is a political and popular movement in which its members claim, reclaim (usually on behalf of their nation
), and seek to occupy territory which they consider "lost" (or "unredeemed"), based on history or legend.
The scope of this definition is occasionally subject to terminological disputes about underlying claims of expansionism
, owing to lack of clarity on the historical bounds of putative nations or peoples
An 1887 painting depicting schoolchildren in France being taught about the province of Alsace-Lorraine
, lost in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War
, which is depicted by black coloring on a map of France.
This term also often refers to Revanchism
but the difference between this two terms is, according to Merriam-Webster, the word "Irredentism" means the reunion of politically or ethnically displaced territory, along with a population having the same national identity. On the other hand, "Revanchism" evolved from the French word "revanche" which means revenge. In the political realm, "Revanchism" refers to such a theory that intends to seek revenge for a lost territory.
The word (from Italian irredento
for "unredeemed") was coined in Italy
from the phrase Italia irredenta
This originally referred to rule by Austria-Hungary
over territories mostly or partly inhabited by ethnic Italians
, such as Trentino
during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
An area liable to be targeted by a claim is sometimes called an "irredenta".
A common way to express a claim to adjacent territories on the grounds of historical or ethnic association is by using the adjective "Greater" as a prefix to the country name. This conveys the image of national territory at its maximum conceivable extent with the country "proper" at its core. The use of "Greater" does not always convey an irredentistic meaning.
Current governmental irredentist claims
Argentina with all its territorial claims
Argentina has claimed land that used to be part of, or was associated with, the Spanish territory of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata
. The viceroyalty began to dissolve into separate independent states in the early 19th century, one of which later became Argentina.
The claims included, amongst other areas, parts of what in 2019 were Chile, Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay and Bolivia. Some of these claims have been settled although others are still active. The active claims include part of the land border with Chile, a section of the Antarctic continent, and the British South Atlantic islands, including the Falklands
The Argentine Nation ratifies its legitimate and non-prescribing sovereignty over the Malvinas, Georgias del Sur and Sandwich del Sur Islands and over the corresponding maritime and insular zones, as they are an integral part of the National territory. The recovery of these territories and the full exercise of sovereignty, respecting the way of life for its inhabitants and according to the principles of international law, constitute a permanent and unwavering goal of the Argentine people.
Bolivian irredentism over losses in the War of the Pacific
(1879–1884): "What once was ours, will be ours once again", and "Hold on rotos
(Chileans), because here come the Colorados of Bolivia"
The 2009 constitution of Bolivia
states that the country has an "unrenounceable right over the territory that gives it access to the Pacific Ocean
and its maritime space".
This is understood as territory that Bolivia and Peru ceded to Chile after the War of the Pacific
, which left Bolivia as a landlocked
However, the Communist Party of China
has never controlled Taiwan.
The ROC government formerly administered both mainland China and Taiwan but has been administering primarily Taiwan only since the Chinese Civil War
in which it fought the armed forces of the Communist Party of China. While the official name of the state remains the 'Republic of China', the country is commonly called 'Taiwan', as Taiwan makes up 99% of the controlled territory of the ROC
Article 4 of the Constitution of the Republic of China
originally stated that "[t]he territory of the Republic of China within its existing national boundaries shall not be altered except by a resolution of the National Assembly
". The National Assembly was abolished in 2005, whose power was inherited by the Legislative Yuan
. The Legislative Yuan holds the power to decide a referendum regarding changes to the ROC territory. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the Government of the Republic of China
on Taiwan actively maintained itself to be the legitimate ruler of the entirety of China, including both mainland China and Taiwan. As part of its current policy of maintaining the 'status quo
', the ROC has not renounced claims over the territories currently controlled by the PRC, Mongolia
and some Central Asian
states. However, the ROC does not actively pursue these claims in practice; the remaining claims that the ROC is actively seeking are of uninhabited islands: the Senkaku Islands
, whose sovereignty is also asserted by the PRC and Japan
. As far as the Paracel Islands
and Spratly Islands
in the South China Sea
are concerned, Vietnam has repeatedly claimed its sovereignty over these islands, rejecting the Chinese "Nine-dash line
Article 1 of the Constitution of the Union of the Comoros
begins: "The Union of the Comoros is a republic, composed of the autonomous islands of Mohéli
, and Grande Comore
." Mayotte, geographically a part of the Comoro Islands, was the only island of the four to vote against independence from France (independence losing 37%–63%) in the referendum held December 22, 1974. Mayotte is currently a department of the French Republic.
Map showing disputed areas of India
, literally Undivided India
or Whole India
, is an irredentist call to reunite Pakistan
(and for some, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Nepal and Bhutan) with India
to form an Undivided India
as it existed before partition
in 1947 during the British Raj
(and before that, during other periods of political unity in South Asia
when most of the Indian Subcontinent
was under the rule of one power, such as during the Maurya Empire
, the Gupta Empire
, the Mughal Empire
or the Maratha Empire
). The call for Akhanda Bharata
has often been raised by mainstream Indian
nationalistic cultural and political organizations such as the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
(RSS) and the Bharatiya Janata Party
Other major Indian political parties such as the Indian National Congress
, while maintaining positions against the partition of India on religious grounds, do not necessarily subscribe to a call to reunite South Asia in the form of Akhanda Bharata.
