), officially the Republic of Iraq
: جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق
: کۆماری عێراق
), is a country in Western Asia
, bordered by Turkey
to the north
to the east
to the southeast
, Saudi Arabia
to the south
to the southwest
to the west
. The capital and largest city is Baghdad
. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs
. Around 99% of the country's 38 million citizens are Muslims
with small minorities of Christians
also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic
Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km (36 miles) on the northern Persian Gulf
and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain
, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range
and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert
Two major rivers, the Tigris
, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab
near the Persian Gulf
. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
, historically known as Mesopotamia
, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation
. It was here that mankind first began to read, write, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk
, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC
. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian
empires. It was also part of the Median
) has been in use since before the 6th century CE.
There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian
city of Uruk
(Biblical Hebrew Erech
) and is thus ultimately of Sumerian
origin, as Uruk
was the Akkadian
name for the Sumerian city of Urug
, containing the Sumerian word for "city", UR
During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī
("Arabian Iraq") for Lower Mesopotamia
and ʿIrāq ʿAjamī
for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran.
The term historically included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains
and did not include the northernmost and westernmost
parts of the modern territory of Iraq.
Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term Eyraca Arabica
was commonly used to describe Iraq.
The term Sawad
was also used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain
of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, عراق
means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment
", viz. at the south and east of the Jazira
Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area.
(listed first by MQD
), the American Heritage Dictionary
and the Random House Dictionary
The pronunciation /
In accordance with the 2005 Constitution
, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq"
Between 65,000 BC and 35,000 BC, northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal
culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave
This same region is also the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from approximately 11,000 BC.
Since approximately 10,000 BC, Iraq, together with a large part of the Fertile Crescent
also comprising Asia Minor
and the Levant
, was one of centres of a Neolithic
culture known as Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
(PPNA), where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period, PPNB
, is represented by rectangular houses. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, gypsum
and burnt lime (Vaisselle blanche). Finds of obsidian
tools from Anatolia
are evidences of early trade relations.
Further important sites of human advancement were Jarmo
(circa 7100 BC),
a number of sites belonging to the Halaf culture
, and Tell al-'Ubaid
, the type site
of the Ubaid period
(between 6500 BC and 3800 BC).
The respective periods show ever-increasing levels of advancement in agriculture, tool-making and architecture.
of the Sumerians is a language isolate
. The major city states of the early Sumerian period were; Eridu
The cities to the north like Ashur
, Arbela (modern Erbil
) and Arrapha
) were also extant in what was to be called Assyria from the 25th century BC; however, at this early stage, they were Sumerian ruled administrative centres.
From the 29th century BC, Akkadian Semitic names began to appear on king lists and administrative documents of various city states. It remains unknown as to the origin of Akkad, where it was precisely situated and how it rose to prominence. Its people spoke Akkadian
, an East Semitic language
During the 3rd millennium BC, a cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism
. The influences between Sumerian
are evident in all areas, including lexical borrowing on a massive scale—and syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence. This mutual influence has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian of the 3rd millennium BC as a Sprachbund
From this period, the civilisation in Iraq came to be known as Sumero-Akkadian
Bill of sale of a male slave and a building in Shuruppak
, Sumerian tablet, circa 2600 BC.
Between the 29th and 24th centuries BC, a number of kingdoms and city states within Iraq began to have Akkadian speaking dynasties; including Assyria
However, the Sumerians remained generally dominant until the rise of the Akkadian Empire
(2335–2124 BC), based in the city of Akkad
in central Iraq. Sargon of Akkad
, originally a Rabshakeh
to a Sumerian king, founded the empire, he conquered all of the city states of southern and central Iraq, and subjugated the kings of Assyria, thus uniting the Sumerians and Akkadians in one state. He then set about expanding his empire, conquering Gutium
and had victories that did not result into a full conquest against the Amorites
of Ancient Syria
After the collapse of the Akkadian Empire in the late 22nd century BC, the Gutians
occupied the south for a few decades, while Assyria reasserted its independence in the north. This was followed by a Sumerian renaissance in the form of the Neo-Sumerian Empire
. The Sumerians under king Shulgi
conquered almost all of Iraq except the northern reaches of Assyria, and asserted themselves over the Gutians
, destroying the first and holding off the others.
invasion in 2004 BC brought the Sumerian revival to an end. By the mid 21st century BC, the Akkadian speaking kingdom of Assyria
had risen to dominance in northern Iraq. Assyria expanded territorially into the north eastern Levant, central Iraq, and eastern Anatolia, forming the Old Assyrian Empire
(circa 2035–1750 BC) under kings such as Puzur-Ashur I
, Sargon I
and Erishum I
, the latter of whom produced the most detailed set of law yet written.
The south broke up into a number of Akkadian speaking states, Isin
being the major ones.
During the 20th century BC, the Canaanite
began to migrate into southern Mesopotamia. Eventually, they began to set up small petty kingdoms in the south, as well as usurping the thrones of extant city states such as Isin
One of these small Amorite kingdoms founded in 1894 BC contained the then small administrative town of Babylon
within its borders. It remained insignificant for over a century, overshadowed by older and more powerful states, such as Assyria, Elam, Isin, Ehnunna and Larsa.
In 1792 BC, an Amorite
ruler named Hammurabi
came to power in this state, and immediately set about building Babylon from a minor town into a major city, declaring himself its king. Hammurabi conquered the whole of southern and central Iraq, as well as Elam to the east and Mari to the west, then engaged in a protracted war with the Assyrian king Ishme-Dagan
for domination of the region, creating the short-lived Babylonian Empire
. He eventually prevailed over the successor of Ishme-Dagan and subjected Assyria and its Anatolian colonies. By the middle of the eighteenth century BC, the Sumerians had lost their cultural identity and ceased to exist as a distinct people.
Genetic and cultural analysis indicates that the Marsh Arabs
of southern Iraq are probably their most direct modern descendants.
It is from the period of Hammurabi that southern Iraq came to be known as Babylonia
, while the north had already coalesced into Assyria
hundreds of years before. However, his empire was short-lived, and rapidly collapsed after his death, with both Assyria and southern Iraq, in the form of the Sealand Dynasty
, falling back into native Akkadian hands. The foreign Amorites clung on to power in a once more weak and small Babylonia until it was sacked by the Indo-European
speaking Hittite Empire
based in Anatolia
in 1595 BC. After this, another foreign people, the Language Isolate
, originating in the Zagros Mountains
of Ancient Iran
, seized control of Babylonia, where they were to rule for almost 600 years, by far the longest dynasty ever to rule in Babylon.
Iraq was from this point divided into three polities: Assyria
in the north, Kassite Babylonia
in the south central region, and the Sealand Dynasty
in the far south. The Sealand Dynasty was finally conquered by Kassite Babylonia circa 1380 BC.
The Middle Assyrian Empire
(1365–1020 BC) saw Assyria rise to be the most powerful nation in the known world. Beginning with the campaigns of Ashur-uballit I
, Assyria destroyed the rival Hurrian
Empire, annexed huge swathes of the Hittite Empire
for itself, annexed northern Babylonia from the Kassites, forced the Egyptian Empire
from the region, and defeated the Elamites
. At its height, the Middle Assyrian Empire
stretched from The Caucasus
), and from the Mediterranean
coasts of Phoenicia
to the Zagros Mountains
. In 1235 BC, Tukulti-Ninurta I
of Assyria took the throne of Babylon
, thus becoming the first native Mesopotamian
to rule the state.
During the Bronze Age collapse
(1200–900 BC), Babylonia was in a state of chaos, dominated for long periods by Assyria and Elam
. The Kassites were driven from power by Assyria and Elam, allowing native south Mesopotamian kings to rule Babylonia for the first time, although often subject to Assyrian or Elamite rulers. However, these East Semitic
Akkadian kings, were unable to prevent new waves of West Semitic
migrants entering southern Iraq, and during the 11th century BC Arameans
entered Babylonia from The Levant
, and these were followed in the late 10th to early 9th century BC by the migrant Chaldeans
who were closely related to the earlier Arameans
After a period of comparative decline in Assyria, it once more began to expand with the Neo Assyrian Empire
(935–605 BC). This was to be the largest empire the region had yet seen, and under rulers such as Adad-Nirari II
, Shalmaneser III
, Tiglath-pileser III
, Sargon II
, Iraq became the centre of an empire stretching from Persia
in the east, to Cyprus
in the west, and from The Caucasus
in the north to Egypt
in the south.
It was during this period that an Akkadian influenced form of Eastern Aramaic
was adopted by the Assyrians as the lingua franca
of their vast empire, and Mesopotamian Aramaic began to supplant Akkadian as the spoken language of the general populace of both Assyria and Babylonia. The descendant dialects of this tongue survive amongst the Mandaeans
of southern Iraq and Assyrians
of northern Iraq to this day.
In the late 7th century BC, the Assyrian Empire tore itself apart with a series of brutal civil wars, weakening itself to such a degree that a coalition of its former subjects; the Babylonians
, were able to attack Assyria, finally bringing its empire down by 605 BC.
Babylonian and Persian periods
The short-lived Neo-Babylonian Empire
(620–539 BC) succeeded that of Assyria. It failed to attain the size, power or longevity of its predecessor; however, it came to dominate The Levant
, and to defeat Egypt
. Initially, Babylon was ruled by yet another foreign dynasty, that of the Chaldeans
, who had migrated to the region in the late 10th or early 9th century BC. Its greatest king, Nebuchadnezzar II
, rivalled another non native ruler, the ethnically unrelated Amorite
, as the greatest king of Babylon. However, by 556 BC, the Chaldeans had been deposed from power by the Assyrian born Nabonidus
and his son and regent Belshazzar
In the 6th century BC, Cyrus the Great
of neighbouring Persia
defeated the Neo-Babylonian Empire
at the Battle of Opis
and Iraq was subsumed into the Achaemenid Empire
for nearly two centuries. The Achaemenids made Babylon
their main capital. The Chaldeans and Chaldea disappeared at around this time, though both Assyria and Babylonia endured and thrived under Achaemenid rule (see Achaemenid Assyria
). Little changed under the Persians, having spent three centuries under Assyrian rule, their kings saw themselves as successors to Ashurbanipal, and they retained Assyrian Imperial Aramaic as the language of empire, together with the Assyrian imperial infrastructure, and an Assyrian style of art and architecture.
In the late 4th century BC, Alexander the Great
conquered the region, putting it under HellenisticSeleucid
rule for over two centuries.
