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Iraqi Federal Police Emblem
The current Iraqi Police has some links with the pre-war Iraqi police service. The prewar police service was low in repression priority and was professional. Therefore, the police was expected to remain cohesive and be a useful instrument also after the invasion.
It was intended to form the basis for the police force of the new Iraq, but the civil disorder caused this project to be abandoned.
Following the emergency stipend payment, some police came back especially in Baghdad and the U.S. Army military police
conducted emergency training.
At the same time, in the south the British forces began to establish local police forces in coordination with Shiite religious leaders.
In the north, Kurdish security forces
did not experience any interruption, and in Mosul
a thousand former police officers were hired by Major General David Petraeus
in order to maintain the public order.
In the meantime, the Coalition Provisional Authority
worked with the renewed Ministry of Interior in order to purge Baathist officials (7,000 police officers fired by Bernard Kerik
only in Baghdad) and to establish a police forces in short terms.
In the first four months, the first training course was launched and over 4,000 officers were trained.
In 2003 recruitment, applicants were mostly former soldiers and police officers who served under the Baathist rule. At the end of 2003, Iraqi Police formally totalled 50,000 officers.
Organization and oversight
Police river boat on the Tigris
- Iraqi Police Service: Uniformed organisation tasked with the general patrol of Iraq's cities and incident response
- Federal Police: Paramilitary organisation designed to bridge the gap between the police and the army. It responds to domestic incidents beyond the capabilities of the IPS, but not severe enough for the Iraqi Army. The FP originated as the Special Police (SP) on Aug. 15, 2004 to provide national rapid-response capability to counter armed insurgency, large-scale civil disobedience and riots. In 2005, the Ministry of the Interior consolidated its ad-hoc Police Battalions into the Emergency Response Unit (a SWAT unit), the 8th Police mechanised brigade (3 motorised battalions), the Public Order Division (4 brigades/12 battalions), and the Special Police Commando Division (4 brigades/12 battalions).  It became the Iraq National Police (NP) March 30, 2006, and on August 1, 2009 the NP was renamed as the Federal Police.
By 2012-13 there were four Federal Police Divisions, spread out around the country. The 1st and 2nd Motorized Divisions were headquartered in Baghdad and created out of the former Commando Division and the Public Order Division.
The 3rd Federal Police Division, with its headquarters in Mosul
, collapsed in the ISIS 2014 Northern Iraq offensive
by 9 June.
The 4th Division was headquartered in Basra. Some reinforcing units, such as the 9th Brigade, 4th Federal Police Division, also withered once deployed to the front lines.
: Remaining supporting organisations, primarily the Department of Border Enforcement (tasked with securing Iraq's borders and ports of entry
) and the Iraqi Prison Service. The Facilities Protection Service
protects buildings owned by the Iraqi government.
The Iraqi Police Service uniform consists of a long-sleeved, light-blue shirt with a blue brassard
on the left arm with an embroidered Iraqi flag
and "Iraqi Police" embossed in English
, black or light-blue trousers or blue combat trousers similar to those of the United States Navy
. They wear a dark-blue baseball cap
with "POLICE" in white letters or body armour and a PASGT helmet
Federal Police wear a black-and-blue camouflage uniform similar to the U.S. Army Combat Uniform
Universal Camouflage Pattern,
which includes a baseball cap, body armour and PASGT helmet. FP uniforms are issued when an officer has completed training; officers not yet trained wear a variety of uniforms, including woodland camouflage
. FP officers are organised into brigades which cover geographic areas. Rank insignia for the IP is nearly identical to that of the Iraqi Army, except that the shoulder boards are usually dark blue.
Officers ranks and ranks of NCOs and constables are the same that of Iraqi army, from highest to lowest, with symbol on epaulette, as below:
An Iraqi police officer armed with a Tabuk sniper rifle.
The Iraqi Police has faced a number of problems since it was reformed by the Coalition Provisional Authority
after the fall
. It became the target of fighters from inside and outside Iraq; thousands of officers have been killed by gunfire and bombings by Iraqi insurgents
, foreign terrorists and, in some cases, friendly fire
from Coalition troops.