The region of Kashmir
in north India has been the issue of a territorial dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, the Kashmir conflict
. Multiple wars have been fought over the issue, the first one immediately upon independence and partition in 1947 itself. To stave off a Pakistani and tribal invasion, Maharaja Hari Singh
of the princely state
of Jammu and Kashmir
signed the Instrument of Accession
with India. Kashmir has remained divided in three parts, administered by India, Pakistan and China
, since then. On the basis of the instrument of accession, however, India continues to claim the entire Kashmir region as its integral part. All modern Indian political parties support the return of the entirety of Kashmir to India, and all official maps of India show the entire Kashmir (including parts under Pakistani or Chinese administration after 1947) as an integral part of India.
The idea of uniting former British and Dutch colonial possessions in Southeast Asia actually has its roots in the early 20th century, as the concept of Greater Malay (Melayu Raya
) was coined in British Malaya
espoused by students and graduates of Sultan Idris Training College for Malay Teachers
in the late 1920s.
Some political figures in Indonesia including Mohammad Yamin
revived the idea in the 1950s and named the political union concept as Greater Indonesia.
Israel and Palestine
The nation state of Israel was established in 1948. The United Nations General Assembly
passed U.N. Resolution 181, otherwise known as the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine
, with 72% of the valid votes. Eventually, Israeli independence was achieved following the liquidation of the former British-administered Mandate of Palestine, the departure of the British and the "Independence War" between the Jews in ex-Mandatory Palestine
and five Arab states' armies. The Jewish claim to Palestine as a Jewish homeland
can be seen as an example of irredentist reclamation of what is considered lost Jewish land by Zionists. These claims are based on ancestral inhabitance (and in some periods sovereignty) in the land and the cultural/religious significance of it in the Hebrew Bible
. The latter is particularly relevant to the Israeli claim to Jerusalem.
, as they are called in the Bible, were part of the ancient Kingdom of Israel
(designated the West Bank
by Jordan in 1947) and the Gaza Strip
, previously annexed by Jordan and occupied by Egypt respectively, were conquered and occupied by Israel in the Six-Day War
in 1967. Israel withdrew from Gaza in August 2005; Judea and Samaria (West Bank) remain under Israeli control. Israel has never explicitly claimed sovereignty over any part of the West Bank apart from East Jerusalem
, which it unilaterally annexed in 1980. However, the Israeli military supports and defends hundreds of thousands of Israeli citizens who have migrated
to the West Bank, incurring criticism by some who otherwise support Israel. The United Nations Security Council, the United Nations General Assembly, and some countries and international organizations continue to regard Israel as occupying Gaza. (See Israeli-Occupied Territories)
The United States did not recognize Israeli sovereignty over Jerusalem until 2017. In Jerusalem, the United States maintained two Consulates General as a diplomatic representation to the city of Jerusalem alone, separate from representation to the state of Israel. One of the Consulates General was established before the 1967 war, and the other in a recently constructed building on the Israeli side of Jerusalem. Moreover, Congress passed the Jerusalem Embassy Act
in 1995 that says the US shall move its embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, but allows the president
to delay the move every year if it is deemed contrary to national security interests. From 1995 to 2017, every president delayed the move. However, President Donald Trump
in December 2017 declared his intention to move the embassy to Jerusalem and in May 2018 the embassy officially did so.
The Philippines claim portions of North Borneo as part of its territory, which is administered as part of Malaysia
state. The Philippines' irredentist claim is based on the disputed territory being formerly administered by the Sultanate of Sulu
Japan claims the two southernmost islands of the Russian
-administered Kuril Islands
, the island chain north of Hokkaido
, annexed by the Soviet Union
following World War II. Japan also claims the South Korean
-administered Liancourt Rocks
, which are known as Takeshima in Japan and have been claimed since the end of the Second World War.
The North-East of the island has been a mainly Tamil
speaking region since the 13th century AD with many Hindu
temples existing for centuries on sites in close proximity to ancient Buddhist
ruins, which archaeologists associate with the ancient Sinhalese
. Sinhala Buddhist
nationalists in Sri Lanka
believe that these ancient Buddhist ruins should be reinstated and that the later Hindu temples should be removed or destroyed, despite being in use for centuries.
In 2020 the Sri Lankan government set up an Archaeological Taskforce with the powers to implement this project in the Eastern Province
Land belonging to Tamils in the North-East has been confiscated by the Sri Lankan government and given to recent Sinhalese settlers from the south, who believe that they are reclaiming land that only belongs to the Sinhalese.
The Guayana Esequiba
is a territory administered by Guyana
but claimed by Venezuela
. It was first included in the Viceroyalty of New Granada
and the Captaincy General of Venezuela
, but was later included in Essequibo
by the Dutch and in British Guiana
by the United Kingdom
. Originally, parts of what is now eastern Venezuela were included in the disputed area. This territory of 159,500 km2
(61,600 sq mi) is the subject of a long-running boundary dispute inherited from the colonial powers and complicated by the independence of Guyana in 1966. The status of the territory is subject to the Treaty of Geneva, which was signed by the United Kingdom, Venezuela and British Guiana governments on February 17, 1966. This treaty stipulates that the parties will agree to find a practical, peaceful and satisfactory solution to the dispute.
Major non-governmental irredentist claims
or Ethnic Albania
as called by the Albanian nationalists themselves,
is an irredentist concept of lands outside the borders of Albania
which are considered part of a greater national homeland by most Albanians,
based on claims on the present-day or historical presence of Albanian populations in those areas. The term incorporates claims to most of Kosovo
, as well as territories in the neighbouring countries Montenegro
, and North Macedonia
. Albanians themselves mostly use the term ethnic Albania
According to the Gallup Balkan Monitor
2010 report, the idea of a Greater Albania was supported by the majority of Albanians in Albania (63%), Kosovo (81%) and North Macedonia (53%).