The Seleucids introduced the Indo-Anatolian
to the region. This name had for many centuries been the Indo-European word for Assyria
and specifically and only meant Assyria; however, the Seleucids also applied it to The Levant
, causing both the Assyria and the Assyrians of Iraq and the Arameans
and The Levant to be called Syria and Syrians/Syriacs in the Greco-Roman
Flourished in the 2nd century, the strongly fortified Parthian city of Hatra
shows a unique blend of both Classical
architecture and art.
of Persia under Ardashir I
destroyed the Parthian Empire and conquered the region in 224 AD. During the 240s and 250's AD, the Sassanids gradually conquered the independent states, culminating with Assur in 256 AD. The region was thus a province of the Sassanid Empire
for over four centuries, and became the frontier and battle ground between the Sassanid Empire and Byzantine Empire
, with both empires weakening each other, paving the way for the Arab
-Muslim conquest of Persia
in the mid-7th century.
In 1257, Hulagu Khan
amassed an unusually large army, a significant portion of the Mongol Empire's forces, for the purpose of conquering Baghdad. When they arrived at the Islamic capital, Hulagu Khan demanded its surrender, but the last Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta'sim
refused. This angered Hulagu, and, consistent with Mongol strategy of discouraging resistance, he besieged Baghdad
, sacked the city and massacred many of the inhabitants.
Estimates of the number of dead range from 200,000 to a million.
The Mongols destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate and Baghdad's House of Wisdom
, which contained countless precious and historical documents. The city has never regained its previous pre-eminence as a major centre of culture and influence. Some historians believe that the Mongol invasion destroyed much of the irrigation
infrastructure that had sustained Mesopotamia for millennia. Other historians point to soil salination
as the culprit in the decline in agriculture.
In 1401, a warlord of Mongol descent, Tamerlane
(Timur Lenk), invaded Iraq. After the capture of Baghdad, 20,000 of its citizens were massacred.
Timur ordered that every soldier should return with at least two severed human heads to show him (many warriors were so scared they killed prisoners captured earlier in the campaign just to ensure they had heads to present to Timur).
Timur also conducted massacres of the indigenous Assyrian Christian
population, hitherto still the majority population in northern Mesopotamia, and it was during this time that the ancient Assyrian city of Assur
was finally abandoned.
During the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the Black Sheep Turkmen
ruled the area now known as Iraq. In 1466, the White Sheep Turkmen
defeated the Black Sheep and took control. From the earliest 16th century, in 1508, as with all territories of the former White Sheep Turkmen, Iraq fell into the hands of the Iranian Safavids
. Owing to the century long Turco-Iranian rivalry between the Safavids and the neighbouring Ottoman Turks
, Iraq would be contested between the two for more than a hundred years during the frequent Ottoman-Persian Wars
With the Treaty of Zuhab
in 1639, most of the territory of present-day Iraq eventually came under the control of Ottoman Empire as the eyalet of Baghdad
as a result of wars
with the neighbouring rival, Safavid Iran
. Throughout most of the period of Ottoman rule (1533–1918), the territory of present-day Iraq was a battle zone between the rival regional empires and tribal alliances.
By the 17th century, the frequent conflicts with the Safavids had sapped the strength of the Ottoman Empire and had weakened its control over its provinces. The nomadic population swelled with the influx of bedouins
, in the Arabian Peninsula. Bedouin raids on settled areas became impossible to curb.
During the years 1747–1831, Iraq was ruled by a Mamluk dynasty
origin who succeeded in obtaining autonomy from the Ottoman Porte
, suppressed tribal revolts, curbed the power of the Janissaries, restored order and introduced a programme of modernisation of economy and military. In 1831, the Ottomans managed to overthrow the Mamluk regime and imposed their direct control over Iraq. The population of Iraq, estimated at 30 million in 800 AD, was only 5 million at the start of the 20th century.
During World War I
, the Ottomans sided with Germany
and the Central Powers
. In the Mesopotamian campaign
against the Central Powers, British
forces invaded the country and initially suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Turkish army during the Siege of Kut
(1915–1916). However, subsequent to this the British began to gain the upper hand, and were further aided by the support of local Arabs
. In 1916, the British and French made a plan for the post-war division of Western Asia
under the Sykes-Picot Agreement
British forces regrouped and captured Baghdad
in 1917, and defeated the Ottomans. An armistice was signed in 1918. The British lost 92,000 soldiers in the Mesopotamian campaign. Ottoman losses are unknown but the British captured a total of 45,000 prisoners of war
. By the end of 1918, the British had deployed 410,000 men in the area, of which 112,000 were combat troops.
British administration and independent kingdom
British troops in Baghdad, June 1941.
The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire
until the partition of the Ottoman Empire
in the 20th century. It was made up of three provinces, called vilayets
in the Ottoman language
: Mosul Vilayet
, Baghdad Vilayet
, and Basra Vilayet
. These three provinces were joined into one Kingdom by the British after the region became a League of Nations mandate
, administered under British control, with the name "State of Iraq
". A fourth province (Zor Sanjak
), which Iraqi nationalists
considered part of Upper Mesopotamia
was ultimately added to Syria
In line with their "Sharifian Solution
" policy, the British established the Hashemite
king, Faisal I of Iraq
, who had been forced out of Syria
by the French, as their client ruler. Likewise, British authorities selected Sunni
Arab elites from the region for appointments to government and ministry offices.[specify][page needed]
Faced with spiraling costs and influenced by the public protestations of the war hero T. E. Lawrence
in The Times
, Britain replaced Arnold Wilson
in October 1920 with a new Civil Commissioner, Sir Percy Cox
Cox managed to quell a rebellion, yet was also responsible for implementing the fateful policy of close co-operation with Iraq's Sunni minority.
The institution of slavery
was abolished in the 1920s.
A military occupation
followed the restoration of the pre-coup government of the Hashemite
monarchy. The occupation ended on 26 October 1947, although Britain was to retain military bases in Iraq until 1954, after which the Assyrian militias were disbanded. The rulers during the occupation and the remainder of the Hashemite monarchy were Nuri as-Said
, the autocratic Prime Minister, who also ruled from 1930 to 1932, and 'Abd al-Ilah, the former Regent who now served as an adviser to King Faisal II.
Republic and Ba'athist Iraq
In 1958, a coup d'état known as the 14 July Revolution
was led by the Brigadier General Abd al-Karim Qasim
. This revolt was strongly anti-imperial and anti-monarchical in nature and had strong socialist elements. Numerous people were killed in the coup, including King Faysal II
, Prince Abd al-Ilah
, and Nuri al-Sa'id
Qasim controlled Iraq through military rule and in 1958 he began a process of forcibly reducing the surplus amounts of land owned by a few citizens and having the state redistribute the land. He was overthrown by Colonel Abdul Salam Arif
in a February 1963 coup
. After the latter's death in 1966, he was succeeded by his brother, Abdul Rahman Arif
, who was overthrown
by the Ba'ath Party
in 1968. Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
became the first Ba'ath President of Iraq
but then the movement gradually came under the control of Saddam Hussein
, who acceded to the presidency and control of the Revolutionary Command Council
(RCC), then Iraq's supreme executive body, in July 1979.
In 1979, the Iranian Revolution
took place. Following months of cross-border raids between the two countries, Saddam declared war on Iran in September 1980, initiating the Iran–Iraq War
(or First Persian Gulf War). Taking advantage of the post-revolution chaos in Iran, Iraq captured some territories in southwest of Iran, but Iran recaptured all of the lost territories within two years, and for the next six years Iran was on the offensive.[page needed]
The war, which ended in stalemate
in 1988, had cost the lives of between half a million and 1.5 million people.
In 1981, Israeli aircraft bombed an Iraqi nuclear materials testing reactor at Osirak
and was widely criticised at the United Nations.
During the eight-year war with Iran, Saddam Hussein extensively used chemical weapons
In the final stages of the Iran–Iraq War, the Ba'athist Iraqi regime led the Al-Anfal Campaign
, a genocidal
campaign that targeted Iraqi Kurds,
and led to the killing of 50,000–100,000 civilians.
Ba'athist era presidents Hassan al-Bakr and Saddam Hussein in 1978.
Iraq's armed forces were devastated during the war. Shortly after it ended in 1991, Kurdish Iraqis
led several uprisings
against Saddam Hussein's regime, but these were successfully repressed using the Iraqi security forces and chemical weapons. It is estimated that as many as 100,000 people, including many civilians were killed.
During the uprisings the US, UK, France and Turkey, claiming authority under UNSCR 688
, established the Iraqi no-fly zones
to protect Kurdish population from attacks by the Saddam regime's fixed-wing aircraft (but not helicopters).
Iraq was ordered to destroy its chemical and biological weapons and the UN attempted to compel Saddam's government to disarm and agree to a ceasefire by imposing additional sanctions on the country in addition to the initial sanctions imposed following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. The Iraqi Government's failure to disarm and agree to a ceasefire resulted in sanctions
which remained in place until 2003. The effects of the sanctions on the civilian population of Iraq have been disputed.
Whereas it was widely believed that the sanctions caused a major rise in child mortality, recent research has shown that commonly cited data were fabricated by the Iraqi government and that "there was no major rise in child mortality in Iraq after 1990 and during the period of the sanctions."
An oil for food program
was established in 1996 to ease the effects of sanctions.
2003–2007: Invasion and occupation
Following the invasion, the United States established the Coalition Provisional Authority
to govern Iraq. In May 2003 L. Paul Bremer
, the chief executive of the CPA, issued orders to exclude Baath Party members
from the new Iraqi government (CPA Order 1) and to disband the Iraqi Army (CPA Order 2
The decision dissolved the largely Sunni Iraqi Army and excluded many of the country's former government officials from participating in the country's governance,
including 40,000 school teachers who had joined the Baath Party simply to keep their jobs,
helping to bring about a chaotic post-invasion environment.
2008–2018: Continued instability and the rise of ISIS
In 2008, fighting continued
and Iraq's newly trained armed forces launched attacks against militants. The Iraqi government signed the US–Iraq Status of Forces Agreement
, which required US forces to withdraw from Iraqi cities by 30 June 2009 and to withdraw completely from Iraq by 31 December 2011.
US troops handed over security duties to Iraqi forces in June 2009, though they continued to work with Iraqi forces after the pullout.
On the morning of 18 December 2011, the final contingent of US troops to be withdrawn ceremonially exited over the border to Kuwait
Crime and violence initially spiked in the months following the US withdrawal from cities in mid-2009
but despite the initial increase in violence, in November 2009, Iraqi Interior Ministry
officials reported that the civilian death toll in Iraq fell to its lowest level since the 2003 invasion
Military situation in 2015
Following the withdrawal of US troops
in 2011, the insurgency continued and Iraq suffered from political instability. In February 2011, the Arab Spring
protests spread to Iraq
but the initial protests did not topple the government. The Iraqi National Movement
, reportedly representing the majority of Iraqi Sunnis, boycotted Parliament for several weeks in late 2011 and early 2012, claiming that the Shiite-dominated government was striving to sideline Sunnis.
