obsession, to Hezbollah and other like-minded anti-Semitic groups. In the book, Wistrich described Hezbollah's anti-Semitism as
contempt normally reserved for weak and cowardly enemies. Like the Hamas propaganda for holy war, that of Hezbollah has relied on the endless vilification of Jews as 'enemies of mankind,' 'conspiratorial, obstinate, and conceited' adversaries full of 'satanic plans' to enslave the Arabs. It fuses traditional Islamic anti-Judaism with Western conspiracy myths, Third Worldist anti-Zionism, and Iranian Shiite contempt for Jews as 'ritually impure' and corrupt infidels.[66]
Jeffrey Goldberg, staff writer for The New Yorker, described the group as a "very, very radical, anti-Semitic organization."[67] He stated that Hezbollah has embraced an ideology "melding of Arab nationalist-based anti-Zionism, anti-Jewish rhetoric from the Koran, and, most disturbingly, the antique anti-Semitic beliefs and conspiracy theories of European fascism."[68] An article by Jeffrey Goldberg published in The New Yorker in 2002 quoted Ibrahim Mousawi, the director of English-language news at Al Manar, calling the Jews "a lesion on the forehead of history."[69]
Anti-Semitic statements have also been attributed to prominent figures in Hezbollah and to Hassan Nasrallah.
In a 1998 speech marking the Day of Ashura, and published in Hassan Nasrallah's official website[80][81][82] at that time, Nasrallah referred to Israel as "the state of the grandsons of apes and pigs – the Zionist Jews" and condemned them as "the murderers of the prophets."[83][84][85] MEMRI, CAMERA and Shaul Shai interpret this language as broadly antisemitic.[83][85][86]
According to the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Hassan Nasrallah, speaking at the Shi'ite Moslem "Ashura" flagellation ceremony on 9 April 2000, said:
The Jews invented the legend of the Nazi atrocities.... Anyone who reads the Koran and the holy writings of the monotheistic religions sees what they did to the prophets, and what acts of madness and slaughter the Jews carried out throughout history.... Anyone who reads these texts cannot think of co-existence with them, of peace with them, or about accepting their presence, not only in Palestine of 1948 but even in a small village in Palestine, because they are a cancer which is liable to spread again at any moment.[87]
Position on use of armed strength to achieve aims
Hezbollah's 1985 founding Manifesto reads:
whatever touches or strikes the Muslims in Afghanistan, Iraq, the Philippines and elsewhere reverberates throughout the whole Muslim umma of which we are an integral part.... No one can imagine the importance of our military potential as our military apparatus is not separate from our overall social fabric. Each of us is a fighting soldier. And when it becomes necessary to carry out the Holy War, each of us takes up his assignment in the fight in accordance with the injunctions of the Law, and that in the framework of the mission carried out under the tutelage of the Commanding Jurist."[14]
Hezbollah regards any act of violence committed against any Israeli as "legitimate resistance."[34]
Women's rights
In keeping with Lebanon's generally secular and egalitarian culture, Hezbollah recognizes and promotes women's rights somewhat more strongly than do other groups associated with Islamic jihad, as per Hezbollah's self-proclaimed "model and example."[94]
One member of the Hezbollah Political Council, speaking to an Online Journal correspondent in July 2006, claimed that "Hezbollah differs from many Islamic groups in our treatment of women. We believe women have the ability like men to participate in all parts of life."[94] The Online Journal correspondent writes:
From its founding in the 1980s, Hezbollah women have headed education, medical and social service organizations. Most recently Hezbollah nominated several women to run in the Lebanese elections. It named Wafa Hoteit as a chief of Al Noor Radio ... and promoted 37-year-old Rima Fakhry to its highest ruling body, the Hezbollah Political Council. Part of Fakhry's duties include interpreting Islamic feminism in Sharia law for the Committee for Political Analysis."[94]
Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah has many times spoken against sectarianism[95] and said that he will be the first "to join a true Sunni government."[96] Hezbollah has slammed ISIS for seeking to ignite sectarian strife in Lebanon.[97] Sectarianism, power-hungry politicians and a sham democracy are among the main factors that have prevented the establishment of a strong Lebanese state, Hezbollah MP Hasan Fadlallah has said.[98] While Hezbollah strongly opposes sectarianism, its involvement in support of Bashar al-Assad against a mostly Sunni Muslim opposition in the Syrian Civil War has contributed to sectarian tensions with Lebanese Sunnis.[99] Hezbollah officials have stated their aim is to defend Lebanon and Syria from takfiris, a term they use to denote Sunni Islamist forces, but which many Sunnis interpret as a slur against them as a whole, Islamist or non-Islamist.[100]
See also
  1. ^ Barak, Oren. "Hizballah". The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. p. 350.