In 2012, as part of the celebrations for the 100th Anniversary of the Independence of Albania
, Prime Minister Sali Berisha
spoke of "Albanian lands" stretching from Preveza
in Greece to Preševo
in Serbia, and from the Macedonian capital of Skopje
to the Montenegrin capital of Podgorica
, angering Albania's neighbours. The comments were also inscribed on a parchment that will be displayed at a museum in the city of Vlore, where the country's independence from the Ottoman Empire was declared in 1912.
Political map of Ireland, showing the state of Ireland and Northern Ireland
The Irish Free State
achieved partial independence with a dominion status under the British Empire in 1922. This state did not include Northern Ireland
, which comprised six counties in the north-east of the island of Ireland
which remained in the United Kingdom. When the Constitution of Ireland
was adopted in 1937 it provided that the name of the state is Ireland
; this is considered the time that the Republic of Ireland became a full-fledged independent nation. In the constitution Articles 2 and 3
provided that "[t]he national territory consists of the whole island of Ireland", while stipulating that "[p]ending the re-integration of the national territory", the powers of the state were restricted to legislate only for the area which had formed part of the Irish Free State
. Arising from the Northern Ireland peace process
, the matter was mutually resolved as part of the Good Friday Agreement
in 1998. Ireland
's constitution was altered by referendum
and its territorial claim to Northern Ireland
The amended constitution asserts that while it is the entitlement of "every person born in the island of Ireland … to be part of the Irish Nation" and to hold Irish citizenship, "a united Ireland shall be brought about only by peaceful means with the consent of a majority of the people, democratically expressed, in both jurisdictions in the island". A North/South Ministerial Council
was created between the two jurisdictions and given executive authority. The advisory and consultative role of the government of Ireland in the government of Northern Ireland granted by the United Kingdom, that had begun with the 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement
, was maintained, although that Agreement itself was ended. The two states also settled the long-running dispute concerning their respective names
and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
, with both governments agreeing to use those names.
Historical irredentist claims
Irredentism is commonplace in Africa
due to the political boundaries of former European colonial nation-states passing through ethnic boundaries, and recent declarations of independence after civil war. For example, some Ethiopian nationalist circles still claim the former Ethiopian province of Eritrea
(internationally recognized as the independent State of Eritrea in 1993 after a 30-year civil war).
Estimated ethnic Somali territory in relation to neighbouring countries.The area is roughly coextensive with Greater Somalia
Greater Somalia refers to the region in the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis
are and have historically represented the predominant population. The territory encompasses The Republic of Somalia, the Ogaden region in Ethiopia, the North Eastern Province in Kenya and southern and eastern Djibouti. Ogaden
in eastern Ethiopia has seen military and civic movements seeking to make it part of Somalia
. This culminated in the 1977–78 Ogaden War
between the two neighbours where the Somali military offensive between July 1977 and March 1978 over the disputed Ethiopian region Ogaden ended when the Somali Armed Forces retreated back across the border and a truce was declared. The Kenyan Northern Frontier District
also saw conflict during the Shifta War
(1963–1967) when a secessionist conflict in which ethnic Somalis in the Lamu
and Mandera counties
(all except Lamu
formed part of the former North Eastern Province
, abolished in 2013), attempted to join with their fellow Somalis in a "Greater Somalia
". There has been no similar conflicts in Djibouti, which was previously known as the "French Somaliland
" during colonisation. Here the apparent struggles for unification manifested itself in political strife that ended when in a referendum to join France as opposed to the Somali Republic succeeded among rumours of widespread vote rigging
and the subsequent death of Somali nationalist Mahmoud Harbi
, Vice President of the Government Council, who was killed in a plane crash two years later under suspicious circumstances.
Some sources say that Somalia has also laid a claim to the Socotra
archipelago, which is currently governed by Yemen
includes much of the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa
His Majesty King Mswati III
of Eswatini set up the Border Restoration Committee in 2013 to negotiate restoration of the original borders.
In 1961, PR China nominally claims boundary which pass dozens of kilometers south of Paekdu Mountain on PRC's map.
North Korea Protested by publishing national map with Gando claim.
However, North Korean claim on Gando and PR Chinese claim on the area south of Gando Convection line were not serious. Seriously disputed area was the area between Gando Convection line and Paektu Mountain
In 1963, North Korea signed a boundary treaty with the People's Republic of China
, which settled the boundary between the two at the Yalu/Amnok
(Chinese/Korean names) and Tumen
Rivers; this agreement primarily stipulated that three-fifths of Heaven Lake
at the peak of Mt. Baekdu
would go to North Korea, and two-fifths to China.
South Korea did not recognized these agreements, but did not made serious attempt to gain Korean sovereignty on Gando. South Korea did not officially renounce claim on Gando, but the Sino-Korean boundary on South Korean national map loosely follow 1961 line except Mt. Baekdu
and accept this boundary on the map as de facto boundary.
who maintain an irredentist
claim on Gando regard Gando as Korean territory because the treaty is null and void.