In 2012 and 2013, levels of violence increased and armed groups inside Iraq were increasingly galvanised by the Syrian Civil War
. Both Sunnis and Shias crossed the border to fight in Syria.
In December 2012, Sunni Arabs protested
against the government, whom they claimed marginalised them.
After an inconclusive election in April 2014, Nouri al-Maliki served as caretaker-Prime-Minister.
On 11 August, Iraq's highest court ruled that PM Maliki's bloc is biggest in parliament, meaning Maliki could stay Prime Minister.
By 13 August, however, the Iraqi president had tasked Haider al-Abadi
with forming a new government, and the United Nations, the United States, the European Union, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and some Iraqi politicians expressed their wish for a new leadership in Iraq, for example from Haider al-Abadi
On 14 August, Maliki stepped down as PM to support Mr al-Abadi and to "safeguard the high interests of the country". The US government welcomed this as "another major step forward" in uniting Iraq.
On 9 September 2014, Haider al-Abadi
had formed a new government and became the new prime minister.
Intermittent conflict between Sunni, Shiite
and Kurdish factions has led to increasing debate about the splitting of Iraq into three autonomous regions, including Sunni Kurdistan in the northeast, a Sunnistan
in the west and a Shiastan in the southeast.
2019–present: Civil unrest, US-Iran proxy war, and new government
Serious civil unrest rocked the country beginning in Baghdad and Najaf in July 2018 and spreading to other provinces in late September 2019
as rallies to protest corruption, unemployment, and public service failures turned violent. Protests and demonstrations started again on 1 October 2019
, against 16 years of corruption, unemployment and inefficient public services, before they escalated into calls to overthrow the administration and to stop Iranian intervention in Iraq
. The Iraqi government at times reacted harshly, resulting in over 500 deaths by 12 December 2019.
Following months of protests that broke out across Iraq in October 2019 and the resignation of Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi
and his cabinet, Mustafa Al Kadhimi became a leading contender for the Premiership.
On 9 April 2020, he was named by President Barham Salih
as prime minister-designate
, the third person tapped to lead the country in just 10 weeks as it struggled to replace a government that fell last year after months of protests
. Kadhimi was nominated by President Barham Salih, state television reported, shortly after the previous designated prime minister
, Adnan al-Zurfi
, announced he was withdrawing having failed to secure enough support to pass a government
Satellite map of Iraq.
Iraq lies between latitudes 29°
and 38° N
, and longitudes 39°
and 49° E
(a small area lies west of 39°). Spanning 437,072 km2
(168,754 sq mi), it is the 58th-largest country in the world. It is comparable in size to the US state of California
, and somewhat larger than Paraguay
Iraq mainly consists of desert
, but near the two major rivers (Euphrates
) are fertile alluvial plains
, as the rivers carry about 60,000,000 m3
(78,477,037 cu yd) of silt
annually to the delta
. The north of the country is mostly composed of mountains; the highest point being at 3,611 m (11,847 ft) point, unnamed on the map opposite, but known locally as Cheekah Dar
(black tent). Iraq has a small coastline measuring 58 km (36 mi) along the Persian Gulf
. Close to the coast and along the Shatt al-Arab
(known as arvandrūd
: اروندرود among Iranians) there used to be marshlands, but many were drained in the 1990s.
Most of Iraq has a hot arid
climate with subtropical
influence. Summer temperatures average above 40 °C (104 °F) for most of the country and frequently exceed 48 °C (118.4 °F). Winter temperatures infrequently exceed 21 °C (69.8 °F) with maxima roughly 15 to 19 °C (59.0 to 66.2 °F) and night-time lows 2 to 5 °C (35.6 to 41.0 °F). Typically, precipitation is low; most places receive less than 250 mm (9.8 in) annually, with maximum rainfall occurring during the winter months. Rainfall during the summer is extremely rare, except in the far north of the country. The northern mountainous regions have cold winters with occasional heavy snows, sometimes causing extensive flooding.
Government and politics
In 2008, according to the Failed States Index
, Iraq was the world's eleventh most politically unstable country.
The concentration of power in the hands of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki
and growing pressure on the opposition led to growing concern about the future of political rights in Iraq.
Nevertheless, progress was made and the country had risen to 11th place by 2013.
In August 2014, al-Maliki's reign came to an end. He announced on 14 August 2014 that he would stand aside so that Haider Al-Abadi
, who had been nominated just days earlier by newly installed President Fuad Masum
, could take over. Until that point, al-Maliki had clung to power even asking the federal court to veto the president's nomination describing it as a violation of the constitution.
Transparency International ranks Iraq's government as the eighth-most-corrupt government in the world. Government payroll have increased from 1 million employees under Saddam Hussein
to around 7 million employees in 2016. In combination with decreased oil prices, the government budget deficit is near 25% of GDP as of 2016.
In October 2005, the new Constitution of Iraq
was approved in a referendum with a 78% overall majority, although the percentage of support varying widely between the country's territories.
The new constitution was backed by the Shia and Kurdish communities, but was rejected by Arab Sunnis. Under the terms of the constitution, the country conducted fresh nationwide parliamentary elections
on 15 December 2005. All three major ethnic groups in Iraq
voted along ethnic lines, as did Assyrian and Turcoman minorities.
Law no. 188 of the year 1959 (Personal Status Law)
made polygamy extremely difficult, granted child custody to the mother in case of divorce, prohibited repudiation and marriage under the age of 16.
Article 1 of Civil Code also identifies Islamic law as a formal source of law.
Iraq had no Sharia courts but civil courts used Sharia for issues of personal status including marriage and divorce. In 1995 Iraq introduced Sharia punishment for certain types of criminal offences.
The code is based on French civil law as well as Sunni and Jafari (Shi'ite
) interpretations of Sharia.
In 2004, the CPA
chief executive L. Paul Bremer said he would veto any constitutional draft stating that sharia is the principal basis of law.
The declaration enraged many local Shia clerics,
and by 2005 the United States had relented, allowing a role for sharia in the constitution to help end a stalemate on the draft constitution.
The Iraqi Army
is an objective counter-insurgency force that as of November 2009 includes 14 divisions, each division consisting of 4 brigades.
It is described as the most important element of the counter-insurgency fight.
Light infantry brigades are equipped with small arms, machine guns, RPGs, body armour and light armoured vehicles. Mechanized infantry brigades are equipped with T-54/55
main battle tanks and BMP-1
infantry fighting vehicles.
As of mid-2008, logistical problems included a maintenance crisis and ongoing supply problems.
Soldiers of the 53rd Brigade, 14th Iraqi Army division graduate from basic training.
The Iraqi Air Force
is designed to support ground forces with surveillance, reconnaissance and troop lift. Two reconnaissance squadrons use light aircraft, three helicopter squadrons are used to move troops and one air transportation squadron uses C-130 transport aircraft to move troops, equipment, and supplies. It currently has 3,000 personnel. It is planned to increase to 18,000 personnel, with 550 aircraft by 2018.
The Iraqi Navy
is a small force with 1,500 sailors and officers, including 800 Marines
, designed to protect shoreline and inland waterways from insurgent infiltration. The navy is also responsible for the security of offshore oil platforms. The navy will have coastal patrol squadrons, assault boat squadrons and a marine
The force will consist of 2,000 to 2,500 sailors by year 2010.
This section needs expansion
. You can help by adding to it
. (June 2012)
On 17 November 2008, the US and Iraq agreed to a Status of Forces Agreement
as part of the broader Strategic Framework Agreement
This agreement states "the Government of Iraq requests" US forces to temporarily remain in Iraq to "maintain security and stability" and that Iraq has jurisdiction over military contractors, and US personnel when not on US bases or on–duty.
On 12 February 2009, Iraq officially became the 186th State Party to the Chemical Weapons Convention
. Under the provisions of this treaty
, Iraq is considered a party with declared stockpiles
of chemical weapons
. Because of their late accession, Iraq is the only State Party exempt from the existing timeline for destruction of their chemical weapons. Specific criteria is in development to address the unique nature of Iraqi accession.
have flourished since 2005 by the exchange of high level visits: Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki made frequent visits to Iran, along with Jalal Talabani visiting numerous times, to help boost bilateral co-operation in all fields.
A conflict occurred in December 2009, when Iraq accused Iran of seizing an oil well on the border.
- Al Anbar
- Dhi Qar
- Halabja (not shown)
GNP per capita in Iraq from 1950 to 2008.
Global distribution of Iraqi exports in 2006.
Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil
sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. The lack of development in other sectors has resulted in 18%–30% unemployed and a per capita GDP of $4,000.
Public sector employment accounted for nearly 60% of full-time employment in 2011.
The oil export industry, which dominates the Iraqi economy, generates very little employment.
Currently only a modest percentage of women (the highest estimate for 2011 was 22%) participate in the labour force.
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people.
On 20 November 2004, the Paris Club
of creditor nations agreed to write off 80% ($33 billion) of Iraq's $42 billion debt to Club members. Iraq's total external debt was around $120 billion at the time of the 2003 invasion, and had grown another $5 billion by 2004. The debt relief
will be implemented in three stages: two of 30% each and one of 20%.
Five years after the invasion, an estimated 2.4 million people were internally displaced
(with a further two million refugees outside Iraq), four million Iraqis were considered food-insecure (a quarter of children were chronically malnourished) and only a third of Iraqi children had access to safe drinking water.
According to the Overseas Development Institute
, international NGOs
face challenges in carrying out their mission, leaving their assistance "piecemeal and largely conducted undercover, hindered by insecurity, a lack of coordinated funding, limited operational capacity and patchy information".
International NGOs have been targeted and during the first 5 years, 94 aid workers were killed, 248 injured, 24 arrested or detained and 89 kidnapped or abducted.
Oil and energy
With its 143.1 billion barrels (2.275×
) of proved oil reserves, Iraq ranks third in the world behind Venezuela and Saudi Arabia in the amount of oil reserves
Oil production levels reached 3.4 million barrels per day by December 2012.
Only about 2,000 oil wells
have been drilled in Iraq, compared with about 1 million wells in Texas
Iraq was one of the founding members of OPEC
During the 1970s Iraq produced up to 3.5 million barrels per day
, but sanctions imposed against Iraq
after its invasion of Kuwait in 1990 crippled the country's oil sector. The sanctions prohibited Iraq from exporting oil until 1996 and Iraq's output declined by 85% in the years following the First Gulf War
. The sanctions were lifted in 2003 after the US-led invasion removed Saddam Hussein from power, but development of Iraq's oil resources has been hampered by the ongoing conflict.
