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Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa
Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa KCIE CSI (1848–9 December 1932) was the ruler of Bahrain from 1869[1] until his death. His title was Hakim of Bahrain. He is one of the longest reigning monarchs of the region, a reign lasting 63 years. He was forced by the British political advisor to abdicate in 1923, although this "abdication" was never recognised by Bahrainis who considered his successor Hamad only as a viceruler until Isa's death in 1932.[2]
Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa
Hakim of Bahrain

A photograph of Isa bin Ali Al Khalifa
Reign2 December 1869 – 9 December 1932
PredecessorMuhammad bin Abdullah Al Khalifa
SuccessorHamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Coronation2 December 1869
Born27 November 1848, 1 Muharram 1265 AH
Riffa Fort, Bahrain
Died9 December 1932 (aged 84)
Muharraq, Bahrain
BurialAl Muharraq Cemetery
Shaikha Haya bint Mohamed bin Salman Al-Khalifa, Maryam bint Hamad Al Binali, Shaikha Aysha bint Mohamed Al Khalifa
HouseHouse of Khalifa
FatherAli bin Khalifa Al Khalifa
MotherThajba bint Ahmad bin Salman Al Khalifa
OccupationRuler of Bahrain
Isa bin Ali House, residence of the former ruler in Muharraq
Biography
Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa was born on 27 November 1848, in Riffa Fort, Bahrain, the fourth-born son of Sheikh Ali bin Khalifa Al Khalifa with Tajba bint Ahmad Al Khalifa,[3] daughter of Shaikh Ahmad bin Salman Al Khalifa.[citation needed]
Shaikh Isa’s father, Shaikh Ali, was the ruler of Bahrain in 1868 after Muhammad bin Khalifa Al Khalifa was forced to abdicate by the British after an alleged violation of the 1861 treaty which prevented him from carrying out maritime depredations. In August 1869, a large force led by Nasir bin Mubarak invaded Bahrain and killed the ruler, Shaikh Isa’s father. Nasir’s cousin, Mohammed ibn Abdullah, usurped the throne after the murder and assumed the Sheikhdom. Shaikh Isa fled to Zubarah, to be treated by the Al Noaim tribe who remained loyal to his rule. In December 1869, a British force under the Political Resident Lewis Pelly with the will and desire of the people of Bahrain, Shaikh Isa arrived and deposed the usurper who was captured by the British and sent to prison in India where he died a captive in 1877. Shaikh Isa ruled from 2 December 1869.
On 22 December 1880, Isa concluded a protectorate treaty with the United Kingdom to abstain from making any treaties or engagements with any other foreign power or state without British consent. Isa became sole ruler on the death of his brother in October 1888, when his title was altered from Chief to Ruler of Bahrain (Hakim). The protectorate treaty was confirmed and extended on 13 March 1892, in which Isa also reiterating his desire to retain for himself the right to manage Bahrain's internal affairs. Under these treaties, the United Kingdom managed all of Bahrain's foreign policy and in this way Isa was not authorized to conclude treaties independently with other powers. Shaikh Isa successfully fought off with the assistance of his brother Shaikh Khalid bin Ali, a maritime force of the Al Binali tribe which attempted unsuccessfully in invading the Bahrain islands in 1895.
Isa was forced by the British political advisor to abdicate in 1923, although this "abdication" was never recognised by Bahrainis who considered his successor Hamad only as a viceruler until Isa's death in 1932.[2] From 1926, at an old age, Isa was joined by a British consultant, Charles Belgrave, who helped him implement administrative reforms aimed at promoting social progress as laws for the regulation of pearl fishing, traditionally one of the main parts of the local economy.
Shaikh Isa died while praying the dawn prayers in his room in Muharraq on 9 December 1932 after a reign of 63 years, and was buried at Al Muharaq cemetery. His was the longest reign in Bahrain’s history, as well as one of the most long-lived rulers in the world. He was officially succeeded by his second-born son Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, his eldest son of eight having died in 1893.
Family
Isa had four wives:[citation needed]
Isa had five sons:[citation needed]
and four daughters:
Titles
Honours
See also
References
  1. ^ David Lea (2001). A Political Chronology of the Middle East. London: Europa Publications. p. 19. Retrieved 31 August 2013. – via Questia (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b Rosemary Said Zahlan, The Making of the Modern Gulf States, Reading 1998 [2nd ed.], p. 98
  3. ^ Family tree, Salman bin Ahmad Al Khalifa de Bahrain
External links
Photos of Isa bin Ali's house in Muharraq: [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Muhammad ibn Abdulla Al Khalifa
Hakim of Bahrain
1869–1923
Succeeded by
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Last edited on 10 March 2021, at 21:08
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