Iran–Israel proxy conflict
Key issues in the conflict include Iran's support of groups opposing Israel, Israel's support of anti-Iranian rebel groups, Iran's nuclear program
, and Israel's ties with other rivals of Iran such as Saudi Arabia
and the United States
. The involvement of both countries in the Syrian Civil War has created additional possibilities for direct conflict between the two states.
Israel has accused Iran of attempting to form a continuous land transport route from Iran via Iraq
which Israel views as a significant strategic threat.
was critical of Israel before he became Iran's Supreme Leader. He criticized the Pahlavi dynasty
Iran's ties with Israel, viewing Israel as a supporter of the Pahlavi regime.
Following the 1979 Iranian Revolution
, Khomeini's new government adopted a policy of hostility towards Israel
. Iran withdrew recognition of Israel as a state, and severed all diplomatic, commercial and other ties with Israel,
referring to its government as the "Zionist regime"
and Israel as "occupied Palestine".
The 1982 Israeli invasion
of Lebanon resulted in the Palestine Liberation Organization
's (PLO) departure from Lebanon. The following creation of Security Zone in South Lebanon
has benefited Israeli allies in Lebanon
and civilian Israeli population, as Galilee suffered less violent attacks by Hezbollah, than previously by PLO in the 1970s (hundreds of Israeli civilian casualties). Despite this Israeli success in eradicating PLO bases and partial withdraw in 1985, the Israeli invasion had actually increased the severity of conflict
with local Lebanese militias and resulted in the consolidation of several local Shia Muslim movements in Lebanon, including Hezbollah
, from a previously unorganized guerrilla movement in the south. Over the years, military casualties of both sides grew higher, as both parties used more modern weaponry, and Hezbollah progressed in its tactics.
Iran supplied the militant organization Hezbollah with substantial amounts of financial, training, weapons, explosives, political, diplomatic, and organizational aid while persuading Hezbollah to take an action against Israel.
Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its four main goals as "Israel's final departure from Lebanon as a prelude to its final obliteration"
According to reports released in February 2010, Hezbollah received $400 million from Iran.
By the early 1990s, Hezbollah, with support from Syria and Iran, emerged as the leading group and military power, monopolizing the directorship of the guerrilla activity in South Lebanon.
In January 2014, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu warned that Iran's nuclear program would only be set back six weeks as a result of its interim agreement with the international community.
In one of the region's oddest pairings, Israel and the Gulf Arab states led by Saudi Arabia increasingly are finding common ground — and a common political language — on their mutual dismay over the prospect of a nuclear deal in Geneva that could curb Tehran's atomic program but leave the main elements intact, such as uranium enrichment.
In June 2017, former Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Ya'alon
stated that "We and the Arabs, the same Arabs who organized in a coalition in the Six-Day War to try to destroy the Jewish state, today find themselves in the same boat with us … The Sunni Arab countries, apart from Qatar, are largely in the same boat with us since we all see a nuclear Iran as the number one threat against all of us,".
With the election of Iranian hardliner Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
in 2005, relations between Iran and Israel became increasingly tense as the countries engaged in a series of proxy conflicts and covert operations against each other.
A RPG missile with a symbol of Iran displayed by Israel as "found in Lebanon during the 2006 Lebanon War
During the 2006 Lebanon War
, Iranian Revolutionary Guards
were believed to have directly assisted Hezbollah
fighters in their attacks on Israel. Multiple sources suggested that hundreds of Revolutionary Guard operatives participated in the firing of rockets into Israel during the war, and secured Hezbollah's long-range missiles. Revolutionary Guard operatives were allegedly seen operating openly at Hezbollah outposts during the war. In addition, Revolutionary Guard operatives were alleged to have supervised Hezbollah's attack on the INS Hanit
with a C-802
anti-ship missile. The attack severely damaged the warship and killed four crewmen. It is alleged that between six and nine Revolutionary Guard operatives were killed by the Israeli military during the war According to the Israeli media their bodies were transferred to Syria
and from there, flown to Tehran
On 6 September 2007, the Israeli Air Force destroyed a suspected nuclear reactor
in Syria, with ten North Koreans
During and immediately after the Gaza War
, the Israeli Air Force, with the assistance of Israeli commandos, was reported to have allegedly carried out three airstrikes
against Iranian arms being smuggled to Hamas
, as Iran launched an intensive effort to supply Hamas with weapons and ammunition. Israel hinted that it was behind the attacks. Two truck convoys were destroyed, and an arms-laden ship was sunk in the Red Sea
On 4 November 2009, Israel captured a ship
in the eastern Mediterranean Sea and its cargo of hundreds of tons of weapons allegedly bound from Iran to Hezbollah.