As of 2010, despite improved security and billions of dollars in oil revenue, Iraq still generates about half the electricity that customers demand, leading to protests during the hot summer months.
According to a US Study from May 2007, between 100,000 barrels per day (16,000 m3
/d) and 300,000 barrels per day (48,000 m3
/d) of Iraq's declared oil production over the past four years could have been siphoned off through corruption or smuggling.
In 2008, Al Jazeera reported $13 billion of Iraqi oil revenues in US care was improperly accounted for, of which $2.6 billion is totally unaccounted for.
Some reports that the government has reduced corruption in public procurement of oil; however, reliable reports of bribery and kickbacks to government officials persist.
In June 2008, the Iraqi Oil Ministry
announced plans to go ahead with small one- or two-year no-bid contracts
—once partners in the Iraq Petroleum Company
—along with Chevron
and smaller firms to service Iraq's largest fields.
These plans were cancelled in September because negotiations had stalled for so long that the work could not be completed within the time frame, according to Iraqi oil minister Hussain al-Shahristani
. Several United States senators had also criticised the deal, arguing it was hindering efforts to pass the hydrocarbon law.
On 14 March 2014, the International Energy Agency
said Iraq's oil output jumped by half a million barrels a day in February to average 3.6 million barrels a day. The country had not pumped that much oil since 1979, when Saddam Hussein rose to power.
However, on 14 July 2014, as sectarian strife had taken hold, Kurdistan Regional Government
forces seized control of the Bai Hassan and Kirkuk
oilfields in the north of the country, taking them from Iraq's control. Baghdad condemned the seizure and threatened "dire consequences" if the fields were not returned.
The UN estimates that oil accounts for 99% of Iraq's revenue.
Water supply and sanitation
A reservoir in the Samawah
desert Southern Iraq
in Iraq is characterized by poor water
and service quality. Three decades of war, combined with limited environmental awareness, have destroyed Iraq's water resources management
system. Access to potable water differs significantly among governorates and between urban and rural areas. 91% of the entire population has access to potable water. But in rural areas, only 77% of the population has access to improved drinking water sources compared to 98% in urban areas.
Large amounts of water are wasted during production.
Although many infrastructure projects are underway, Iraq remains in deep housing crisis, with the war-ravaged country likely to complete only 5 percent of the 2.5 million homes it needs to build by 2016 to keep up with demand, the Minister for Construction and Housing said in September 2013.
- In 2009, the IBBC was established (Iraq Britain Business Council). The council was established by Emma Nicholson, Baroness Nicholson of Winterbourne.
- In August 2009, two American firms reached a deal with the Iraqi Government to build Basra Sports City, a new sports complex.
- In October 2012, the Emirati property firm, Emaar Properties reached a deal with the Iraqi Ministry of Construction and Housing to build and develop housing and commercial projects in Iraq.
- In January 2013, the Emirati property firm, Nakheel Properties signed a deal to build Al Nakheel City, a future town in Basra, Iraq.
Historical populations in millions
The 2018 estimate of the total Iraqi population is 38,433,600.
Iraq's population was estimated to be 2 million in 1878.
In 2013 Iraq's population reached 35 million amid a post-war population boom.
A report by the European Parliamentary Research Service
suggests that in 2015 there were 24 million Arabs (14 million Shia
and 9 million Sunni
); 4.7 million Sunni Kurds
(plus 500,000 Faili Kurds
and 200,000 Kaka'i
); 3 million (mostly Sunni Iraqi Turkmen
); 1 million Black Iraqis
; 500,000 Christians
); 500,000 Yazidis
; 250,000 Shabaks
; 50,000 Roma
; 3,000 Sabean-Mandaeans
; 2,000 Circassians
; 1,000 of the Baháʼí Faith
; and a few dozen Jews
According to the CIA World Factbook
, citing a 1987 Iraqi government estimate,
the population of Iraq is 75–80% Arab
followed by 15% Kurds
In addition, the estimate claims that other minorities form 5% of the country's population, including the Turkmen/Turcoman
, Sabaean-Mandaean, and Persians
However, the International Crisis Group
points out that figures from the 1987 census, as well as the 1967, 1977, and 1997 censuses, "are all considered highly problematic, due to suspicions of regime manipulation" because Iraqi citizens were only allowed to indicate belonging to either the Arab or Kurdish ethnic groups;
consequently, this skewed the number of other ethnic minorities, such as Iraq's third largest ethnic group – the Turkmens.
Prior to the invasion in 2003, Arabic
was the sole official language. Since the new Constitution of Iraq
was approved in 2005, both Arabic and Kurdish
are recognized (Article 4) as official languages of Iraq, while three other languages: Turkmen
, are also recognized as minority languages
. In addition, any region or province may declare other languages official if a majority of the population approves in a general referendum. In addition, any region or province may declare other languages official if a majority of the population approves in a general referendum.
The Arabic language and the Kurdish language are the two official languages of Iraq. The right of Iraqis to educate their children in their mother tongue, such as Turkmen, Syriac, and Armenian shall be guaranteed in government educational institutions in accordance with educational guidelines, or in any other language in private educational institutions.
Religions in Iraq are dominantly Abrahamic
(official) 99% (Shia 47-55%, Sunni 45-59%), Christian
<0.1%, Yazidi <0.1%, Sabean Mandaean <0.1%, Baháʼí <0.1%, Zoroastrian <0.1%, Hindu <0.1%, Buddhist <0.1%, Jewish
<0.1%, folk religion <0.1, unaffiliated 0.1%, other <0.1%
It has a mixed Shia
population. A 2011 Pew Research Center estimates that 47~51% of Muslims in Iraq see themselves as Shia, 42% are Sunni, while 5% identify themselves as "Just a Muslim".
The Sunni population complains of facing discrimination in almost all aspects of life by the government. However, former Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki (who has a history of terrorist activities) denied that such discrimination occurs.
Christianity in Iraq has its roots from the conception of the Church of the East
in the 5th century AD, predating the existence of Islam in the region. Christians in Iraq are predominantly native Assyrians
belonging to the Ancient Church of the East
, Assyrian Church of the East
, Chaldean Catholic Church
, Syriac Catholic Church
and Syriac Orthodox Church
. There is also a significant population of Armenian Christians
in Iraq who had fled Turkey
during the Armenian genocide
. Christians numbered over 1.4 million in 1987 or 8% of the estimated population of 16.3 million and 550,000 in 1947 or 12% of the population of 4.6 millions.
After the 2003 invasion of Iraq
, violence against Christians rose, with reports of abduction, torture, bombings, and killings.
The post-2003 Iraq War
have displaced much of the remaining Christian community from their homeland
as a result of ethnic and religious persecution at the hands of Islamic extremists
There are also small ethno-religious
minority populations of Mandaeans
remaining. Prior to 2003 their numbers together may have been 2 million, the majority Yarsan, a non-Islamic religion with roots in pre-Islamic and pre-Christian religion. The Iraqi Jewish
community, numbering around 150,000 in 1941, has almost entirely left the country.
Iraq is home to two of the world's holiest places among Shias that contain graves: Najaf
This led to the reputation that Shias are grave worshippers.
Diaspora and refugees
The dispersion of native Iraqis to other countries is known as the Iraqi diaspora
. The UN High Commission for Refugees
has estimated that nearly two million Iraqis fled the country after the multinational
invasion of Iraq in 2003, mostly to Syria
The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre estimated in 2007 that an additional 1.9 million were displaced within the country.
In 2007, the UN said that about 40% of Iraq's middle class was believed to have fled and that most had fled systematic persecution and had no desire to return.
Refugees are mired in poverty as they are generally barred from working in their host countries.
Subsequently, the diaspora seemed to be returning, as security improved; the Iraqi government claimed that 46,000 refugees returned to their homes in October 2007 alone.
As of 2011, nearly 3 million Iraqis had been displaced, with 1.3 million within Iraq and 1.6 million in neighbouring countries, mainly Jordan and Syria.
More than half of Iraqi Christians had fled the country since the 2003 US-led invasion.
According to official United States Citizenship and Immigration Services
statistics, 58,811 Iraqis had been granted refugee-status citizenship as of 25 May 2011.
After the start of the Syrian Civil War
in 2011, numerous Iraqi refugees in Syria returned to their native country.
To escape the civil war, over 160,000 Syrian refugees
of varying ethnicities have fled to Iraq since 2012.
In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 6.84% of the country's GDP. In 2008, there were 6.96 physicians and 13.92 nurses per 10,000 inhabitants.
The life expectancy at birth was 68.49 years in 2010, or 65.13 years for males and 72.01 years for females.
This is down from a peak life expectancy of 71.31 years in 1996.
Iraq had developed a centralised free health care system in the 1970s using a hospital based, capital-intensive model of curative care
. The country depended on large-scale imports of medicines, medical equipment and even nurses, paid for with oil export income, according to a "Watching Brief" report issued jointly by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in July 2003. Unlike other poorer countries, which focused on mass health care using primary care practitioners, Iraq developed a Westernized system of sophisticated hospitals with advanced medical procedures, provided by specialist physicians. The UNICEF/WHO report noted that prior to 1990, 97% of the urban dwellers and 71% of the rural population had access to free primary health care; just 2% of hospital beds were privately managed.
Before Iraq faced economic sanctions from the UN, it already had an advanced and successful Arab education system.
However, it has now been “de-developing” in its educational success.
Some say that the sanctions, whether intentionally or not, hurt the education system because of how it affected the children.
Whether or not this is true, UNICEF's statistics and numbers show how Iraq's education system has room for improvement.
At the turn of the millennium, many countries, including Iraq, attempted to take part in the Millennium Development Goals as a way to help underdeveloped countries prosper. In Iraq, one of the goals was for education to be universally available for both boys and girls at the primary level. UNICEF collected several pieces of data that indicate whether or not, Iraq has been accomplishing this goal.
In general, the education of Iraq has been improving since the MDGs were implemented.
For example, enrollment numbers nearly doubled from 2000 to 2012.
It went from 3.6 million to six million.
The latest statistic from 2015 to 2016 showed that almost 9.2 million children were in school.
Enrollment rates continue to be on a steady increase at about 4.1% each year.
The sheer increase in numbers shows that there are clearly improvements of children in Iraq having access to education.
However, the dramatic increase of the number of students in primary education has had some negative and straining effects for the education system.
The budget for education makes up about only 5.7% of government spending and continues to stay at or below this percentage.
Investments for schools has also been on the decline.
As a result, the country now ranks at the bottom of Middle East countries in terms of education.
The little funding for education makes it more difficult to improve the quality and resources for education.