The most ambitious claims include all parts of Manchuria
that the Goguryeo
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Greater Bangladesh is an assumption of several Indian intellectuals that the neighbouring country of Bangladesh has an aspiration to unite all Bengali dominated regions under their flag. These include the states of West Bengal
as well as the Andaman Islands
which are currently part of India and the Burmese State of Rakhine
. The theory is principally based on a widespread belief amongst Indian masses that a large number of illegal Bangladeshi immigrants reside in Indian territory. It is alleged that illegal immigration is actively encouraged by some political groups in Bangladesh as well as the state of Bangladesh to convert large parts of India's northeastern states and West Bengal into Muslim-majority areas that would subsequently seek to separate from India and join Muslim-majority Bangladesh.
Scholars have reflected that under the guise of anti-Bangladeshi immigrant movement it is actually an anti-Muslim agenda pointed towards Bangladeshi Muslims by false propaganda and widely exaggerated claims on immigrant population. In 1998, Lieutenant General S.K. Sinha, then the Governor of Assam, claimed that massive illegal immigration from Bangladesh was directly linked with "the long-cherished design of Greater Bangladesh".
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Map showing the geographic, political (partial), and cultural reach of Iran and the Iranian peoples
corresponding to the modern-day Greater Iran
The ideology of pan-Iranism is most often used in conjunction with the idea of forming a Greater Iran
, which refers to the regions of the Caucasus
, West Asia
, Central Asia
, and parts of South Asia
that have significant Iranian
cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various Iranian (Persian)
empires (such as those of the Medes
, and Afsharids
and the Qajar Empire
having considerable aspects of Persian culture in their own culture due to extensive contact with the various Empires based in Persia
(e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus
that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic-speaking people
who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia
). It roughly corresponds to the territory on the Iranian plateau
and its bordering plains
It is also referred to as Greater Persia
while the Encyclopædia Iranica
uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent
Pakistani irredentism involves the incorporations of Muslim majority lands of British India under Pakistan. This is most notable in the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir
state, a Muslim majority state in India.
is a concept of the political and historical union of territories currently and historically inhabited by Azerbaijanis
or historically controlled by them. Western Azerbaijan
is an irredentist political concept that is used in Azerbaijan
mostly to refer to Armenia
. Azerbaijani statements claim that the territory of the modern Armenian republic were lands that once belonged to Azerbaijanis.
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Irredentism is acute in the Caucasus region. The Nagorno-Karabakh
movement's original slogan of miatsum
('union') was explicitly oriented towards re-unification with Armenia as to the pre-Soviet status, feeding an Azerbaijani understanding of the conflict as a bilateral one between itself and an irredentist Armenia.
According to Prof. Thomas Ambrosio, "Armenia's successful irredentist project in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan" and "From 1992 to the cease-fire in 1994, Armenia encountered a highly permissive or tolerant international environment that allowed its annexation of some 15 percent of Azerbaijani territory".
In the view of Nadia Milanova, Nagorno-Karabakh represents a combination of separatism and irredentism.
However, the area has historically been Armenian, known as the Kingdom of Artsakh
. In July 1920, the 11th Soviet Red Army
invaded and occupied the region and on July 28, the decision to make Nakhchivan a part of modern-day Azerbaijan was cemented on March 16, 1921 in the Treaty of Moscow
between Soviet Russia
and the newly founded Republic of Turkey
Azerbaijan's irredentism, on the other hand, is quite explicit in official statements of the Azerbaijani officials by claiming the UN member-state Republic of Armenia as Azerbaijani territory despite the absence of historical evidence of Azerbaijan existing as a separate state up until 1918. On his official meeting in Gyanja
on 21 January 2014, President Ilham Aliyev
said, "The present-day Armenia is actually located on historical lands of Azerbaijan. Therefore, we will return to all our historical lands in the future. This should be known to young people and children. We must live, we live and we will continue to live with this idea."
Map of the Ottoman provinces of Mosul, Baghdad and Basra (1900)
After gaining independence in 1932, the Iraqi government immediately declared that Kuwait was rightfully a territory of Iraq, claiming it had been part of an Iraqi territory until being created by the British.
The Qassim government held an irredentist claim to Khuzestan.
It also held irredentist claims to Kuwait.
Saddam Hussein's government sought to annex several territories. In the Iran-Iraq War, Saddam claimed that Iraq had the right to hold sovereignty to the east bank of the Shatt al-Arab
river held by Iran.
Iraq had officially agreed to a compromise to hold the border at the centre-line of the river in the 1975 Algiers Agreement
in return for Iran to end its support for Kurdish rebels in Iraq.
The overthrow of the Iranian monarchy and the rise of Ruhollah Khomeini
to power in 1979 deteriorated Iran-Iraq relations and following ethnic clashes within Khuzestan and border clashes between Iranian and Iraqi forces, Iraq regarded the Algiers Agreement as nullified and abrogated it and a few days later Iraqi forces launched a full-scale invasion of Iran that resulted in the Iran-Iraq War.
In addition, Saddam supported the Iraq-based Ahwaz Liberation Movement
and their goal of breaking their claimed territory of Ahwaz away from Iran, in the belief that the movement would rouse Khuzestan's Arabs to support the Iraqi invasion.
In the Gulf War, Iraq occupied and annexed Kuwait before being expelled by an international military coalition that supported the restoration of Kuwait's sovereignty.
After annexing Kuwait, Iraqi forces amassed on the border with Saudi Arabia, with foreign intelligence services suspected that Saddam was preparing for an invasion of Saudi Arabia to capture or attack its oil fields that were a very short distance from the border.
