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International Phonetic Alphabet chart
Further information: International Phonetic Alphabet § Letters
This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
The following is the chart of the International Phonetic Alphabet, a standardized system of phonetic symbols devised and maintained by the International Phonetic Association. This article is not a complete list of all possible speech sounds in the world's languages, but is used as a page for internal navigation within Wikipedia.
Official chart
The official IPA chart, revised to 2020
Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
IPA help audio full chart template
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
Consonants
Pulmonic consonants
PlaceLabialCoronalDorsalLaryngeal
MannerBi­labialLabio­dentalLinguo­labialDentalAlveolarPost­alveolarRetro­flexPalatalVelarUvularPharyn­geal/epi­glottalGlottal
Nasalmɱnɳ̊ɳɲ̊ɲŋ̊ŋɴ
Plosivepbtdʈɖcɟkɡqɢʡʔ
Sibilantaffricatetsdzt̠ʃd̠ʒʈʂɖʐ
Non-sibilant affricatep̪fb̪vt̪θd̪ðtɹ̝̊dɹ̝t̠ɹ̠̊˔d̠ɹ̠˔ɟʝkxɡɣɢʁʡʢʔh
Sibilant fricativeszʃʒʂʐɕʑ
Non-sibilant fricativeɸβfvθ̼ð̼θðθ̠ð̠ɹ̠̊˔ɹ̠˔ɻ˔çʝxɣχʁħʕhɦ
Approximantʋɹɻjɰʔ̞
Tap/flapⱱ̟ɾ̼ɾ̥ɾɽ̊ɽɢ̆ʡ̆
Trillʙ̥ʙrɽ̊r̥ɽrʀ̥ʀʜʢ
Lateral affricateʈɭ̊˔ɖɭ˔cʎ̝̊ɟʎ̝kʟ̝̊ɡʟ̝
Lateral fricativeɬɮɭ̊˔ɭ˔ʎ̝̊ʎ̝ʟ̝̊ʟ̝
Lateral approximantlɭʎʟʟ̠
Lateral tap/flapɺ̥ɺɭ̥̆ɭ̆ʎ̆ʟ̆
IPA help audio full chart template
Symbols to the right in a cell are voiced, to the left are voiceless. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.
Non-pulmonic consonants
BLLDDAPARFPVUEG
EjectiveStopʈʼʡʼ
Affricatet̪θʼtsʼt̠ʃʼʈʂʼkxʼqχʼ
Fricativeɸʼθʼʃʼʂʼɕʼχʼ
Lateral affricatetɬʼcʎ̝̊ʼkʟ̝̊ʼ
Lateral fricativeɬʼ
Click
(top: velar;
bottom: uvular)
Tenuis



k‼
q‼

Voiced
ɡʘ
ɢʘ
ɡǀ
ɢǀ
ɡǃ
ɢǃ
ɡ‼
ɢ‼
ɡǂ
ɢǂ
Nasal
ŋʘ
ɴʘ
ŋǀ
ɴǀ
ŋǃ
ɴǃ
ŋ‼
ɴ‼
ŋǂ
ɴǂ
ʞ
 
Tenuis lateral

Voiced lateral
ɡǁ
ɢǁ
Nasal lateral
ŋǁ
ɴǁ
ImplosiveVoicedɓɗʄɠʛ
Voicelessɓ̥ɗ̥ᶑ̊ʄ̊ɠ̊ʛ̥
IPA help full chart template
Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.
Co-articulated consonants
Nasal
n͡m Labial–alveolar
ŋ͡m Labial–velar
Plosive
t͡pd͡b Labial–alveolar
k͡pɡ͡b Labial–velar
q͡ʡ Uvular–epiglottal
Approximant
ɥ̊ɥ Labialized palatal
ʍw Labialized velar
ɧ Sj-sound (variable)
Lateral approximant
ɫ Velarized alveolar
IPA help full chart template
Other consonants
Tones
Tone registers
◌̋˥Extra-high (top)
◌́˦High
◌̄˧Mid
◌̀˨Low
◌̏˩Extra-low (bottom)
ꜜ◌Downstep
ꜛ◌Upstep
Tone contours
◌̌˩˥꜖꜒Rising (low to high)
◌̂˥˩꜒꜖Falling (high to low)
◌᷄˧˥꜔꜒High rising
˨˦꜕꜓Mid rising
◌᷅˩˧꜖꜔Low rising
◌᷇˥˧꜒꜔High falling
˦˨꜓꜕Mid falling
◌᷆˧˩꜔꜖Low falling
◌᷈˧˥˨, ˨˦˨, ˩˧˩꜔꜒꜕, ꜕꜓꜕, ꜖꜔꜖Rising–falling
◌᷉˥˧˥, ˦˨˦, ˧˩˧꜒꜔꜒, ꜓꜕꜓, ꜔꜖꜔Falling–rising
Auxiliary symbols
Diacritics
◌̥◌̊Voiceless◌̤Breathy voiced◌̪◌͆Dental
◌̬Voiced◌̰Creaky voiced◌̺Apical
◌ʰAspirated◌̼Linguolabial◌̻Laminal
◌̹◌͗◌˒More rounded◌ʷLabialized◌̃Nasalized
◌̜◌͑◌˓Less rounded◌ʲPalatalized◌ⁿNasal release
◌̟◌˖Advanced◌ˠVelarized◌ˡLateral release
◌̠◌˗Retracted◌ˤPharyngealized◌̚No audible release
◌̈Centralized◌̴Velarized or pharyngealized◌ᵊMid central vowel release
◌̽Mid-centralized◌̝◌˔Raised◌ᶿVoiceless dental fricative release
◌̩◌̍Syllabic◌̞◌˕Lowered◌ˣVoiceless velar fricative release
◌̯◌̑Non-syllabic◌̘◌꭪Advanced tongue root◌ʼEjective
◌˞Rhoticity◌̙◌꭫Retracted tongue root◌͡◌
◌͜◌
Affricate or double articulation
Suprasegmentals
ˈPrimary stress
ˌSecondary stress
ːLong
ˑHalf-long
◌̆Extra-short
|Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
.Syllable break
Linking (absence of a break)
↗︎Global rise
↘︎Global fall
Transcription
[ ]Phonetic transcription
/ /Phonemic transcription
{ }Prosodic notation
( )Indistinguishable utterance
⸨ ⸩Sound obscured
See also
External links
Last edited on 6 June 2021, at 06:28
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