At the same time, UNICEF investigated portions of spending for education and found that some of the money has gone to waste.
They found that dropout rates are increasing as well as repetition rates for children.
In both Iraq Centre and KRI, the rates for dropouts are about 1.5% to 2.5%.
Within these dropout rates, there is also an uneven number among boys and girls who dropout.
While the rate for dropouts for boys was around 16.5%, girls were at 20.1% where it could be due to economic or family reasons.
For repetition rates, percentages have almost reached 17% among all students.
To put the money loss in perspective, about $1,100 is spent on each student.
For each student who drops out or repeats a grade, $1,100 is lost.
As a result, almost 20% of the funding for education was lost to dropouts and repetition for the year 2014–2015.
Many of those people who dropout or have to repeat a grade do not see the economic cost for long term results.
UNICEF takes note of how staying in school can in fact, increase wealth for the person and their family.
While it may put a strain on the education system, it will also hinder the chances of a person receiving higher earnings in whatever career they go into.
Other statistics show that regional differences can attribute to lower or higher enrollment rates for children in primary education.
For example, UNICEF found that areas with conflict like Salah al-Din have “more than 90% of school-age children” not in the education system.
In addition, some schools were converted into refugee shelters or military bases in 2014 as conflict began to increase.
The resources for education become more strained and make it harder for children to go to school and finish receiving their education.
However, in 2017, there were efforts being made to open up 47 schools that had previously been closed.
There has been more success in Mosul where over 380,000 are going to school again.
Depending on where children live, they may or may not have the same access to education as other children.
There are also the differing enrollment rates between boys and girls.
UNICEF found that in 2013–2014, enrollment numbers for boys was at about five million while girls were at about 4.2 million.
While the out-of-school rate for girls is at about 11%, boys are at less than half of that.
There is still a gap between boys and girls in terms of educational opportunities.
However, the rate of enrollments for girls has been increasing at a higher rate than for boys.
In 2015–2016, the enrollment numbers for girls increased by 400,000 from the previous year where a large number of them were located in Iraq Centre.
Not only that, UNICEF found that the increase of girls going to school was across all levels of education.
Therefore, the unequal enrollment numbers between boys and girls could potentially change so that universal education can be achieved by all at equal rates.
Although the numbers suggest a dramatic increase of enrollment rates for primary education in total, a large number of children still remain out of the education system.
Many of these children fall under the category of internally displaced children due to the conflict in Syria and the takeover by ISIL.
This causes a disruption for children who are attempting to go to school and holds them back from completing their education, no matter what level they are at.
Internally displaced children are specifically recorded to track children who have been forced to move within their country due to these types of conflicts. About 355,000 of internally displaced children are not in the education system.
330,000 of those children live in Iraq Centre.
The rates among internally displaced children continue to remain higher in Iraq Centre than other areas such as the KRI.
With the overall increase of enrollment rates, there continues to be a large strain on the resources for education.
UNICEF notes that without an increase on expenditures for education, the quality of education will continue to decrease.
Early in the 2000s, the UNESCO International Bureau of Education found that the education system in Iraq had issues with standard-built school buildings, having enough teachers, implementing a standardized curricula, textbooks and technologies that are needed to help reach its educational goals.
Teachers are important resources that are starting to become more and more strained with the rising number of students.
Iraq Centre has a faster enrollment growth rate than teacher growth.
Teachers begin to have to take in more and more students which can produce a bigger strain on the teacher and quality of education the children receive.
Another large resource for education is libraries that can increase literacy and create a reading culture.
However, this can only be improved through a restructuring of the education system.
UNICEF provides more details, regarding the actions needed to help Iraq reach its MDG goal of education being attainable by all children at the primary level.
Much of it has to do with the restructuring of the education system, research into improving the quality of education, and discovering ways on how to better suit the needs of girls and children with disabilities in the education system.
The CIA World Factbook estimates that, in 2000, the adult literacy rate
was 84% for males and 64% for females, with UN figures suggesting a small fall in literacy of Iraqis aged 15–24 between 2000 and 2008, from 84.8% to 82.4%.
The Coalition Provisional Authority
undertook a complete reform of Iraq's education system: Baathist
ideology was removed from curricula and there were substantial increases in teacher salaries and training programs, which the Hussein
regime neglected in the 1990s.
In 2003, an estimated 80% of Iraq's 15,000 school buildings needed rehabilitation and lacked basic sanitary facilities, and most schools lacked libraries and laboratories.
Education is mandatory only through to the sixth grade, after which a national examination determines the possibility of continuing into the upper grades.
Although a vocational track is available to those who do not pass the exam, few students elect that option because of its poor quality.
Boys and girls generally attend separate schools beginning with seventh grade.
In 2005, obstacles to further reform were poor security conditions in many areas, a centralised system that lacked accountability for teachers and administrators, and the isolation in which the system functioned for the previous 30 years.
Few private schools exist.
Prior to the invasion of 2003, some 240,000 persons were enrolled in institutions of higher education
performer Muhammad al-Qubbanchi.
Iraq is known primarily for its rich maqam
heritage which has been passed down orally by the masters of the maqam in an unbroken chain of transmission leading up to the present. The maqam al-Iraqi
is considered to be the most noble and perfect form of maqam. Al-maqam al-Iraqi is the collection of sung poems written either in one of the sixteen meters of classical Arabic or in Iraqi dialect (Zuhayri).
This form of art is recognised by UNESCO as "an intangible heritage of humanity".
Early in the 20th century, many of the most prominent musicians in Iraq were Jewish
In 1936, Iraq Radio
was established with an ensemble made up entirely of Jews
, with the exception of the percussion player. At the nightclubs of Baghdad, ensembles consisted of oud, qanun and two percussionists, while the same format with a ney
were used on the radio.
The most famous singer of the 1930s–1940s was perhaps the Jew Salima Pasha
(later Salima Murad).
The respect and adoration for Pasha were unusual at the time since public performance by women was considered shameful, and most female singers were recruited from brothels.
The most famous early composer from Iraq was Ezra Aharon
, an oud
player, while the most prominent instrumentalist was Daoud Al-Kuwaiti
Daoud and his brother Saleh
formed the official ensemble for the Iraqi radio station and were responsible for introducing the cello and ney into the traditional ensemble.
Art and architecture
Important cultural institutions in the capital include the Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra
– rehearsals and performances were briefly interrupted during the Occupation of Iraq
but have since returned to normal. The National Theatre of Iraq was looted during the 2003 invasion, but efforts are underway to restore it. The live theatre scene received a boost during the 1990s when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films. As many as 30 cinemas were reported to have been converted to live stages, producing a wide range of comedies and dramatic productions.
The capital, Ninus or Nineveh
, was taken by the Medes
, and some 200 years after Xenophon
passed over its site, then mere mounds of earth. It remained buried until 1845, when Botta and Layard discovered the ruins of the Assyrian cities. The principal remains are those of Khorsabad
, 16 km (10 mi) N.E. of Mosul
; of Nimroud, supposed to be the ancient Calah; and of Kouyunjik, in all probability the ancient Nineveh. In these cities are found fragments of several great buildings which seem to have been palace-temples. They were constructed chiefly of sun-dried bricks
, and all that remains of them is the lower part of the walls, decorated with sculpture and paintings, portions of the pavements, a few indications of the elevation, and some interesting works connected with the drainage.
After the end of the full state control in 2003, there were a period of significant growth in the broadcast media in Iraq. Immediately, and the ban on satellite dishes is no longer in place, and by mid-2003, according to a BBC
report, there were 20 radio stations from 0.15 to 17 television stations owned by Iraqis, and 200 Iraqi newspapers owned and operated. Significantly, there have been many of these newspapers in numbers disproportionate to the population of their locations. For example, in Najaf
, which has a population of 300,000, is being published more than 30 newspapers and distributed.
Iraqi media expert and author of a number of reports on this subject, Ibrahim Al Marashi, identifies four stages of the US invasion of Iraq in 2003 where they had been taking the steps that have significant effects on the way for the later of the Iraqi media since then. Stages are: pre-invasion preparation, and the war and the actual choice of targets, the first post-war period, and a growing insurgency and hand over power to the Iraqi Interim Government (IIG) and Prime Minister Iyad Allawi
Some characteristic ingredients of Iraqi cuisine include – vegetables such as aubergine
, cereals such as rice
, bulgur wheat
, pulses and legumes such as lentils
, fruits such as dates
and citrus fruits
, especially lemon
is Iraq's all-time most capped player in international matches, having played in 148 official games.
Despite the existence of mobile phones in the Middle East since 1995, Iraqis were only able to use them after 2003, as mobile phones were banned under Saddam Hussein
's rule. In 2013, it was reported that 78% of Iraqis owned a mobile phone.
According to the Iraqi Ministry of Communication, Iraq is now in the second phase of building and launching a multipurpose strategic satellite.
A project which expected to cost $600 million is ongoing in co-operation with market leaders such as Astrium
On 18 January 2012, Iraq was connected to the undersea communications network for the first time.
This had an immense impact on internet speed, availability and usage in Iraq.
In October 2013, the Iraqi Minister for Communication ordered internet prices to be lowered by a third. This is an attempt to boost usage and comes as a result of significant improvements in Internet infrastructure in the country.
- ^ a b c d e f g Iraq, Ministry of Interior - General Directorate for Nationality: Iraqi Constitution (2005)
- ^ a b c d e f g h "Iraq". The World Factbook.
- ^ 
- ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- ^ a b ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- ^ a b ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision"(xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- ^ "World Bank GINI index". Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
- ^ "Declaration of Principles for a Long-Term Relationship of Cooperation and Friendship Between the Republic of Iraq and the United States of America". 26 November 2007.
- ^ "Top 10 Battles for the Control of Iraq". Livescience.com. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
- ^ a b Basu, Moni (18 December 2011). "Deadly Iraq war ends with exit of last U.S. troops". CNN.com. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- ^ Nehal Mostafa. "Iraq announces end of war against IS, liberation of borders with Syria: Abadi". iraqinews.com.
- ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. 10 December 1979. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
- ^ Halloran, John A. (2000). "Sumerian Lexicon". The name of the very ancient city of URUK- City of Gilgamesh is made up from the UR-city and UK- thought to mean existence (a-ku, a-Ki & a-ko. The Aramaic and Arabic root of IRQ and URQ denotes rivers or tributaries at the same times referring to condensation (of water).