It has been suspected that Saddam Hussein intended to invade and annex a portion of Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province
on the justification that the Saudi region of Al-Hasa
had been part of the Ottoman province of Basra
that the British had helped Saudi Arabia conquer in 1913.
It is believed that Saddam intended to annex Kuwait and the Al-Hasa oil region, so that Iraq would be in control of the Persian Gulf region's vast oil production, that would make Iraq the dominant power in the Middle East.
The Saudi Arabian government was alarmed by Iraq's mobilization of ten heavily armed and well-supplied Iraqi army divisions along the border of Iraqi-annexed Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, and warned the United States government that they believed that Iraq was preparing for an immediate invasion of Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province.
The Saudi Arabian government stated that without assistance from outside forces, Iraq could invade and seize control of the entire Eastern Province within six hours.
The Lebanese nationalism incorporates irredentist views seeking to unify all the lands of ancient Phoenicia
around present day Lebanon.
This comes from the fact that present day Lebanon, the Mediterranean coast of Syria, and northern Israel is the area that roughly corresponds to ancient Phoenicia and as a result the majority of the Lebanese people identify with the ancient Phoenician population of that region.
The proposed Greater Lebanese country includes Lebanon
, Mediterranean coast of Syria
, and northern Israel
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The Ottoman Minister of Internal Affairs, Damat Ferid Pasha
, made the opening speech of parliament due to Mehmed VI
's illness. A group of parliamentarians called Felâh-ı Vatan
was established by Mustafa Kemal
's friends to acknowledge the decisions taken at the Erzurum Congress
and the Sivas Congress
. Mustafa Kemal said "It is the nation's iron fist that writes the Nation's Oath which is the main principle of our independence to the annals of history." Decisions taken by this parliament were used as the basis for the new Turkish Republic
's claims in the Treaty of Lausanne
United Arab Emirates
Greater Yemen is a theory giving Yemen claim to former territories that were held by various predecessor states that existed between the Himyarite
period and 18th century. The areas claimed include parts of modern Saudi Arabia and Oman.
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Some of the most violent irredentist conflicts of recent times in Europe
flared up as a consequence of the break-up of the former federal state of Yugoslavia
in the early 1990s.[dubious – discuss][clarification needed]
One of the last conflicts erupted further south with the ethnic Albanian majority in Kosovo
seeking to switch allegiance to the adjoining state of Albania
During the debate of what was then called the German Question
(die deutsche Frage
) in the 19th century prior to the unification of Germany
(1871), the term Großdeutschland
, "Greater Germany", referred to a possible German nation consisting of the states that later comprised the German Empire
. The term Kleindeutschland
"Lesser Germany" referred to a possible German state without Austria. The term was later used by Germans referring to Greater Germany, a state consisting of pre–World War I Germany, Austria and the Sudetenland
A main point of Nazi ideology
was to reunify all Germans either born or living outside of Germany to create an "all-German Reich
". These beliefs ultimately resulted in the Munich Agreement, which ceded to Germany areas of Czechoslovakia
that were mainly inhabited by those of German descent, and the Anschluss
, which ceded the entire country of Austria to Germany; both events occurred in 1938.
The Greek quest began with the acquisition of Thessaly
through the Convention of Constantinople in 1881
, a failed war against Turkey in 1897
and the Balkan Wars
, some Aegean Islands
). After World War I, Greece acquired Western Thrace
as per the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine
, but also Ionia
and Eastern Thrace
) from the Ottoman Empire as ordained in the Treaty of Sèvres
. Subsequently, Greece launched an unsuccessful campaign
to further their gains in Asia Minor, but were halted by the Turkish revolution
. The events culminated into the Great Fire of Smyrna
, Population exchange between Greece and Turkey
, and Treaty of Lausanne (1923)
which returned Eastern Thrace and Ionia to the newfound Turkish Republic. The events are known as the "Asia Minor Catastrophe" to Greeks. The Ionian Islands
were ceded by Britain in 1864, and the Dodecanese
by Italy in 1947.
The restoration of the borders of Hungary
to their state prior to World War I, in order to unite all ethnic Hungarians within the same country once again.
Hungarian irredentism or Greater Hungary
are irredentist and revisionist political ideas concerning redemption of territories of the historical Kingdom of Hungary
. The idea is associated with Hungarian revisionism, targeting at least to regain control over Hungarian-populated areas in Hungary's neighbouring countries. Hungarian historians did not use the term Greater Hungary, because the "Historic Hungary" is the established term for the Kingdom of Hungary before 1920.
The Treaty of Trianon
defined the borders of the new independent Hungary and, compared against the claims of the pre-war Kingdom, new Hungary had approximately 72% less land stake and about two-thirds fewer inhabitants, almost 5 million of these being of Hungarian ethnicity.
However, only 54% of the inhabitants of the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary were Hungarians before World War I.
Following the treaty's instatement, Hungarian leaders became inclined towards revoking some of its terms. This political aim gained greater attention and was a serious national concern up through the second World War.
Irredentism in the 1930s led Hungary to form an alliance with Hitler's Germany. Eva S. Balogh states: "Hungary's participation in World War II resulted from a desire to revise the Treaty of Trianon so as to recover territories lost after World War I. This revisionism was the basis for Hungary's interwar foreign policy."
Between November 1938 and April 1941, Hungary took full advantage of German patronage and, in four different stages, approximately doubled her size. Ethnically, these acquisitions were a mixed bag, some were populated mostly by Hungarians, while others, such as the remainder of Carpathian Ruthenia
, were almost wholly non-Hungarian in composition. However, regarding partitioned Transylvania, the population was mixed, near equal between Hungarians and non-Hungarians.
