also: Israa al-Ghamgam
) is a Saudi Arabian human rights advocate. She is especially known for her documentation of the 2017–18 Qatif unrest
In September 2018, she risked being sentenced to become the first female human rights defender to be executed
, possibly by beheading, in Saudi Arabia
following what had been planned as a final hearing to be held on 28 October 2018.
On 6 August 2018, the Saudi Arabian prosecutor involved in al-Ghomgham's case recommended that she and her husband be sentenced to death.
Saudi activists stated that al-Ghomgham is the first woman to have faced capital punishment for human rights campaigning in Saudi Arabia.
On 31 January 2019,
the Saudi authorities dropped the prosecutor's request for al-Ghomgham to be sentenced to death.
Al-Ghomgham was tried in an unfair trial
and in February 2021 was sentenced to an eight-year imprisonment term, as reported by the Gulf Center for Human Rights
Al-Ghomgham and her husband Moussa al-Hashem were arrested in their home around 6
December 2015, and held since then in the Dammam
On 6 August 2018, al-Ghomgham appeared before the Specialized Criminal Court
and the prosecutor recommended a death sentence
, following the Islamic law principle of ta'zir
which allows a judge to determine both the sentence for a crime and what constitutes a crime.
Al-Ghomgham had no access to a lawyer for the first 32 months of her detention.
The would-be final court hearing, at which the death penalty should have been confirmed or overturned, was scheduled for 28 October 2018.
If confirmed, the death penalty would have had to have been confirmed or rejected by King Salman
would have been carried out after Salman's confirmation of the sentence.
Shia Rights Watch
sought international support to stop the death sentence, arguing that it would set a precedent for executing other Saudi women campaigning for the rights of religious minorities.
Sarah Whitson of Human Rights Watch stated that "seeking the death penalty for activists like Israa al-Ghomgham, who are not even accused of violent behavior, is monstrous" and in contradiction with the Saudi government's claim of reform.
Ali Adubisi of the European Saudi Organisation for Human Rights
described the sentence as "a dangerous precedent" for the execution of other non-violent political activists.
Samah Hadid, Middle East director of campaigns for Amnesty International
, agreed that the sentence set a dangerous precedent which "would send a horrifying message that other activists could be targeted in the same way for their peaceful protest and human rights activism".
A spokesman for Global Affairs Canada
stated in relation to al-Ghomgham's situation that "Canada will always stand up for the protection of human rights, including women's rights and freedom of expression around the world", without calling for al-Ghomgham's "immediate release". A call by Canada earlier in August 2018 for the "immediate release" of women activists was stated by the Saudi government to be a factor in a diplomatic and trading crisis between the two countries.
A video of the execution of Laila Basim
from 2015, purporting to be of al-Ghomgham's execution,
circulated on social media in August 2018.
Death penalty dropped
On 31 January 2019,
Saudi authorities dropped the prosecutor's request for the death penalty to be imposed against al-Ghomgham.
She was sentented to eight years of prison February 2021. The Gulf Center for Human Rights
(GCHR) described the trial as having been "a show trial that lacked the minimum international standards for fair trial and due process" and called for al-Ghomgham to be immediately and unconditionally released.
- ^ a b "السعودية: النيابة العامة تطلب الإعدام للناشطة إسراء الغمغام" (in Arabic). Human Rights Watch. 21 August 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Brennan, David (21 August 2018). "Who Is Israa al-Ghomgham? Female Saudi Activist May Be Beheaded After Death Sentence". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
- ^ a b c d e f "Saudi Prosecution Seeks Death Penalty for Female Activist". Human Rights Watch. 21 August 2018. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- ^ a b Kalin, Stephen (22 August 2018). "Saudi Arabia Seeks Its First Death Penalty Against Female Human Rights Activist". Thomson Reuters/Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- ^ a b c "Saudi Arabia: Israa Al-Ghomgham no longer facing death penalty". FIDH. 5 February 2019. Archived from the original on 13 October 2019. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- ^ a b c "Saudi Arabia: 'Relief' at withdrawal of death penalty against female activist". Amnesty International. 1 February 2019. Archived from the original on 2 February 2019. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- ^ a b c "First Woman to be sentenced to Death Penalty in S.A". Shia Rights Watch. August 2018. Archived from the original on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
- ^ a b c Asem, Sondos (20 August 2018). "Saudi Arabia sentences female human rights defender to death". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 28 October 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
- ^ Vaidyanathan, Vaishnavi (21 August 2018). "First Woman's Execution In Saudi Arabia May Be For Supporting Anti-Government Protests". International Business Times.
- ^ Al Asaad, Sondoss (20 August 2018). "Death Penalty Haunts Saudi Women Rights Activist: Esraa al-Ghamgam". US Journal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2019.
- ^ a b Graham-Harrison, Emma (22 August 2018). "Saudi Arabia seeks death penalty against female human rights activist". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 September 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- ^ a b "In a dangerous world, human rights activists have been winning all year". Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- ^ a b "Saudi Arabia: Peaceful WHRD Israa Al-Ghomgham sentenced to 8 years in prison". Gulf Center for Human Rights. 13 February 2021. Archived from the original on 15 February 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
- ^ Banerjee, Neela (11 March 2011). "Saudi Arabia 'day of rage' protest fizzles". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
- ^ "Saudis stage protest in Qatif". Press TV. 9 May 2011. Archived from the original on 8 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- ^ "Saudi forces clash with protesters in Qatif". Al Jazeera. 13 January 2012. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- ^ von Hein, Matthias (10 August 2017). "Is Saudi Arabia waging war on its Shiite minority?". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
- ^ a b "Saudi Arabia 'seeks death penalty for woman activist'". BBC. 22 August 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
- ^ a b c "Saudi prosecutors call for beheading of female human rights activist". NewsComAu. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- ^ Chase, Steven; Yousif, Nadine (21 August 2018). "Canada criticizes Saudi Arabia over another jailed female activist". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 25 August 2018. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
- ^ Nachawati, Leila (21 August 2018). "No, la activista Esra al-Ghamgham no ha sido ejecutada en Arabia Saudí". eldiario.es.
- ^ Abelow, Avi (20 August 2018). "Saudi Arabia Human Rights Activist Punished with Death Penalty". Israel Unwired.
Last edited on 18 March 2021, at 01:20
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