The Islamic Courts Union
: Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga
;) was a legal and political organisation which was formed to address lawlessness 
in Somalia following the fall of the Siad Barre
regime in the 1991 during the Somali Civil War
. In an interview featured in the BBC Online
Somali section in June 2006, Sharif Sheikh Ahmed
said: "the Union of Islamic Courts was established to ensure that Somali
people suffering for 15 years would gain peace and full justice and freedom from the anarchic
rule of warlords
who refuted their people to no direction."
Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga
The residents of Mogadishu
were reportedly happy with the Islamic Courts Union's authority. There were fewer guns on the streets and people were able to move more freely around the city without fear of attack after they took control.
The Islamic Courts Union's influence was enhanced by wealthy financial donors who sought to enable the Islamic Courts Union to bring stability to the country.
According to Chatham House
"The Courts achieved the unthinkable, uniting Mogadishu
for the first time in 16 years, and re-establishing peace and security".
On 15 July 2006, the Islamic Courts Union reopened Mogadishu International Airport
, which had been closed since the withdrawal of the international forces in 1995. The first airplane chartered by the Arab League
flew from the airport for the first time in 11 years picking up Islamic Courts Union delegates to the Sudanese
capital of Khartoum
The Islamic Courts Union organized a clean-up campaign for the streets of Mogadishu
on 20 July 2006. This was the first time litter and rubbish had been collected in the entire city since it collapsed into chaos over a decade earlier.
On 25 August 2006 the Islamic Courts reopened the historic seaport of Mogadishu
, which had been one of the busiest in East Africa
but had been shut down for the prior ten years.
Map showing the ICU at the peak of its influence.
Defeat of warlords
Ethiopian invasion of Somalia
The Ethiopian invasion and occupation of Somalia which followed, was an armed conflict involving largely Ethiopian
and Transitional Federal Government
forces and troops from Puntland
against the Islamic Court Union, and militias affiliated to them for control of the country. On 26 December 2006 the ICU peacefully withdrew from the capital.
Resignation of ICU leaders
Events after ICU disbanded
The Ethiopian invasion and occupation of Somalia continued for a further two years.
Notes and references
- ^ "The Islamic Courts Union". Harvard Divinity School. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
- ^ "Somalia's High Stakes Power Struggle". Council on Foreign Relations. 3 Aug 2006.
- ^ "Somalia's High Stakes Power Struggle". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 2018-10-24.
- ^ "How Al Shabaab was born". Guardian. 4 October 2013.
- ^ Mohamed Abdi Farah, Somalia: Reopening of Mogadishu's airport welcomed, SomaliNet, July 15, 2006.
- ^ Ethiopian troops on Somali soil, BBC News, 20 July 2006.
- ^ First ship arrives in Mogadishu, BBC, August 25, 2006.
- ^ Hiiraan.com, Associated Press, October 17, 2007"
- ^ a b Barnes, Cedric; Harun, Hassan (24 July 2007). "The Rise and Fall of Mogadishu's Islamic Courts". Journal of East African Studies. 1 (2): 151–160. doi:10.1080/17531050701452382. S2CID 154453168. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
- ^ "Efforts by C.I.A. Fail in Somalia, Officials Charge". New York Times. 8 June 2006.
- ^ a b "Islamic Courts Union". Standford University.
- ^ a b c BBC (June 7, 2007). "'Al-Qaeda' arrest in East Africa". BBC News. Retrieved September 9, 2007.
Last edited on 10 May 2021, at 09:07
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