After defeat in 1945, the borders of Hungary as defined by the Treaty of Trianon were restored, except for three Hungarian villages that were transferred to Czechoslovakia. These villages are today administratively a part of Bratislava
Map of the Italian territories claimed as "irredent" by Italian irredentism activists in the 1930s (in green: Nice
; in red: Malta
; in violet: Corsica
Italy's territorial claims were on the basis of re-establishing a Romanesque Empire, a fourth shore according to the concept of Mare Nostrum (Latin for 'Our Sea') and traditional ethnic borders. Evident in Italy's rapid takeover of surrounding territories under Fascist leader Benito Mussolini and claims following the collapsed 1915 Treaty of London
and 1919 Treaty of Versailles
which established feelings of betrayal. Mussolini and Hitler's similarities including a joint hatred towards the French and wanting to expand their territories brought the two leaders together, solidified in the Pact of Steel
and later WW2. By 1942 Italy had conquered Abyssinia (modern day Ethiopia and Eritrea), Libya, much of the north coast of Egypt, and what is now Somalia. On the European continent, and with significant German assistance, it occupied Istria, Dalmatia, Albania, Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, and France's Corsica; Malta was also bombed. Underlying tensions remained with France, over its territories of Corsica, Nice and Savoy.
The Kingdom of Norway
had several territorial disputes throughout its history, mainly regarding islands and sea boundaries in the Arctic Sea.
The Old Kingdom of Norway
, which was the Norwegian territories at its maximum extent, included Iceland
, the settleable areas of Greenland
, the Faroe Islands
and Northern Isles
(today part of Scotland
). Under Danish sovereignty since they established a hegemonic position in the Kalmar Union
, the territories were considered as Norwegian colonies. When in the Treaty of Kiel
in 1814, Norway's territories were transferred from Denmark
, the territories of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands were maintained by Denmark.
In 1919, the foreign minister of Norway, Nils Claus Ihlen
, declare that the Norwegians would not object to a claim of Denmark to the whole island of Greenland, which at the time was mostly occupied by Danish Colonies, with a few Norwegian settlements in the eastern part of the island. The claim was formally declared in 1921,
but the Norwegian government rejected Denmark's claim and later stated that parts of eastern Greenland belonged to Norway. A dispute between the two countries was not settled until 1933, by the Permanent Court of International Justice
The court concluded that Denmark had sovereignty of the whole island of Greenland, ending Norwegian control over Eric The Red's Land
. Norway formerly included the provinces Jämtland
(lost since the Second Treaty of Brömsebro
), and Bohuslän
(lost since the Treaty of Roskilde
), which were ceded to Sweden after Danish defeats in wars such as the Thirty Years' War
and Second Northern War
("Borderlands") are the eastern lands that formerly belonged to Poland and held a sizable amount of Polish population. In 1921, after a soviet invasion
, Polish troops crossed the Curzon Line
and re-conquered some of the formerly Polish territories, now inside of the borders of Ukraine and Belarus
, which were taken from Poland during the Partitions of Poland
, and also seized 7 percent of Lithuania's territory, due to its large Polish population in 1920
. These territories were violently annexed by the Soviet Union
in 1939 under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
after the Soviet-German invasion of Poland, and include major cities, like Lviv
(Lwów) (nowadays Ukraine), Vilnius
(Wilno) (today the capital of Lithuania), and Hrodna
(Grodno) (Belarus), which all had majority Polish population. Even though Kresy
, or the Eastern Borderlands
, are no longer Polish territories, the area is still inhabited by a significant Polish minority, and the memory of the Polish Kresy
is still cultivated. The attachment to the "myth of Kresy
", the vision of the region as a peaceful, idyllic, rural land, has been criticized in Polish discourse.
In January, February and March 2012, the Centre for Public Opinion Research
conducted a survey, asking Poles about their ties to the Kresy. It turned out that almost 15% of the population of Poland (4.3–4.6 million people) declared that they had either been born in the Kresy, or had a parent or a grandparent who came from that region. Numerous treasures of Polish culture remain and there are numerous Kresy-oriented organizations. There are Polish sports clubs (Pogoń Lwów
, and formerly FK Polonia Vilnius
), newspapers (Gazeta Lwowska
, Kurier Wileński
), radio stations (in Lviv and Vilnius), numerous theatres, schools, choirs and folk ensembles. Poles living in Kresy
are helped by Fundacja Pomoc Polakom na Wschodzie, a Polish government-sponsored organization, as well as other organizations, such as The Association of Help of Poles in the East Kresy
(see also Karta Polaka
). Money is frequently collected to help those Poles who live in the Kresy
, and there are several annual events, such as a Christmas Package for a Polish Veteran in Kresy
, and Summer with Poland
, sponsored by the Association "Polish Community"
, in which Polish children from Kresy
are invited to visit Poland.
Polish language handbooks and films, as well as medicines and clothes are collected and sent to Kresy
. Books are most often sent to Polish schools which exist there—for example, in December 2010, The University of Wrocław organized an event called Become a Polish Santa Claus and Give a Book to a Polish Child in Kresy
Polish churches and cemeteries (such as Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów
) are renovated with money from Poland.