  2. ^ Rosenthal, Donna. The Israelis: Ordinary People in an Extraordinary Land. New York: Free Press, 2003. p. 15.
  3. ^ Collier, Robert. "Everyone casting suspicious eye on Iraq's Hezbollah". San Francisco Chronicle. 29 December 2003. 14 March 2008.
  4. ^ a b Wright, Robin (13 July 2006). "Options for U.S. Limited As Mideast Crises Spread". The Washington Post. p. A19.
  5. ^ a b Jamail, Dahr (20 July 2006). "Hezbollah's transformation". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 20 July 2006. Retrieved 23 October 2007.
  6. ^ Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs (11 April 1996). "Hizbullah". Retrieved 17 August 2006.
  7. ^ "The Hizballah Program: An Open Letter [to the Downtrodden in Lebanon and the World]". Institute for Counterterrorism. 16 February 1985. Archived from the original on 21 August 2006. Retrieved 24 August 2006.
  8. ^ See the appendix in A. R. Norton's Amal and the Shi'a: Struggle for the Soul of Lebanon University of Texas Press, 1987
  9. ^ a b c d An open letter, The Hizballah programArchived 29 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Ettela'at, 13 February 1993. In Ranstorp, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, (1997), p. 48.
  11. ^ "ARCHIVAL – Hassan Nasrallah in the Late 1980s: Lebanon Should Become Part of the Greater Islamic Republic Ruled by Leader of Iran, Who Should Appoint All Islamic Rulers". MEMRI. 13 October 2010.
  12. ^ Graham Usher, "Hizballah, Syria, and the Lebanese Elections", Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 26, No. 2. (Winter, 1997), pp. 59–67.
  13. ^ Mahmoud Soueid, "Islamic Unity and Political Change. Interview with Shaykh Muhammad Hussayn Fadlallah", Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1. (Autumn, 1995), pp. 61–75.
  14. ^ a b "The Hezballah Program: An Open Letter [to the Downtrodden in Lebanon and the World]". Institute for Counterterrorism. 16 February 1985. Archived from the original on 21 August 2006. Retrieved 24 August 2006.
  15. ^ Adam Shatz, New York Review of Books, 29 April 2004 In Search of Hezbollah Accessed 15 August 2006.
  16. ^ Helena Cobban (April/May 2005). Hizbullah's New Face Archived 12 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Boston Review.
  17. ^ Hezbollah literature professes, "Certainly you will find the most violent people in enmity for those who believe are the Jews and those who are polytheists." qtd. Jaber, "Hezbollah: born with a vengeance".
  18. ^ Al-'Ahd, 6 December 1991; quoted in Webman, Anti-Semitic Motifs, p. 10. qtd. in Wistrich, A Lethal Obsession, p. 766.
  19. ^ Wistrich, Robert S. A Lethal Obsession: Anti-Semitism from Antiquity to the Global Jihad. New York: Random House, 2010. p. 770.
  20. ^ "Nasrallah: Israel is a cancer and the ultimate goal should be to remove it". Jerusalem Post. 15 August 2014.
  21. ^ a b c Adam Shatz (29 April 2004). "In Search of Hezbollah". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 14 August 2006.