An estimated 4,250 Iraqi police officers were killed from January 2005 and 4 March 2006. Due to high
unemployment in Iraq, many young Iraqi men have volunteered to join the police forces. A number of recruits have been killed by suicide bombers
and suicide car bombs
whilst queueing at police stations.
The IP has also been infiltrated
by insurgents, who use access to privileged information, training and weapons for their own motives. Many police stations
have been attacked,
had weapons stolen from them and have been occupied by opponents of the Iraqi government; as a result, many police officers have abandoned their posts.
As of October 7, 2006, 12,000 Iraqi Police deserted and 4,000 were killed.
On 17 August 2016, a market owner was killed by a police officer after a brawl began when the market owner "refused to back his vehicle" in Baghdad.
regime began to increase the role of Islam in government during the early 1990s, with required religious education in the schools, honor killings
and religious committees to punish those deemed in violation of traditional mores (such as adultery, fornication and homosexuality).
The Iraqi constitution stipulates Islam as the official religion, enacted laws must conform to sharia
and provisions for civil rights and liberties are in accordance with public mores.
Many members of the Iraqi police and Interior Ministry have ties to the Islamic fundamentalist Badr Brigade
, which have been given leeway to punish those suspected of immorality. In Basra
, police guarding a local park reportedly made no attempt to stop an armed group from severely beating two women and shooting a male Iraqi friend of theirs to death.
The Iraqi government has been accused of using (or allowing) the police and other groups to carry out sectarian killings and kidnappings of Sunni
Iraqis. In December 2005, US troops found 625 inmates held in "very overcrowded" conditions in a Baghdad Interior Ministry building. Twelve of the prisoners reportedly had signs of torture and malnutrition.
The story gave credence to the accusations, sowing further distrust of the police force. A report into the findings at the building was promised by Iraqi president Ibrahim Jaafari
at the end of December 2005, but as of 4 May 2006 no report was issued.
The United States Department of State
released a 2006 human rights
report accusing the Iraqi police of widespread atrocities.
In October of that year, the Iraqi government dismantled a police brigade with connections to sectarian death squads
. The dismantled brigade was transferred to a US base for retraining. Other police brigades will be investigated for links to death squads.
The number of police is difficult to estimate, since local police chiefs may exaggerate their numbers to obtain increased funding for their stations and people drift in and out of service. Although the total Ministry of Interior payroll exceeds 300,000, many are off-duty at any given time. As of mid-2007, the National Police Forces employed about 25,000 officers.
The number is somewhat misleading, because one-third to one-half of the NP are on leave at any given time.
Iraqi Interior Minister Jawad al-Bulani
announced that as of December 24, 2005, 12,000 police officers in Iraq died in the line of duty since the 2003 US-led invasion.
Large-scale operations were conducted by coalition forces to assist in policing and train the Iraqi Police (IP) and security forces. Police transition teams (PTTs) are US military-police
squads deployed to Iraqi Police stations. The teams conduct joint patrols with the IP, share station defense and gather station information and counter-terrorism
intelligence. The joint patrols of the PTTs have helped curb violence, increasing respect for Iraq's police force. These duties were later performed by United States Air Force Security Forces
members. An International Police Liaison Officer (IPLO), an experienced US police officer, accompanied most of the transition teams to aid post-academy training of the IP.
National Police Transition Teams (NPTT) are 11-man military transition teams
embedded in Iraqi Police units at the battalion, brigade, division and corps
levels. These teams are supplied by the US Army and the US Marine Corps. Like the PTTs, each team is assisted by an IPLO and one to six local interpreters.
Members of the Iraqi Police use the Glock
19 and HS2000
handgun, and may carry a shotgun
, Type 81
rifle on patrol. Iraqi Federal Police have also been seen using the Croatian-made HS Produkt VHS
-2 bullpup carbine during military operations against ISIS in northern Iraq.
For marine operations, the police are equipped with Safe Boat International 230 T-Top patrol boats.
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Last edited on 15 April 2021, at 10:03
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