is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state
in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government
, and usually sovereignty
, over its territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory
Definition of independence
Whether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question of violence as legitimate
means to achieving sovereignty.
In general, revolutions aim only to redistribute power with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratization within
a state, which as such may remain unaltered. For example, the Mexican Revolution
(1917) chiefly refers to a multi-factional conflict that eventually led to a new constitution
; it has rarely been used to refer to the armed struggle
(1821) against Spain. However, some wars of independence
have been described as revolutions, such as the ones in the United States
(1783) and Indonesia
(1949), while some revolutions that were specifically about a change in the political structure have resulted in breakaway states. Mongolia
, for example, gained their independence during the revolutions occurring in China
(1911) and Russia
(1917) respectively. Causes for a country or province wishing to seek independence are many, but most can be summed up as a feeling of inequality compared to the dominant power. The means can extend from intended peaceful demonstrations as in the case of India
(1947), to a violent war
as in the case of Algeria
Distinction between independence and autonomy
refers to a kind of independence which has been granted by an overseeing authority
that itself still retains ultimate authority over that territory (see Devolution
). A protectorate
refers to an autonomous region that depends upon a larger government for its protection as an autonomous region.
Declarations of independence
Sometimes, a state wishing to achieve independence from a dominating power will issue a declaration of independence
; the earliest surviving example is Scotland
's Declaration of Arbroath
in 1320, with the most recent example being Azawad
's declaration of independence in 2012. Declaring independence and attaining it however, are quite different. A well-known successful example is the U.S. Declaration of Independence
issued in 1776. The dates of established independence (or, less commonly, the commencement of revolution), are typically celebrated as a national holiday
known as an independence Day
Historically, there have been four major periods of declaring independence:
- ^ Independence from the United Kingdom.
- ^ a b Part of Transcaucasian Region, at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Physiographically, Armenia falls entirely in Western Asia, while Georgia and Azerbaijan are mostly in Asia with small portions north of the Caucasus Mountains divide in Europe.
- ^ Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity. It is recognised by 102 UN members the Cook Islands, Niue and Taiwan. Claimed by Serbia as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija under UN administration.
- ^ An independent state in free association with the United States.
- ^ Osmo Jussila – Seppo Hentilä – Jukka Nevakivi (1999). From Grand Duchy to a Modern State: A Political History of Finland Since 1809. London: C. Hurst & Co. p. 103. ISBN 0-8093-9112-0.
- ^ Benjamin, Walter (1996) . Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings, Volume 1: 1913–1926. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 236–252. ISBN 0-674-94585-9.
- ^ David Armitage, The Declaration of Independence in World Context, Organization of American Historians, Magazine of History, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pp. 61–66 (2004)
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 23:24
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