  22. ^ United Nations Document A/54/723 S/2000/55, citing Al Hayyat, 30 October 1999 Letter dated 25 January 2000 from the Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General Archived 10 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 17 August 2006
  23. ^ The Brunswickan Online. "Hizbollah promises Israel a blood-filled new year, Iran calls for Israel's end". (Student newspaper)
  24. ^ Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada Listed Entities – Hizballah Archived 19 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 31 July 2006
  25. ^ Sheikh Hassan Izz al-Din, Hezbollah media relations director, said, "[T]he Jews need to leave." Avi Jovisch, Beacon of Hatred: Inside Hizballah's Al-Manar Television (Washington, D.C.: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2004), pp. 62–90. qtd. by Wistrich, A Lethal Obsession, p. 774
  26. ^ this text is reportedly in the original Arabic-language manifesto but not in the original translation, nor found on Hezbollah website, according to the pro-Israel, anti-Hezbollah website where the text appears.
  27. ^ a b Thisreen (Syrian newspaper) 21 June 1999, reprinted by MEMRI Secretary General of Hizbullah Discusses the New Israeli Government and Hizbullah's Struggle Against IsraelArchived 30 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 30 July 2006
  28. ^ Little choice for a defiant Israel Archived 11 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine, by Andrew Markus, The Age, 15 July 2006
  29. ^ United Nations Document A/54/723 S/2000/55, citing The Washington Post, 1 January 2000 Letter dated 25 January 2000 from the Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General Archived 10 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 17 August 2006
  30. ^ "Said Hassan Nasrallah Q&A: What Hezbollah Will Do". The Washington Post. 20 February 2000. Archived from the original on 9 September 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
  31. ^ Saad-Ghrayeb, 2002, pp. 151–154
  32. ^ Hodeib, Mirella. "Nasrallah 'strongly endorses' Arab reconciliation efforts." The Daily Star. 14 March 2009. 19 January 2011.
  33. ^ Hassan Nasrallah on Al-Manar TV, 22 May 2002. qtd. in Wistrich, A Lethal Obsession, p. 774.
  34. ^ a b Wistrich, 774–775
  35. ^ Source states, among other things, that Hezbollah seeks the return of Lebanese prisoners from Israel: "Israeli court frees Lebanese prisoners". BBC News. 12 April 2000. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
  36. ^ "Israeli striles kill 40 in Lebanon". Al Jazeera. 13 July 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
  37. ^ Bassam Kantar, Beirut Lebanon (WHOIS search, 4 August 2006) Freedom for Samir Kuntar Archived 6 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 4 August 2006.
  38. ^ Jeffrey Goldberg, "In the Party of God". The New Yorker. 10 July 2002. Accessed 2 September 2006.
  39. ^ The Best American Magazine Writing 2003 by American Society of Magazine Editors, contributor David Remnick, published by HarperCollins, 2003, ISBN 978-0-06-056775-0, 464 pages, page 88
  40. ^ "Hassan Nasrallah: In His Own Words". CAMERA. 26 July 2006.
  41. ^ Israel's National Security: Issues and Challenges Since the Yom Kippur War by Efraim Inbar, published by Routledge, 2008, ISBN 978-0-415-44955-7, 281 pages, Page 229
  42. ^ "Fact file: Hassan Nasrallah – Leader of Shiite terrorist organization, Hizbullah". YnetNews. 31 July 2006.
  43. ^ Bruce Hoffman in Homeland Security and Terrorism: Readings and Interpretations by Russell D. Howard, James J. F. Forest, Joanne C. Moore, published by McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006, ISBN 978-0-07-145282-3, 400 pages, page 64 (Chapter 5 "The logic of suicide terrorism")
  44. ^ Arie W. Kruglanski in Tangled Roots: Social and Psychological Factors in the Genesis of Terrorism by Jeffrey Ivan Victoroff, NATO Public Diplomacy Division, contributor Jeffrey Ivan Victoroff, published by IOS Press, 2006, ISBN 9781586036706, 477 pages, pages 68–69 (Chapter 4, "The psychology of terrorism: "Syndrom" versus "Tool" perspectives")
  45. ^ Westcott, Kathryn (4 April 2002). "Who are Hezbollah?". BBC News. Retrieved 11 August 2006.
  46. ^ a b Hersh, Seymour (18 July 2003). "The Syrian Bet". The New Yorker. Retrieved 7 August 2006.
  47. ^ a b Macvicar, Sheila (16 March 2003). "Interview With Sheikh Hassan Nasrallah". CNN. Retrieved 1 August 2006.