- ^ Wilhelm Eilers (1983). "Iran and Mesopotamia". In E. Yarshater, The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 3, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- ^ Stephen A. Kaufman (1983). "Appendix C. Alphabetic Texts." In McGuire Gibson. Excavations at Nippur Eleventh Season. Oriental Institute Communications, 22, pp. 151–152. https://oi.uchicago.edu/research/publications/oic/oic-22-excavations-nippur-eleventh-season
- '^ "often said to be from Arabic araqa, covering notions such as "perspiring, deeply rooted, well-watered," which may reflect the impression the lush river-land made on desert Arabs. etymonline.com; see also "Rassam, Suha (31 October 2005). Christianity in Iraq: Its Origins and Development to the Present Day. Gracewing Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-85244-633-1.
- ^ Magnus Thorkell Bernhardsson (2005). Reclaiming a Plundered Past: Archaeology And Nation Building in Modern Iraq. University of Texas Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-292-70947-8. The term Iraq did not encompass the regions north of the region of Tikrit on the Tigris and near Hīt on the Euphrates.
- ^ Salmon, Thomas (1767). A New Geographical and Historical Grammar. Sands, Murray, and Cochran. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
- ^ Martin, Benjamin (1761). "Philosophical Geography of Turkey in Asia". A New and Comprehensive System of Philology or A Treatise of the Literary Arts and Scineces, According to their Present State. The General Magazine of Arts and Sciences, Philosophical, Philological, Mathematical, and Mechanical, Part 3, Volume 2. London: W. Owen. p. 363. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
- ^ Boesch, Hans H. (1 October 1939). "El-'Iraq". Economic Geography. 15 (4): 325–361. doi:10.2307/141771. JSTOR 141771.
- ^ "Definition of IRAQ". www.merriam-webster.com.
- ^ "Iraq". The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. 14 March 2008. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008.
- ^ "Meaning of Iraq". InfoPlease. 24 January 2017.
- ^ Edwards, Owen (March 2010). "The Skeletons of Shanidar Cave". Smithsonian. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- ^ a b Ralph S. Solecki, Rose L. Solecki, and Anagnostis P. Agelarakis (2004). The Proto-Neolithic Cemetery in Shanidar Cave. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 3–5. ISBN 9781585442720.
- ^ Carter, Robert A. and Philip, Graham Beyond the Ubaid: Transformation and Integration in the Late Prehistoric Societies of the Middle East (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, Number 63) The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (2010) ISBN 978-1-885923-66-0 p.2, at http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/pubs/catalog/saoc/saoc63.html; "Radiometric data suggest that the whole Southern Mesopotamian Ubaid period, including Ubaid 0 and 5, is of immense duration, spanning nearly three millennia from about 6500 to 3800 B.C".
- ^ Al-Gailani Werr, L., 1988. Studies in the chronology and regional style of Old Babylonian Cylinder Seals. Bibliotheca Mesopotamica, Volume 23.
- ^ Crawford 2004, p. 75
- ^ Roux, Georges (1993), Ancient Iraq (Penguin)
- ^ "Akkad". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- ^ Deutscher, Guy (2007). Syntactic Change in Akkadian: The Evolution of Sentential Complementation. Oxford University Press US. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-19-953222-3.
- ^ Wolkstein, Diane; Kramer, Samuel Noah (1983). Inanna: Queen of Heaven and Earth: Her Stories and Hymns from Sumer. New York City, New York: Harper&Row Publishers. pp. 118–119. ISBN 978-0-06-090854-6.
- ^ Kramer, Samuel Noah (1963). The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 71–72. ISBN 978-0-226-45238-8.
- ^ N, Al-Zahery; M, Pala; V, Battaglia; V, Grugni; MA, Hamod; B, Hooshiar Kashani; A, Olivieri; A, Torroni; AS, Santachiara-Benerecetti; O, Semino (4 October 2011). "In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 11: 288. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-288. PMC 3215667. PMID 21970613.
- ^ Ghareeb, Edmund; Dougherty, Beth (2004). Historical Dictionary of Iraq. Historical Dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East. 44. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 156. ISBN 9780810865686.
- ^ Kubba, Sam (2011). The Iraqi Marshlands and the Marsh Arabs: The Ma'dan, Their Culture and the Environment. Reading, England: Itahca Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-86372-333-9.
- ^ Georges Roux – Ancient Iraq
- ^ "Seleucia on the Tigris". Umich.edu. 29 December 1927. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ Rollinger, Robert (2006). "The terms "Assyria" and "Syria" again" (PDF). Journal of Near Eastern Studies 65 (4): 284–287. doi:10.1086/511103.
- ^ "The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, HATRA Iraq". www.perseus.tufts.edu.
- ^ electricpulp.com. "HATRA – Encyclopaedia Iranica".
- ^ "Largest Cities Through History". Geography.about.com. 6 April 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Arts, Learning, and Knowledge (Conclusion)". Acs.ucalgary.ca. Archived from the original on 15 August 2009.
- ^ "Battuta's Travels: Part Three – Persia and Iraq". Sfusd.k12.ca.us. Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ Frazier, Ian (25 April 2005). "Annals of history: Invaders: Destroying Baghdad". The New Yorker. p. 4. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- ^ "Irrigation Systems, Ancient". Waterencyclopedia.com. 11 January 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Black Death)". The University of Calgary. Archived from the original on 31 January 2009.
- ^ Kathryn Jean Lopez (14 September 2005). "Q&A with John Kelly on The Great Mortality on National Review Online". Nationalreview.com. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- ^ "Tamerlane – Timur the Lame Biography". Asianhistory.about.com. 15 February 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ "14th century annihilation of Iraq". Mert Sahinoglu. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ ^ Nestorians, or Ancient Church of the East at Encyclopædia Britannica
- ^ "Iraq – The Ottoman Period, 1534–1918". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ Reidar Visser (2005). Basra, the Failed Gulf State: Separatism And Nationalism in Southern Iraq. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 19. ISBN 978-3-8258-8799-5. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ Population crises and cycles in history A review of the book Population Crises and Population cycles by Claire Russell and W.M.S. Russell. valerieyule.com.au. ISBN 978-0-9504066-5-7. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ p.8 Archived 17 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ جدلية, Jadaliyya-. "'Lines Drawn on an Empty Map': Iraq's Borders and the Legend of the Artificial State (Part 1)". Jadaliyya - جدلية. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- ^ جدلية, Jadaliyya-. "'Lines Drawn on an Empty Map': Iraq's Borders and the Legend of the Artificial State (Part 2)". Jadaliyya - جدلية. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- ^ Tripp, Charles (2002). A History of Iraq. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52900-6. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ Luedke, Tilman (2008). "Iraq". Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195176322.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-517632-2. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- ^ Wilson, Jeremy (1998). Lawrence of Arabia: The Authorised Biography of T. E. Lawrence. Stroud: Sutton. ISBN 978-0750918770. The exploits of T.E. Lawrence as British liaison officer in the Arab Revolt, recounted in his work Seven Pillars of Wisdom, made him one of the most famous Englishmen of his generation. This biography explores his life and career including his correspondence with writers, artists and politicians.
- ^ "Cox, Sir Percy Zachariah (1864–1937), diplomatist and colonial administrator". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32604. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- ^ Liam Anderson; Gareth Stansfield (2005). The Future of Iraq: Dictatorship, Democracy, Or Division?. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4039-7144-9. Sunni control over the levels of power and the distribution of the spoils of office has had predictable consequences- a simmering resentment on the part of the Shi'a...
- ^ a b Williams, Timothy (2 December 2009). "In Iraq's African Enclave, Color Is Plainly Seen". The New York Times.
- ^ Ongsotto et.al. Asian History Module-based Learning Ii' 2003 Ed. p69. 
- ^ Lyman, p.23
- ^ Cleveland, William (2016). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
- ^ Karsh, Efraim (2002). The Iran–Iraq War, 1980–1988. Oxford, Oxfordshire: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1841763712.
- ^ Hardy, Roger (22 September 2005). "The Iran–Iraq war: 25 years on". BBC News. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ S-RES-487(1981) Security Council Resolution 487 (1981)". United Nations. Retrieved 19 June 2011., "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 June 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ Jonathan Steele (7 June 2002). "The Bush doctrine makes nonsense of the UN charter". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2010, https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2002/jun/07/britainand911.usa
- ^ Tyler, Patrick E. "Officers Say U.S. Aided Iraq in War Despite Use of Gas" New York Times 18 August 2002.
- ^ "The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds A Middle East Watch Report". Human Rights Watch. 14 August 2006. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- ^ Black, George (July 1993) . Genocide in Iraq: The Anfal Campaign against the Kurds / Western Asia Watch. New York • Washington • Los Angeles • London: Human Rights Watch. ISBN 978-1-56432-108-4. Retrieved 10 February 2007.
- ^ Hiltermann, Joost R. (February 1994) . Bureaucracy of Repression: The Iraqi Government in Its Own Words / Western Asia Watch. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 978-1-56432-127-5. Archived from the original on 28 October 2006. Retrieved 10 February 2007.
- ^ "Charges against Saddam dropped as genocide trial resumes". Agence France-Presse. 8 January 2007. Archived from the original on 1 January 2009.
- ^ Hiltermann, J. R. (2007). A Poisonous Affair: America, Iraq, and the Gassing of Halabja. Cambridge University Press. pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-0-521-87686-5. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ Rick Atkinson (1993). Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 284–285. ISBN 978-0-395-71083-8. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ "The Ameriya Shelter – St. Valentine's Day Massacre". Uruknet.de. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ "'Smarter' bombs still hit civilians". Christian Science Monitor. 22 October 2002. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ Ian Black (22 August 2007). "'Chemical Ali'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ Iraq surveys show 'humanitarian emergency'UNICEF Newsline 12 August 1999
- ^ Rubin, Michael (December 2001). "Sanctions on Iraq: A Valid Anti-American Grievance?". 5 (4). Middle East Review of International Affairs: 100–115. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012.
- ^ Spagat, Michael (September 2010). "Truth and death in Iraq under sanctions" (PDF). Significance. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
- ^ Dyson, Tim; Cetorelli, Valeria (1 July 2017). "Changing views on child mortality and economic sanctions in Iraq: a history of lies, damned lies and statistics". BMJ Global Health. 2 (2): e000311. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000311. ISSN 2059-7908. PMC 5717930. PMID 29225933.
- ^ "Saddam Hussein said sanctions killed 500,000 children. That was 'a spectacular lie.'". Washington Post. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- ^ "Bush's "16 Words" on Iraq & Uranium: He May Have Been Wrong But He Wasn't Lying". FactCheck.org. 26 July 2004. Archived from the original on 5 March 2010.
- ^ Borger, Julian (7 October 2004). "There were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq". guardian.co.uk. London: Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 28 April 2008.