In 2010, a wave of assassinations targeting Iranian nuclear scientists began. The assassinations were widely believed to be the work of Mossad
, Israel's foreign intelligence service. According to Iran and global media sources, the methods used to kill the scientists is reminiscent of the way Mossad had previously assassinated targets. The assassinations were alleged to be an attempt to stop Iran's nuclear program, or to ensure that it cannot recover following a strike on Iranian nuclear facilities.
In the first attack, particle physicist Masoud Alimohammadi
was killed on 12 January 2010 when a booby-trapped
motorcycle parked near his car exploded. On 12 October 2010, an explosion occurred at an IRGC
military base near the city of Khorramabad
, killing 18 soldiers.
On 29 November 2010, two senior Iranian nuclear scientists, Majid Shahriari
and Fereydoon Abbasi
, were targeted by hitmen on motorcycles, who attached bombs to their cars and detonated them from a distance. Shahriari was killed, while Abbasi was severely wounded. On 23 July 2011, Darioush Rezaeinejad
was shot dead in eastern Tehran. On 11 January 2012, Mostafa Ahmadi Roshan
and his driver were killed by a bomb attached to their car from a motorcycle.
In June 2010 Stuxnet
, an advanced computer worm
was discovered. It is believed that it had been developed by US and Israel to attack Iran's nuclear facilities.
In a study conducted by ISIS
it is estimated that Stuxnet might have damaged as many as 1,000 centrifuges
(10% of all installed) in the Natanz enrichment plant
Other computer viruses and malware, including Duqu
, were reportedly related to Stuxnet.
Iran claims that its adversaries regularly engineer sales of faulty equipment and attacks by computer viruses to sabotage its nuclear program.
On 15 March 2011, Israel seized a ship
from Syria bringing Iranian weapons to Gaza.
In addition, the Mossad was also suspected of being responsible for an explosion that reportedly damaged the nuclear facility at Isfahan
. Iran denied that any explosion had occurred, but The Times
reported damage to the nuclear plant based on satellite images, and quoted Israeli intelligence sources as saying that the blast indeed targeted a nuclear site, and was "no accident".
Hours after the blast took place, Hezbollah fired two rockets into northern Israel. The Israel Defense Forces
reacted by firing four artillery shells at the area from where the launch originated. It was speculated that the attack was ordered by Iran and Syria as a warning to Israel.
The Israeli attack was reported to have killed 7 people, including foreign nationals.
Another 12 people were injured, of whom 7 later died in hospital.
The Mossad was suspected of being behind an explosion
at a Revolutionary Guard missile base in November 2011. The blast killed 17 Revolutionary Guard operatives, including General Hassan Moqaddam
, described as a key figure in Iran's missile program.
Israeli journalist Ron Ben-Yishai
wrote that several lower-ranked Iranian missile experts had probably been previously killed in several explosions at various sites.
On 13 February 2012, Israeli embassy staff in Georgia
. In Georgia, a car bomb
failed to explode near the embassy and was safely detonated by Georgian police. In India, the car bomb exploded, injuring four people. Amongst the wounded was the wife of an Israeli Defense Ministry employee.
Israel accused Iran of being behind the attacks.
The following day, three alleged Iranian agents were uncovered in Bangkok
, thought to have been planning to kill Israeli diplomatic officials, including the ambassador, by attaching bombs to embassy cars. The cell was uncovered when one of their bombs exploded. Police responded, and the Iranian agent present at the house threw an explosive device at officers that tore his legs off, and was subsequently taken into custody. A second suspect was arrested as he tried to catch a flight out of the country, and the third escaped to Malaysia
, where he was arrested by Royal Malaysian Police
Thai police subsequently arrested two people suspected of involvement.
Indian police arrested a Delhi-based journalist in connection with February's car bomb, which injured four Israelis including the wife of an Israeli diplomat. Syed Mohammed Kazmi the journalist was arrested on 6 March 2012, he is said to have been in contact with a suspect police believe might have stuck a magnetic bomb to the diplomat's car. It is said Kazmi was an Indian citizen who worked for an Iranian publication.
In late February 2012, WikiLeaks
published confidential emails from Stratfor
, a US-based private intelligence company, which were stolen by the hacking group Anonymous
. Among the information released was a claim that Israeli commandos, in collaboration with Kurdish
fighters, destroyed several underground Iranian facilities used for nuclear and defense research projects.
On 18 July 2012, a bus carrying Israeli tourists in Bulgaria
was destroyed in a bombing attack
that killed five Israeli tourists and the driver, and injured 32 people. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
blamed Iran and Hezbollah
for the attack.
In July 2012, a senior Israeli defense official stated that since May 2011, more than 20 terrorist attacks planned by Iranians or suspected Hezbollah agents against Israeli targets worldwide had been foiled, including in South Africa
, and Peru
, and that Iranian and Hezbollah operatives were incarcerated in jails throughout the world.
On 6 October 2012, Israeli airplanes shot down a small UAV
as it flew over northern Negev
confirmed it sent the drone and Nasrallah
said in a televised speech that the drone's parts were manufactured in Iran.
In November 2012, Israel reported that an Iranian ship was being loaded with rockets to be exported to countries within range of Israel and that Israel "will attack and destroy any shipment of arms".
In January 2013, rumors were released that the Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant
had been hit by an explosion. Further reports by IAEA concluded that there had been no such incident.
On 7 May 2013, residents of Tehran reported hearing three blasts in an area where Iran maintains its missile research and depots. Later, an Iranian website said the blasts occurred at a privately owned chemical factory.
On 10 December, Hamas announced that they have resumed ties with Iran after a brief cut off over the Syrian conflict 
A court in Jerusalem has sentenced an Israeli man, Yitzhak Bergel to four-and-a-half years in prison for offering to spy for Iran. Bergel belongs to the anti-Zionist Neturei Karta
, an ultra-Orthodox Jewish sect which is vehemently opposed to the State of Israel's existence.
On 5 March 2014, the Israeli navy intercepted the Klos-C cargo ship. Israel stated Iran was using the vessel to smuggle dozens of long-range rockets to Gaza, including Syrian-manufactured M-302 rockets. The operation, named Full Disclosure
and carried out by Shayetet 13
special forces, took place in the Red Sea, 1,500 kilometers away from Israel and some 160 kilometers from Port Sudan.
Two workers were killed in an explosion that took place at a military explosives factory southeast of Tehran, near the suspected nuclear reactor in Parchin
In what seemed to be a response ordered by Iran,
Hezbollah set off an explosive device on the border between Lebanon and the Israeli-controlled side of the Shebaa farms
, wounding two Israeli soldiers. Israel responded with artillery fire toward two Hezbollah positions in southern Lebanon.
During the Syrian Civil War (2013–2020)
Israel and Syria have observed a truce since Israel reaffirmed its control over most of the Golan Heights
in the 1973 Yom Kippur War
, but the Syrian Civil War, which began in 2011, has led to several incidents of fire exchange
across the once-peaceful borders. The Israeli military is reportedly preparing itself for potential threats should there be a power vacuum in Syria. "After Assad and after establishing or strengthening their foothold in Syria, they are going to move and deflect their effort and attack Israel," an Israeli official told The Associated Press in January 2014. Some experts say that while the encroaching militant forces on Israel's border will heighten security measures, the advancements are not likely to create significant changes to Israel's policy disengagement in the Syria crisis.
In the Syrian Civil War
, hoping to bolster its logistics and force projection capabilities in the area, Tehran aims to clear a path from the Iranian capital to Damascus and the Mediterranean coast.
Israeli government is convinced that Iran is interested in creating territorial contiguity from Iran to the Mediterranean and in transferring military forces – including naval vessels, fighter planes and thousands of troops – to permanent bases in Syria and is trying to "Lebanonize" Syria and take over using Shi'ite militias, as it had done with Hezbollah in Lebanon.
As Israeli Defence Minister Avigdor Lieberman
has warned, "everything possible will be done to prevent the existence of a Shi'ite corridor from Tehran to Damascus".
In 2017, Israeli intelligence discovered an Iranian base being built in Syria just 50 km from the Israeli border.
Covert operations (2013–2017)
On several occasions between 2013 and 2017 Israel reportedly carried out or supported attacks on Hezbollah and Iranian targets within Syrian territories or Lebanon. One of the first reliably reported incidents took place on 30 January 2013, when Israeli aircraft struck a Syrian convoy
allegedly transporting Iranian weapons to Hezbollah.
Habitually, Israel refused to comment on the incident, a stance that is believed to seek to ensure that the Syrian government did not feel obliged to retaliate.
More incidents were attributed to IAF on May 2013
, December 2014
and April 2015
. Some of those reports were confirmed by the Syrian Arab Republic, whereas others were denied. Israel systematically refused to comment on alleged targeting of Hezbollah and Ba'athist Syrian targets in Syrian territory. In 2015, suspected Hezbollah militants launched a retaliatory attack
on Israeli forces in Shebaa farms
as a response to an Israeli airstrike
in the Syrian Golan that killed Hezbollah and IRGC senior operatives. In March 2017, Syria launched anti-aircraft missiles
towards the Israeli-controlled part of the Golan Heights, allegedly targeting Israeli IAF aircraft, which Syria claimed were on their way to attack targets in Palmyra in Syria. After the incident, the State of Israel stated it was targeting weapons shipments headed toward anti-Israeli forces, specifically Hezbollah
, located in Lebanon
. Israel denied Syria's claim that one jet fighter was shot down and another damaged. Israel has not reported any pilots or aircraft missing in Syria, or anywhere else in the Middle East following the incident. According to some sources, the incident was the first time Israeli officials clearly confirmed an Israeli strike on a Hezbollah convoy during the Syrian Civil War
As of September 2017, this was the only time such confirmation was issued.
Open engagement (2017–2018)
Beginning in January 2017, the Israeli Air Force began flying almost daily attack missions against Iranian targets in Syria, dropping about 2,000 bombs in 2018 alone. Some Iranian targets were also attacked by Israeli surface-to-surface missiles
or in raids by Israeli special forces. According to former IDF Chief of Staff Gadi Eizenkot
, the decision to strike Iranian bases in Syria was made after Iran changed its strategy in 2016 as the US-led military intervention against ISIL
was drawing to an end, planning to exploit the power vacuum to establish hegemony in Syria, building bases and bringing in foreign Shiite fighters. Although the full extent of the campaign would not be revealed until 2019, by early December 2017 the Israeli Air Force confirmed it had attacked arms convoys of Ba'athist Syria and Lebanon's Hezbollah nearly 100 times during more than six years of the conflict in Syria. In January 2019, outgoing IDF Chief of Staff Gadi Eizenkot
claimed that up to that point, only a few dozen Iranian military personnel had been killed in the attacks, as Israel had taken care to primarily target Iranian infrastructure while sparing personnel so as not to give Iran any pretext to retaliate.
Syria, Iraq and Lebanon (2019–2020)
In July 2019, it was reported that Israel had expanded its strikes against Iranian missile shipments to Iraq
, with Israeli F-35
combat planes allegedly striking Iranian targets in Iraq twice.
Israeli airstrikes reportedly targeted Iran-backed militias in Iraq during 2019.
On September 16, 2019, air strikes, targeting three positions of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards and allied Iraqi militias, killed at least 10 pro-Iranian militiamen in Albu Kamal, Syria. The strikes were allegedly blamed on Israel.
According to the time, the increase of Iran-Israel tension concurs with discussion of a possible rapprochement between Iran and the U.S.
According to an official from the Palestinian position in the town three air strikes hit the PFLP-GC
military position in Quasaya early morning 26 August 2019 causing only material damage.
In the first half of 2020, Israel continued to target Iranian weapon depots in Syria.
On 27 July 2020, explosions
and exchange of fire were heard during a "security incident" at the border
between the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights
The incident involved Israeli
soldiers and four Hezbollah
fighters who allegedly crossed the border, and came days after a Hezbollah member was killed by Israeli airstrikes in Syria
and an Israeli drone
crashed in Lebanon.
The Israel Defense Forces
said that there were no Israeli casualties and that the four Hezbollah fighters fled back to Lebanon after being shot at. However, Hezbollah denied that their forces attacked the Israeli army, and said that their fighters had not crossed the border in a released statement. The group said that Israel opened fire first. Two dozen explosions were heard in Lebanon; an Israeli shell smashed in a civilian home, narrowly missing a family in the house at the time, but nobody was hurt.