  48. ^ Hersh, Seymour (18 July 2003). "The Syrian Bet". The New Yorker. Retrieved 7 August 2006.
  49. ^ BBC News, 14 December 2004 France pulls plug on Arab network Accessed 18 August 2006.
  50. ^ Myre, Greg and Steven Erlanger. [1] "Israelis Enter Lebanon After Attacks." The New York Times. 13 July 2006. 21 October 2007.
  51. ^ "Hezbollah chief defiant on Israel." BBC News. 14 March 2009. 14 March 2009.
  52. ^ "Hezbollah will not recognize Israel." Al Jazeera English. 14 March 2009. 14 March 2009.
  53. ^ "Nasrallah vows Hezbollah will never recognize Israel." Haaretz. 14 March 2009. 14 March 2009
  54. ^ Hitchens, Christopher. "Christopher Hitchens on Lebanon and Syria." Vanity Fair. May 2009. 14 August 2009.
  55. ^ Rosen, Laura. "Islamic radical groups are not all alike." The Boston Globe 13 August 2006. 15 August 2007.
  56. ^ "Hizbullah Leader Hasan Nasrallah: 'The American Administration Is Our Enemy ... Death to America,'" MEMRI TV Monitor Project, no. 867 (22 February 2005). qtd. in Wistrich, A Lethal Obsession, p. 764.
  57. ^ Wistrich, 764.
  58. ^ Interview in July 1985, quoted in Martin Kramer, "The Oracle of Hizbullah: Sayiid Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah", Part II, in Spokesmen for the Despised: Fundamentalist Leaders of the Middle East, ed. R. Scott Appleby (Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1997), p. 8.
  59. ^ Jorisch, Avi (22 December 2004). "Terrorist Television". National Review. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  60. ^ Ladki, Nadim. "Hezbollah cuts Islamist rhetoric in new manifesto". Reuters. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  61. ^ Farid Emile Chedid, ecrr@inco.com.lb. "Lebanonwire.com/Lebanese Parliament Members". Lebanonwire.com. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  62. ^ "Anti-Zionist Rabbis Join Hizbullah and Hamas at Beirut Pro-Palestinian Convention". Memritv.org. 23 February 2005. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  63. ^ a b The Shifts in Hizbullah's Ideology: Religious Ideology, Political Ideology, and Political Program. Joseph Elie Alagha, Amsterdam University Press, 2006, ISBN 978-90-5356-910-8, 380 pages, p. 188.
  64. ^ Derhally, Massoud A. (17 September 2008). "Lebanon Jews Tap Diaspora to Rebuild Beirut's Shelled Synagogue". Bloomberg. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  65. ^ "Letter that was sent from Neturei Karta to His Excellency Sayyed Hasan Nasrallah:". nkusa.org. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  66. ^ Wistrich, 766–767
  67. ^ Block, Melissa. "'New Yorker' Writer Warns of Hezbollah's Radicalism." National Public Radio. 16 August 2006. 16 February 2008.
  68. ^ "JCPA Middle East Briefing: Hezbollah"Archived 4 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine. United Jewish Communities. 14 February 2008.
  69. ^ "In the Party of God". The New Yorker. 14 October 2002.
  70. ^ Sciolino, Elaine. " A New French Headache: When Is Hate on TV Illegal?" The New York Times. 9 December 2004. 16 February 2008.
  71. ^ "Anti-Semitic Series Airs on Arab Television."ADL. 9 January 2004. 16 February 2008.
  72. ^ "Urge President Chirac to Block Hezbollah's Antisemitic and Hate TV." Archived 10 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Simon Wiesenthal Center. 21 May 2008.
  73. ^ Sciolino, Elaine. "French Court Delays Decision on Hezbollah-Run TV Channel." The New York Times 12 December 2004. 14 February 2008.
  74. ^ Carvajal, Doreen. "French Court Orders a Ban on hezbollah-Run TV Channel." The New York Times. 14 December 2004. 14 February 2008.
  75. ^ "UN Human Rights High Commissioner Admits to Wiesenthal Center Delegation ... 'Hezbollah Deliberately Targeted Israeli Civilians.'"[permanent dead link] Simon Wiesenthal Center. 19 September 2006. 22 May 2008.