Romanian nationalists lay claims to Greater Romania
, but especially to Moldova
, most of the territory which was part of the country between 1918 and 1940. Moldovan language
is the Soviet name for the Romanian language
. There is some (but not universal) support by Moldovans for a peaceful and voluntary reunion with Romania, not least because (having joined the European Union
), the economy has burgeoned and Romanian citizens have gained freedom of movement in Europe. Also, Russian irredentism over Transnistria
has caused alarm and resentment.
, which is under Russian control, is shown in pink. Pink in the Donbas
area represents areas held by pro-Russian separatists
in September 2014
This section needs expansion
. You can help by adding to it
. (December 2015)
Russian irredentism also includes southeastern and coastal Ukraine, known as Novorossiya
, a term from the Russian Empire.
The distribution of Serbs and Montenegrins in Yugoslavia (except Macedonia and Slovenia) in 1981.
Serbian irredentism is manifested in Greater Serbia
, the Serbian nationalist
ideology. Greater Serbia consists of Serbia
, North Macedonia
, Bosnia and Herzegovina
and large parts of Croatia
. Used in the context of the Yugoslav wars
, however, the Serbian struggle for Serbs to remain united in one country does not quite fit the term "irredentism".
In the 19th century, Pan-Serbism sought to unite all of the Serb people across the Balkans, under Ottoman and Habsburg rule. Some intellectuals sought to unite all South Slavs (regardless of religion) into a Serbian state. Serbia
had gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878. Bosnia and Herzegovina, annexed by the Austrians in 1908, was viewed of as a part of the Serbian homeland. Serbia directed its territorial aspirations to the south, as the north and west was held by Austria. Macedonia was divided between Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece after the Balkan Wars
In 1914, aspirations were directed towards Austria-Hungary. A government policy sought to incorporate all Serb-inhabited areas, and other South Slavic areas, thereby laying the foundation of Yugoslavia
With the establishment of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
(later Yugoslavia), the Serbs now lived united in one country.
During the breakup of Yugoslavia
, the Serb political leadership in break-away Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina declared their territories to be part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro
The project of unification of Serb-inhabited areas in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav wars (see United Serb Republic) ultimately failed. The Croatian Operation Storm
ended large-scale combat and captured most of the Republic of Serbian Krajina
, while the Dayton Agreement
ended the Bosnian War. Bosnia and Herzegovina was established as a federal republic, made up by two separate entities, one being Serb-inhabited Republika Srpska
. There has since been calls by Bosnian Serb politicians for the secession of Republika Srpska
, and possible unification with Serbia.
In the early years of the Chicano Movement
) in the 1960s and 1970s, some movement figures "were political nationalists who advocated the secession of the Southwest from the Anglo
republic of the United States of America, if not fully, at least locally with regard to Chicano self-determination in local governance, education and means of production".
For example, in the 1970s, Reies Tijerina
and his group La Alianza, espoused various separatist, secessionist, or irredentist beliefs.
The Plan Espiritual de Aztlán
, written during the First Chicano National Youth Conference in 1969, also stated "the fundamental Chicano nationalist goal of reclaiming Aztlán
"—a reference to ancient Mexican myth—as "the rightful homeland of the Chicanos".
However, "Most Chicano nationalists ... did not express the extreme desire for secession from the United States, and the nationalism they expressed weighed more heavily toward the broadly cultural than the explicitly political."
Today, there is virtually no Mexican-American support for "separatist policies of self-determination".
"Ethnonational irredentism by Mexicans in territories seized by the United States" following the Mexican–American War "declined after the failure of several attempted revolts at the end of the nineteenth century, in favor of internal [...] struggles for immigrant and racial civil rights" in the United States.
Neither the Mexican government nor any significant Mexican-American group "makes irredentist claims upon the United States".
In the modern era, there "has been no evidence of irredentist sentiments among Mexican-Americans, even in such formerly Mexican territories as Southern California
, [...] nor of disloyalty to the United States, nor of active interest in the politics of Mexico".
Border disputes related to irredentist claims
border with Pakistan
, known as the Durand Line
, was agreed to by Afghanistan and British India in 1893. The Pashtun
tribes inhabiting the border areas were divided between what have become two nations; Afghanistan never accepted the still-porous border and clashes broke out in the 1950s and 1960s between Afghanistan and Pakistan over the issue. All Afghan governments of the past century have declared, with varying intensity, a long-term goal of re-uniting all Pashtun-dominated areas under Afghan rule,
although no other country in the world accepts Afghanistan's unilateral claim that the Durand Line is in dispute. Afghan claims over Pakistani territory have negatively affected Afghanistan–Pakistan relations
Since their founding, both Korean states have disputed the legitimacy of the other. North Korea
's constitution stresses the importance of reunification, but, while it makes no similar formal provision for administering the South, it effectively claims its territory as it does not diplomatically recognise
the Republic of Korea, deeming it an "entity occupying the Korean territory".
's constitution also claims jurisdiction over the entire Korean peninsula. It acknowledges the division of Korea
only indirectly by requiring the president to work for reunification. The Committee for the Five Northern Korean Provinces
, established in 1949, is the South Korean authority charged with the administration of Korean territory north of the Military Demarcation Line
(i.e., North Korea), and consists of the governors of the five provinces, who are appointed by the President
. However the body is purely symbolic and largely tasked with dealing with Northern defectors; if reunification were to occur the committee would be dissolved and new administrators appointed by the Ministry of Unification
Pakistan has from its inception sought to have the territory of Kashmir
incorporated into it. This singular demand has predominated Pakistan's policy strategy and decision-making as well as its diplomacy, throughout its existence. Pakistan's dispute with India over the territory of Kashmir stems from events leading up to the 1948 war between the 2 countries.