Cyberwarfare and sabotage in 2020
On May 9, 2020, Israel was reportedly behind a cyberattack
that disrupted the Shahid Rajaee port in the Strait of Hormuz
, causing traffic jams of delivery trucks and delays in shipments. It was suggested the attack was a response to a failed Iranian cyberattack on an Israeli water facility of the Sharon central region
In June and July, a series of explosions targeted Iran's nuclear and missile programs and various other infrastructure. There were accidents and damages reported in the Parchin
military complex near Tehran on 26 June, the Sina At'har clinic in northern Tehran on 30 June,
nuclear facility on 2 July, the Shahid Medhaj power plant (Zargan) in Ahvaz
and the Karun petrochemical center in the city of Mahshahr
on 4 July. It has been speculated that Israel was involved,
and the damage at the centrifuge plant in Natanz alone could delay the Iranian nuclear weapons program by one or two years, according to intelligence officials.
On July 6, another explosion occurred at the Sepahan Boresh factory in the city of Baqershahr
On July 9, explosions were reported at a missile depot belonging to Iran's Revolutionary Guards Corps west of Tehran.
On July 11, an explosion took place at the basement of an old two-story house containing gas cylinders in northern Tehran.
On July 12, a fire broke out at the Shahid Tondgooyan Petrochemical Company in southwest Iran.
On July 13, an explosion occurred at a gas condensate plant of the Kavian Fariman industrial zone in the Razavi Khorasan Province
On July 15, a large fire broke out at a shipyard in the city of Bushehr
, spreading to seven wooden boats.
On July 18, an oil pipeline exploded in the Ahvaz region in southern Iran.
On July 19, another explosion took place in a power station in Isfahan
Later in the day, a large fire was registered at a cellophane or yarn factory near the city of Tabriz
in northwest Iran.
Attacks on ships and incidents in 2021
Israeli commandos carried out attacks which damaged numerous Iranian cargo ships carrying oil and weapons to Syria from late 2019 to 2021.
Israeli-owned ships were attacked in the Gulf of Oman
and the Arabian Sea
, allegedly by Iran.
Israel was also reportedly behind an attack on an Iranian intelligence ship of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Navy
in the Red Sea
, which was heavily damaged by a limpet mine in April 2021.
On 10 April 2021, Iran began injecting uranium hexaflouride gas into advanced IR-6 and IR- 5 centrifuges at Natanz, but an accident occurred in the electricity distribution network the next day due to Mossad activity, according to Western and Iranian sources.
In what seemed to be an Iranian response, an Israeli-owned ship was attacked by a missile or a drone near the shores of the Fujairah emirate in the United Arab Emirates on April 13, causing light damage to the vessel.
On 24 April, an Iranian fuel tanker was reportedly attacked off the Syrian coast by an Israeli drone, causing damages but no casualties.
Iranian supporters and alleged proxies
are close strategic allies
, and Iran has provided significant support for the Syrian government
in the Syrian Civil War
, including logistical, technical and financial support, as well as training and some combat troops. Iran sees the survival of the Syrian government as being crucial to its regional interests.
The Supreme Leader of Iran
, Ali Khamenei
, was reported in September 2011 to be vocally in favor of the Syrian government. When the uprising developed into the Syrian Civil War, there were increasing reports of Iranian military support, and of Iranian training of NDF (National Defence Forces) both in Syria and Iran.
Iranian security and intelligence services are advising and assisting the Syrian military
in order to preserve Bashar al-Assad
's hold on power.
Those efforts include training, technical support, and combat troops.
Thousands of Iranian operatives - as many as 10,000 by the end of 2013
- have fought in the Syrian civil war on the pro-government side, including regular troops and militia members. In 2018, Tehran said that 2,100 Iranian soldiers have been killed in Syria and Iraq over the past seven years.
Iran has also sponsored and facilitated the involvement of Shia militias from across the region to fight in Syria, including Lebanese Hezbollah, Afghan Liwa Fatemiyoun
, Pakistani Liwa Zainebiyoun
, Iraqi Harakat al-Nujaba
, Kataib Seyyed al-Shuhada
and Kataib Hezbollah
, and Bahraini Saraya Al Mukhtar.
Hezbollah has been a major combatant
in the Syrian Civil War
, helping to ensure the survival of the Iran-backed Assad government. Active support and troop deployment began in 2012, steadily increasing thereafter.
Hezbollah deployed several thousand fighters in Syria and by 2015 lost up to 1,500 fighters in combat.