  76. ^ Brown, Roy. "Hezbollah attacks IHEU speaker." Archived 17 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine International Humanist and Ethical Union. 25 September 2006. 22 May 2008.
  77. ^ Miller, Judith. "Making Money Abroad, And Also a Few Enemies." The New York Times. 26 January 1997. 20 February 2008.
  78. ^ a b Saad-Ghorayeb, Amal. Hizbu'llah: Politics and Religion. London: Pluto Press, 2002. pp. 168–86.
  79. ^ a b Islamic Terror Abductions in the Middle East. Shaul Shay, Sussex Academic Press, 2007, ISBN 978-1-84519-167-2, 197 pages, p. 78.
  80. ^ Profiles in Terror: The Guide to Middle East Terrorist Organizations. Aaron Mannes, Rowman & Littlefield, 2004, ISBN 978-0-7425-3525-1, 372 pages, p. 178.
  81. ^ Shaping the Current Islamic Reformation. Barbara Allen Roberson, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 978-0-7146-5341-9, 262 pages, p. 245.
  82. ^ The Internet and Politics: Citizens, Voters and Activists. Sarah Oates, Diana Marie Owen, Rachel Kay Gibson, Diana Owen, published by Routledge, 2006, 978-0415347846, 228 pages, p. 109.
  83. ^ a b "Based on Koranic Verses, Interpretations, and Traditions, Muslim Clerics State: The Jews Are the Descendants of Apes, Pigs, And Other Animals". MEMRI. 1 November 2002.
  84. ^ Terror on the Internet: The New Arena, the New Challenges. Gabriel Weimann, contributor Bruce Hoffman, United States Institute of Peace Press, 2006, ISBN 978-1-929223-71-8, 309 pages, p. 90.
  85. ^ a b The Axis of Evil: Iran, Hizballah, And The Palestinian Terror. Shaul Shai, Transaction Publishers, 2005, ISBN 978-0-7658-0255-2, 262 pages, p. 131.
  86. ^ "Hassan Nasrallah: In His Own Words". CAMERA. 26 July 2006.
  87. ^ [2] "Excerpts from Speech by Hizbullah Secretary-General Nasrallah – 9 April 2000" Archived 23 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  88. ^ Lappin, Elena (23 May 2004). "The Enemy Within". New York Times. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  89. ^ a b Letters. London Review of Books. Vol. 28 No. 19
  90. ^ "In the Party of God: Are terrorists in Lebanon preparing for a larger war? by Jeffrey Goldberg". The New Yorker. 14 October 2002. Archived from the original on 7 May 2009. Retrieved 3 March 2007.
  91. ^ Muhammad Fnaysh, 15 August 1997. qtd. inSaad-Ghorayeb, 2002, p. 170.
  92. ^ 'Abbas al-Mussawi, Amiru'l-Zakira, Dhu al-Hujja 1406, p. 197. qtd. in Saad-Ghorayeb, 2002, p. 174.
  93. ^ Stalinsky, Steven. "Hezbollah's Nazi Tactics."The New York Sun. 26 July 2006. 14 January 2009.
  94. ^ a b c Schuh, Trish (18 July 2006). "Free speech marked for death". Archived from the original on 11 August 2006. Retrieved 19 August 2006.
  95. ^ http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2010/Feb-06/55749-nasrallah-slams-attempts-to-stoke-sectarian-strife.ashx
  96. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xiQKm2CCtK8
  97. ^ http://www.jpost.com/Middle-East/Hezbollah-slams-Islamic-State-for-seeking-to-ignite-sectarian-strife-in-Lebanon-374864
  98. ^ http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2014/Nov-17/277962-sectarianism-prevents-model-state-hezbollah-mp.ashx#sthash.tvLMvkKU.dpuf
  99. ^ Inside Hezbollah: fighting and dying for a confused cause. Channel 4. 2014-04-01.
  100. ^ Lebanon’s Hizbollah Turns Eastward to SyriaArchived 21 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. International Crisis Group. 2014-05-27.
External links
Last edited on 6 March 2021, at 00:53
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers