In July 2013, at the same time as mass protests
began against the 3 July coup d'état
which deposed Mohamed Morsi
, and in parallel with the escalation of the already ongoing jihadist insurgency in the Sinai Peninsula
, pro-Muslim Brotherhood
militants started violent attacks against policemen and soldiers in Central and Western Egypt. In the following months, new Islamist armed groups were created to reinstate Islamist rule in Egypt, like Soldiers of Egypt
and the Popular Resistance Movement. Since 2013, violence in mainland Egypt has escalated and developed into a low-level Islamist insurgency against the Egyptian government.
103 people were killed in 2013, 195 in 2014, 272 in 2015, 101 in 2016, and at least 160 in 2017.