- ^ Kornprobst, Markus (2008-12-18). Irredentism in European Politics: Argumentation, Compromise and Norms. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-89558-3.
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- ^ Tamils protest Kanniya Hindu temple destruction despite Sinhalese assaults and security force obstructions https://www.tamilguardian.com/content/tamils-protest-kanniya-hindu-temple-destruction-despite-sinhalese-assaults-and-security
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- ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (2008). The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4128-3592-3.
- ^ Jones, Adam (2013). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Routledge. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-134-25981-6.
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- ^ Stepanyan, S. (2012). "Հայոց ցեղասպանության ճանաչումից ու դատապարտումից մինչև Հայկական հարցի արդարացի լուծում [From the Recognition and Condemnation of the Armenian Genocide to the Just Resolution of the Armenian Question]". Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri (in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences (1): 34. ISSN 0320-8117. Արդի ժամանակներում Հայկական հարցը իր էությամբ նպատակամղված է Թուրքիայի կողմից արևմտահայության բնօրրան, ցեղասպանության և տեղահանության ենթարկված Արևմտյան Հայաստանը` հայրենիքը կորցրած հայերի ժառանգներին և Հայաստանի Հանրապետությանը վերադարձնելուն:
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- ^ Barrington, Lowell, After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States, (University of Michigan Press: 2006), p.115
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- ^ 金得榥,「백두산과 북방강계」, 사사연, 1987, 27쪽
- ^ 북한연구소, 북한총람 (1982) 85쪽.
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- ^ a b "IRAN i. LANDS OF IRAN". Encyclopædia Iranica.
- ^ Professor Richard Frye states: The Turkish speakers of Azerbaijan are mainly descended from the earlier Iranian speakers, several pockets of whom still exist in the region (Frye, Richard Nelson, "Peoples of Iran", in Encyclopedia Iranica).
- ^ Swietochowski, Tadeusz. "AZERBAIJAN, REPUBLIC OF", Vol. 3, Colliers Encyclopedia CD-ROM, 02-28-1996: "The original Persian population became fused with the Turks, and gradually the Persian language was supplanted by a Turkic dialect that evolved into the distinct Azerbaijani language."
- ^ Golden, P.B. "An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples", Otto Harrosowitz, 1992. "The Azeris of today are an overwhelmingly sedentary, detribalized people. Anthropologically, they are little distinguished from the Iranian neighbor"
- ^ de Planhol, Xavier. "Iran i. Lands of Iran". Encyclopedia Iranica. The toponymy, with more than half of the place names of Iranian origin in some areas, such as the Sahand, a huge volcanic massif south of Tabriz, or the Qara Dagh, near the border (Planhol, 1966, p. 305; Bazin, 1982, p. 28) bears witness to this continuity. The language itself provides eloquent proof. Azeri, not unlike Uzbek (see above), lost the vocal harmony typical of Turkish languages. It is a Turkish language learned and spoken by Iranian peasants.
- ^ "Thus Turkish nomads, in spite of their deep penetration throughout Iranian lands, only slightly influenced the local culture. Elements borrowed by the Iranians from their invaders were negligible."(X.D. Planhol, LANDS OF IRAN in Encyclopedia Iranica)
- ^ История Востока. В 6 т. Т. 2. Восток в средние века. Глава V. — М.: «Восточная литература», 2002. — ISBN 5-02-017711-3. Excerpt: "Говоря о возникновении азербайджанской культуры именно в XIV-XV вв., следует иметь в виду прежде всего литературу и другие части культуры, органически связанные с языком. Что касается материальной культуры, то она оставалась традиционной и после тюркизации местного населения. Впрочем, наличие мощного пласта иранцев, принявших участие в формировании азербайджанского этноса, наложило свой отпечаток прежде всего на лексику азербайджанского языка, в котором огромное число иранских и арабских слов. Последние вошли и в азербайджанский, и в турецкий язык главным образом через иранское посредство. Став самостоятельной, азербайджанская культура сохранила тесные связи с иранской и арабской. Они скреплялись и общей религией, и общими культурно-историческими традициями." (History of the East. 6 v. 2. East during the Middle Ages. Chapter V. – M.: «Eastern literature», 2002. – ISBN 5-02-017711-3.). Translation: "However, the availability of powerful layer of Iranians took part in the formation of the Azerbaijani ethnic group, left their mark primarily in the Azerbaijani language, in which a great number of Iranian and Arabic words. The latter included in the Azeri, and Turkish language primarily through Iranian mediation."
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- ^ Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary. Clive Holes. 2001. Page XXX. ISBN 90-04-10763-0
- ^ Lange, Christian (19 July 2012). Justice, Punishment and the Medieval Muslim Imagination. Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107404618. I further restrict the scope of this study by focusing on the lands of Iraq and greater Persia (including Khwārazm, Transoxania, and Afghanistan).[permanent dead link]
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A large assembly of people during the inauguration of the Statue of Alexander the Great in Skopje on YouTube, the players of the national basketball team of the Republic of Macedonia during the European Basketball Championship in Lithuania on YouTube, and a little girl on YouTube, singing a nationalistic tune called Izlezi Momče (Излези момче, "Get out boy"). Translation from Macedonian:
Get out, boy, straight on the terrace
And salute Goce's
Raise your hands up high
Ours will be Thessaloniki
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