- ^ "John Simpson: 'The Iraq memories I can't rid myself of'". BBC News. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- ^ Pfiffner, James (February 2010). "US Blunders in Iraq: De-Baathification and Disbanding the Army" (PDF). Intelligence and National Security. 25 (1): 76–85. doi:10.1080/02684521003588120. S2CID 153595453. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- ^ Gordon, Michael R. (17 March 2008). "Fateful Choice on Iraq Army Bypassed Debate". New York Times.
- ^ " US Blunders in Iraq" "Intelligence and National Security Vol. 25, No. 1, 76–85, February 2010"
- ^ "Can the joy last?". The Economist. 3 September 2011.
- ^ "U.S. cracks down on Iraq death squads". CNN. 24 July 2006.
- ^ Jackson, Patrick (30 May 2007). "Who are Iraq's Mehdi Army?". BBC News. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- ^ http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0320/p09s01-coop.html
- ^ Thomas Ricks (2006) Fiasco: 414
- ^ "Saddam death 'ends dark chapter'". BBC News. 30 December 2006. Retrieved 18 August 2007.
- ^ "Saddam Hussein's Two Co-Defendants Hanged in Iraq". Bloomberg L.P. 15 January 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 18 August 2007.
- ^ Qassim Abdul-Zahra (20 March 2007). "Saddam's Former Deputy Hanged in Iraq". Abcnews.go.com. Archived from the original on 23 March 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
- ^ Ferguson, Barbara (11 September 2007). "Petraeus Says Iraq Troop Surge Working". Arab News. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
- ^ Iraq Bill Demands U.S. Troop WithdrawArchived 14 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine Associated Press, Fox News, 10 May 2007
- ^ BBC NEWS 21 February 2007, Blair announces Iraq troops cut
- ^ Al-Jazeera ENGLISH, 22 February 2007, Blair announces Iraq troop pullout
- ^ "151,000 civilians killed since Iraq invasion". The Guardian. 10 January 2008.
- ^ "Civilian deaths may top 1 million, poll data indicate". Los Angeles Times. 14 September 2007.
- ^ "US soldiers leave Iraq's cities". BBC News. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
- ^ "After years of war, Iraqis hit by frenzy of crime". Associated Press.
- ^ "Violence Grows in Iraq as American troops withdraw". Fox News. 9 May 2009.
- ^ "Iraqi civilian deaths drop to lowest level of war". Reuters. 30 November 2009. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013.
- ^ Sly, Liz (12 February 2011). "Egyptian revolution sparks protest movement in democratic Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- ^ Salem, Paul (29 November 2012). "INSIGHT: Iraq's Tensions Heightened by Syria Conflict". Middle East Voices (Voice of America). Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- ^ "Iraq Sunni protests in Anbar against Nouri al-Maliki". BBC News. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- ^ "Protests engulf west Iraq as Anbar rises against Maliki". BBC News. 2 January 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- ^ "Suicide bomber kills 32 at Baghdad funeral march". Fox News. Associated Press. 27 January 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- ^ "Iraq crisis: Battle grips vital Baiji oil refinery". BBC. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- ^ a b Spencer Ackerman and agencies (11 August 2014). "Kerry slaps down Maliki after he accuses Iraqi president of violating constitution". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- ^ Salama, Vivian (13 August 2014). "Tensions high in Iraq as support for new PM grows". Stripes. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- ^ "White House hails al-Maliki departure as 'major step forward'". The Times. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- ^ "Iraq's new prime minister-designate vows to fight corruption, terrorism". Fox News. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- ^ The Revenge of Geography, p 353, Robert D. Kaplan – 2012
- ^ "Report: ISIL losing in Iraq, Syria; gaining in Libya". Al Jazeera. 1 June 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- ^ "Nearly 19,000 civilians killed in Iraq in 21-month period, report says". CNN. 19 January 2016. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016.
- ^ "The world's lack of outrage over tens of thousands of civilian deaths in Mosul is shameful". The Independent. 21 July 2017.
- ^ "The UN has blamed "Islamic State" in the genocide of the Yazidis". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 19 March 2015.
- ^ "In Iraq, terrorism's victims go unnamed". CNN. 12 January 2017.
- ^ "US admits it conducted Mosul air strike 'at location' where '200' civilians died Archived 1 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine". The Independent. 26 March 2017.
- ^ Alkhshali, Hamdi; Karadsheh, Jomana (31 March 2015). "Iraq: Parts of Tikrit taken back from ISIS". CNN.
- ^ "US praises role of Iranian-backed Shiite militias in Baiji operation". The Long War Journal.
- ^ Arango, Tim (13 November 2015). "Sinjar Victory Bolsters Kurds, but Could Further Alienate U.S. From Iraq". The New York Times.
- ^ "Iraq Claims a Key Victory Over ISIS in Ramadi, Seizes Government Complex". NBC News.
- ^ "Iraqi commander: Fallujah 'fully liberated' from ISIS". Fox News. Fox News Network.
- ^ Ahmed Aboulenein (10 December 2017). "Iraq holds victory parade after defeating Islamic State". Reuters. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- ^ "92% of Iraqi Kurds back independence from Baghdad, election commission says". France 24. 27 September 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
- ^ "Iraq court rules no region can secede after Kurdish independence bid". Reuters. 6 November 2017.
- ^ "Turkey will drain 'terror swamp' in Iraq's Qandil, Erdogan says". Reuters. 11 June 2018.
- ^ "Cleric Moqtada al-Sadr's bloc wins Iraq election". Reuters. 12 May 2018.
- ^ Al Jazeera and News Agencies. (5 October 2019). "Iraq protests: All the latest updates." Al Jazeera website Retrieved 5 October 2019.
- ^ (in Dutch) 'VS doden topgeneraal Iran, vrees voor escalatie groeit' (US kill top general Iran, fear for escalation grows). NRC Handelsblad, 3 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- ^ "Iraqi spy chief Mustafa Al Kadhimi rumoured to be prime ministerial contender". The National (Abu Dhabi). Retrieved 31 January 2020.
- ^ "Iraq names its third prime minister in 10 weeks". Reuters. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
- ^ Dinerstein, Eric; Olson, David; Joshi, Anup; Vynne, Carly; Burgess, Neil D.; Wikramanayake, Eric; Hahn, Nathan; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hedao, Prashant; Noss, Reed; Hansen, Matt; Locke, Harvey; Ellis, Erle C; Jones, Benjamin; Barber, Charles Victor; Hayes, Randy; Kormos, Cyril; Martin, Vance; Crist, Eileen; Sechrest, Wes; Price, Lori; Baillie, Jonathan E. M.; Weeden, Don; Suckling, Kierán; Davis, Crystal; Sizer, Nigel; Moore, Rebecca; Thau, David; Birch, Tanya; Potapov, Peter; Turubanova, Svetlana; Tyukavina, Alexandra; de Souza, Nadia; Pintea, Lilian; Brito, José C.; Llewellyn, Othman A.; Miller, Anthony G.; Patzelt, Annette; Ghazanfar, Shahina A.; Timberlake, Jonathan; Klöser, Heinz; Shennan-Farpón, Yara; Kindt, Roeland; Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars; Voge, Maianna; Al-Shammari, Khalaf F.; Saleem, Muhammad (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
- ^ USAID. "Climate Risk Profile: Iraq". Climatelinks. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
- ^ a b c "Guide to political groups in Iraq". BBC News. 11 November 2010.
- ^ "Failed States Index Scores 2018". fundforpeace.org. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010.
- ^ "The Failed States Index 2010". fundforpeace.org.
- ^ "Freedom in the World 2013" (PDF). Freedom House. 2013. p. 21. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ "The Failed States Index 2013". fundforpeace.org. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015.
- ^ "Iraq's Incumbent PM Nouri Al-Maliki Grows More Isolated As He Clings To Power". Huffington Post. 13 August 2014. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- ^ "Abadi agonistes". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
- ^ Wagner, Thomas (25 October 2005). "Iraq's Constitution Adopted by Voters". ABC News. Archived from the original on 18 February 2006. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- ^ "Iraq Personal Status Law of 1959 (ABA Translation)" (PDF). American Bar Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ "Women In Personal Status Laws: Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria" (PDF). SHS Papers in Women's Studies/ Gender Research, No. 4. UNESCO. July 2005.
- ^ "Iraq, Republic of". Law.emory.edu. 16 March 1983. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- ^ Fox, Jonathan (2008). A World Survey of Religion and the State. Cambridge University Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-139-47259-3. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ "Religion, Law, and Iraq's Personal Status Code". Islamopedia Online. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ "Bremer will reject Islam as source for law". NBC News. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- ^ "Shia fume over Bremer sharia threat". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- ^ Carroll, Rory; Borger, Julian (22 August 2005). "US relents on Islamic law to reach Iraq deal". London: The Guardian, 21 August 2005.
- ^ "Annex H 2010 Updates". Home.comcast.net. January 2010. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012.
- ^ Swanson, Daniel M. (3 April 2008) Coalition team assists in building combat forceArchived 23 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, U.S. Department of Defense.
- ^ a b c d "The New Iraqi Security Forces". 20 April 2006. Archived from the original on 18 July 2006. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- ^ Magee, Thomas M. (July–August 2008). "Fostering Iraqi Army Logistics Success". Army Logistician. 40 (4). Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- ^ "Iraq Weekly Status Report 21 March 2007"(PDF). Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs US Department of State. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ "Iraqis take on military training from Aust". The Islander. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
- ^ "US-Iraq SOFA" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
- ^ "Strategic Framework Agreement" (PDF). p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- ^ "Iraq Joins the Chemical Weapons Convention". The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons -Opcw.org. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ Muhanad Mohammed (19 December 2012). "Iran, Iraq seek diplomatic end to border dispute". Reuters. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- ^ "TURKEY:Relations with Iraq become explosive". Ipsnews.net. 30 October 2007.
- ^ "24 soldiers killed in attack in Turkey". CNN. 19 October 2011.
- ^ "Iraqi parliament votes to expel US troops". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- ^ "US to send more troops to Middle East". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- ^ "Pompeo Threatens to Close U.S. Embassy in Iraq Unless Militias Halt Attacks". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- ^ "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death". The Washington Post. 24 February 2014.
- ^ a b c "Unemployment Threatens Democracy in Iraq" (PDF). USAID Iraq. January 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2013.
- ^ "Iraq's economy: Past, present, future". Reliefweb.int. 3 June 2003. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- ^ "G7, Paris Club Agree on Iraq Debt Relief". 21 November 2004. Archived from the original on 21 November 2004. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ Coalition Provisional Authority. "Iraq Currency Exchange". Archived from the original on 15 May 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2007.