Hezbollah has also been very active to prevent rebel penetration from Syria to Lebanon, being one of the most active forces in the Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon
. By March 2019, 1,677 Lebanese Hezbollah
fighters had reportedly been killed in the Syria.
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Between 2005 and 2011, Iran was one of the main funders and suppliers of Hamas. Israel estimates the Hamas' Brigades have a core of several hundred members, who received military training
, including training in Iran and in Syria
(before the Syrian Civil War).
In 2011, after the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War, Hamas distanced itself from the Syrian government and its members began leaving Syria. Since 2012, Hamas ceased receiving any support from Iran due to Hamas' support of the Muslim Brotherhood
in Syria. In a speech for the spokesman of the Qassam brigades in 2014 on Hamas's 27 anniversary he thanked Iran for aid in finance and weapons.
In 2011, however, Sudan reduced its cooperation with Iran after the start of the Syrian Civil War
Palestinian Islamic Jihad
Popular Mobilization Forces
Israeli supporters and alleged proxies
Israel's closest military ally, the United States, has a long history of violence against Iran, including the August 1953 overthrow of the democratic government of Iran by U.S. and U.K. covert operatives, and the decades long U.S. support for the authoritarian rule of the Shah.
The U.S. provided major military and other support to Saddam Hussein
's Iraq for decades after Iraq attack Iran, and in 1988, the United States launched Operation Praying Mantis
against Iran, the largest American naval combat operation since World War II.
The United States has military bases that virtually encircle Iran.
Israel and Saudi Arabia do not have any official diplomatic relations. However, news reports have indicated extensive behind-the-scenes diplomatic and intelligence cooperation between the countries, in pursuit of mutual goals against regional enemy Iran
People's Mujahedin of Iran
- US officials confirm that MEK was financed, trained, and armed by Israel in killing Iranian nuclear scientists.
- According to a New Yorker report, members of the Mujahideen-e-Khalq received training in the U.S. and Israeli funding for their operations against the Iranian government.
- The MEK aligning with Israel is generally regarded as opportunism on the part of the former, rather than any genuine partnership.
Kurdistan Free Life Party
After 2001 the government of Vladimir Putin
intensified Russia's involvement in the region, supporting Iran
's nuclear programs and forgiving Syria
73% of its $13 billion debt.
In his 10 September 2004 article Middle East Horizons of Russian Foreign Politics: Russia returns to one of the world's key regions
, Mikhail Margelov
, the Head of the Foreign Relations Council of the Russian Federation, wrote:
"President Putin called for the renewal of contacts with the countries with which Russia maintained long friendly relations and invested a lot of material and intellectual resources. The Arab countries constitute a large part of those counties. ... In general, the positions of Russia and the majority of Arab countries on key issues of development of the political situation in the region coincide."
According to March 2007 brief entitled Russia's New Middle Eastern Policy: Back to Bismarck? by Ariel Cohen (Institute for Contemporary Affairs),
"Syria ... was supplying Hizbullah with Russian weapons. In 2006, Israeli forces found evidence of the Russian-made Kornet-E and Metis-M anti-tank systems in Hizbullah's possession in southern Lebanon. The Russian response to accusations that it was supplying terrorist groups with weapons was an announcement, in February 2007, that Russia's military will conduct inspections of Syrian weapons storage facilities with the goal of preventing the weapons from reaching unintended customers. Predictably, such developments placed considerable strain on the already-deteriorating relations between Russia and Israel...
For several years Russia has been attempting to engage in military cooperation with both Israel and Syria. However, the levels of cooperation with the two states are inversely related and an escalation of arms sales to Syria can only damage the relationship with Israel. Russian-Syrian military cooperation has gone through numerous stages: high levels of cooperation during the Soviet era, which was virtually halted until 2005, and now Russia's attempt to balance its relationship with both Israel and Syria. However, Russia's recent eastward leanings might indicate that Moscow is prepared to enter a new stage in its military cooperation with Syria, even if this is to the detriment of its relationship with Israel.
In 2019, Russia rejected an Iranian request to buy S-400 missile defense system
. Ruslan Pukhov, head of the Center of Analysis of Strategies and Technologies
in Moscow, said: "If Russia decides to provide Iran with S-400, it will be a direct challenge to Saudi Arabia and Israel, so it will be against Russia’s own national interests."
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