- ^ Odio, Sam. Jim Cramer on the Iraqi Dinar. dinarprofits.com
- ^ a b c Sarah Bailey and Rachel Atkinson (19 November 2012). "Humanitarian action in Iraq: putting the pieces together". Overseas Development Institute. Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- ^ "World Proved Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas, Most Recent Estimates". Energy Information Administration. 3 March 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- ^ "Iraqi oil reserves estimated at 143B barrels". CNN. 4 October 2010.
- ^ "Iraq's flood of 'cheap oil' could rock world markets". The Washington Times. 3 February 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- ^ "U.S. Electricity Imports from and Electricity Exports to Canada and Mexico Data for 2008". 26 July 2010. Archived from the original on 9 November 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- ^ "Iraq facts and figures". OPEC. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- ^ "OPEC Announces it Will Absorb The Increase in Iraq's". Iraqidinar123. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- ^ a b Calamur, Krishnadev (19 March 2018). "Oil Was Supposed to Rebuild Iraq". The Atlantic. ISSN 1072-7825. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
- ^ "Iraqi Minister Resigns Over Electricity Shortages". 22 June 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
- ^ Lionel Beehner and Greg Bruno, Backgrounder: Why Iraqis Cannot Agree on an Oil Law, Council on Foreign Relations (last updated 22 February 2008).
- ^ Ahmed Rasheed, Iraq oil law deal festers as crisis drags on, Reuters (26 January 2012).
- ^ Glanz, James (12 May 2007). "Billions in Oil Missing in Iraq, US Study Says". New York Times.
- ^ AlJazeeraEnglish (29 July 2010). "Inside Story – Iraq's missing billions". YouTube. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ "Iraq Country Profile". Business Anti-Corruption Portal.
- ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (19 June 2008). "Deals With Iraq Are Set to Bring Oil Giants Back". The New York Times.
- ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (10 September 2008). "Iraq Cancels Six No-Bid Oil Contracts". The New York Times.
- ^ "Oil firms awarded Iraq contracts". English.aljazeera.net. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ a b ""BP group wins Iraq oil contract", Al Jazeera English, 30 June 2009". English.aljazeera.net. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ Wong, Edward (28 June 2011) "China Opens Oil Field in Iraq". The New York Times.
- ^ Iraq123 News (1 October 2013) "Development is Main Dependent on Export of Iraq". Iraq123 News.
- ^ The Wall Street Journal(14 March 2014) "Iraq's Oil Output Surges to Highest Level in Over 30 Years". The Wall Street Journal.
- ^ "Tensions mount between Baghdad and Kurdish region as Kurds seize oil fields". Washington Post. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- ^ a b UN Iraq Joint Analysis and Policy Unit (March 2013). "Water in Iraq Factsheet" (PDF). Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- ^ Smith, Matt (16 September 2013). "Iraq faces chronic housing shortage, needs foreign investment -minister". Reuters.
- ^ a b Charles Philip Issawi (1988). The Fertile Crescent, 1800–1914: A Documentary Economic History. Oxford University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-19-504951-0. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ "Population Census". Central Organization for Statistics. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ "Population Of Iraq For The Years 1977 – 2011 (000)". Central Organization for Statistics. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ "Iraqi population reaches about 35 million". Aswat Al Iraq. 27 April 2013. Archived from the original on 14 January 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- ^ "Minorities in Iraq Pushed to the brink of existence" (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service. 2015. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- ^ a b "Turkey and the Iraqi Kurds: Conflict or Cooperation?" (PDF). International Crisis Group. 2008. p. 16. Archived from the original(PDF) on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- ^ Sharp, Heather (3 March 2003). "BBC News – Iraq's 'devastated' Marsh Arabs". Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- ^ "Chechens in the Middle East: Between Original and Host Cultures". Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. 18 September 2002. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ McCoy, John (2003). Geo-data: the world geographical encyclopedia. p. 281.
- ^ Jastrow, Otto O. (2006), "Iraq", in Versteegh, Kees; Eid, Mushira; Elgibali, Alaa; Woidich, Manfred; Zaborski, Andrzej (eds.), Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, 2, Brill Publishers, p. 414, ISBN 978-90-04-14474-3
- ^ Shanks, Kelsey (2016), Education and Ethno-Politics: Defending Identity in Iraq, Routledge, p. 57, ISBN 978-1-317-52043-6
- ^ http://citypopulation.de/Iraq-Cities.html
- ^ https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/06/18/the-sunni-shia-divide-where-they-live-what-they-believe-and-how-they-view-each-other/
- ^ "Iraq's unique place in the Sunni-Shia divide – Pew Research Center". Pew Research Center. 18 June 2014.
- ^ "Shias dominate Sunnis in the new Iraq". CBC news World. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- ^ "IRAQ: Christians live in fear of death squads". IRIN Middle East. IRIN. 19 October 2006. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- ^ Harrison, Frances (13 March 2008). "Christians besieged in Iraq". BBC. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
- ^ "Iraq Christians flee as Islamic State takes Qaraqosh". BBC News. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ "Population 'under attack', Radio Free Europe". Rferl.org. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- ^ Mardean Isaac (24 December 2011). "The desperate plight of Iraq's Assyrians and other minorities". the Guardian. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^ "Analysis: Iraq's Christians under attack". BBC News. 2 August 2004. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- ^ Bowcott, Owen; Jones, Sam (8 August 2014). "Isis persecution of Iraqi Christians has become genocide, says religious leaders". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- ^ McQuade, Romsin (30 July 2014). "Iraq's persecuted Assyrian Christians are in limbo". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- ^ Stone, Andrea (27 July 2003). "Embattled Jewish community down to last survivors". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ On Point: The United States Army In Operation Iraqi Freedom – Page 265, Gregory Fontenot – 2004
- ^ http://www.chiite.fr/en/shirk_05.html
- ^ "Warnings of Iraq refugee crisis". BBC News. 22 January 2007. Retrieved 18 August 2007.
- ^ "A displacement crisis". 30 March 2007. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- ^ Lochhead, Carolyn (16 January 2007). "40% of middle class believed to have fled crumbling nation". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- ^ Leyne, Jon (24 January 2007). "Doors closing on fleeing Iraqis". BBC News. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- ^ "Plight of refugees worsens as Syria, Jordan impose restrictions". The New Humanitarian. 17 June 2007.
- ^ Black, Ian (22 November 2007). "Iraqi refugees start to head home" (PDF). The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- ^ "Will Iraq's 1.3 million refugees ever be able to go home?". The Independent. London. 16 December 2011.
- ^ "Christian areas targeted in Baghdad attacks". BBC. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2010.
- ^ Sabah, Zaid; Jervis, Rick (23 March 2007). "Christians, targeted and suffering, flee Iraq". USA Today.
- ^ "USCIS – Iraqi Refugee ProcessingFact Sheet". Uscis.gov. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
- ^ "Iraqi refugees flee war-torn Syria and seek safety back home". UNHCR. 18 June 2013.
- ^ "Demographic Data of Registered Population". UNHCR. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ "Health". SESRIC. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ "Demography". SESRIC. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ "Life expectancy at birth, total (Iraq)". SESRIC. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ "High-Tech Healthcare in Iraq, Minus the Healthcare". CorpWatch. 8 January 2007. Archived from the original on 17 July 2007.
- ^ a b c d de Santisteban, Agustin Velloso (2005). "Sanctions, War, Occupation and the De-Development of Education in Iraq". International Review of Education. 51 (1): 59–71. Bibcode:2005IREdu..51...59S. doi:10.1007/s11159-005-0587-8. S2CID 144395039.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab acad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at "THE COST AND BENEFITS OF EDUCATION IN IRAQ" (PDF). www.unicef.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 August 2018.
- ^ a b Hodges, Lauren (11 September 2014). "UNESCO Director Concerned About New School Year in Iraq". NPR. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- ^ a b Hawkins, Peter (27 May 2017). "Iraq must invest in education to secure its future". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
- ^ a b Johnson, Ian (2016). "International Assistance and National and Individual Contributions in the Development of Education for Library, Information and Archival Studies: Some Evidence from a Case Study". Libri. 66: 3–10. doi:10.1515/libri-2015-0110. hdl:10059/1611. S2CID 147693908.
- ^ "Literacy rates of 15–24 years old, both sexes, percentage". Millennium Development Goals Indicators. United Nations. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- ^ "Iraq". Ranking Web of Universities. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- ^ Touma, Habib Hassan (1996). The Music of the Arabs. Amadeus Press. ISBN 978-1574670813.
- ^ "UNESCO - Intangible Heritage Home". ich.unesco.org.
- ^ a b c d e Kojaman. "Jewish Role in Iraqi Music". Retrieved 9 September 2007.
- ^ Manasseh, Sara (February 2004). "An Iraqi samai of Salim Al-Nur" (PDF). Newsletter (3). London: Arts and Humanities Research Board Research Centre for Cross-Cultural Music and Dance Performance. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2005. Retrieved 9 September 2007.
- ^ Al-Marashi, Ibrahim (2007). "Toward an Understanding of Media Policy and Media Systems in Iraq". Center for Global Communications Studies, Occasional Paper Series. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- ^ a b c d e f g h "Foods of Iraq: Enshrined With A Long History". ThingsAsian. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- ^ BBC News – Iraq 10 years on: In numbers. Bbc.co.uk (20 March 2013). Retrieved on 8 December 2013.
- ^ Iraq to build and launch a $600 million strategic satellite into space | (-: One Happy Iraq :-). Onehappyiraq.wordpress.com (2 October 2013). Retrieved on 8 December 2013.
- ^ "FT – Undersea Cable Aids Iraq's Slow Development". globalcurrencyreset.net. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
- ^ Ministry of Communications. Moc.gov.iq (4 February 2013). Retrieved on 15 November 2015.
- Bosworth, C. E. (1998). "ʿERĀQ-E ʿAJAM(Ī)". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VIII, Fasc. 5. p. 538.
- Shadid, Anthony 2005. Night Draws Near. Henry Holt and Co., NY, US ISBN 0-8050-7602-6
- Hanna Batatu, "The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq", Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978
- Charles Glass, "The Northern Front: A Wartime Diary"' Saqi Books, London, 2004, ISBN 0-86356-770-3
- A Dweller in Mesopotamia, being the adventures of an official artist in the garden of Eden, by Donald Maxwell, 1921. (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format)
- By Desert Ways to Baghdad, by Louisa Jebb (Mrs. Roland Wilkins) With illustrations and a map, 1908 (1909 ed). (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format)
- "Iraqi Constitution" (PDF). Ministry of Interior – General Directorate For Nationality. 30 January 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Benjamin Busch, "'Today is Better than Tomorrow'. A Marine returns to a divided Iraq", Harper's Magazine, October 2014, pp. 29–44.
- Global Arms Exports to Iraq 1960–1990, Rand Research report
Last edited on 14 April 2021, at 03:42
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.