Early life and education
Jackson was born in Greenville, South Carolina
, to Helen Burns (1924–2015), a 16-year-old high school student and her 33-year-old married neighbor, Noah Louis Robinson (1908–1997). His ancestry includes Cherokee
, enslaved African-Americans, Irish planters, and a Confederate sheriff.
Robinson was a former professional boxer who was an employee of a textile brokerage and a well-known figure in the black community.
One year after Jesse's birth, his mother married Charles Henry Jackson, a post office maintenance worker who later adopted the boy.
Jesse was given his stepfather's name in the adoption, but as he grew up he also maintained a close relationship with Robinson. He considered both men to be his fathers.
As a young child, Jackson was taunted by other children about his out-of-wedlock birth, and has said these experiences helped motivate him to succeed.
Living under Jim Crow
segregation laws, Jackson was taught to go to the back of the bus and use separate water fountains—practices he accepted until the Montgomery bus boycott
He attended the racially segregated
Sterling High School in Greenville, where he was elected student class president, finished tenth in his class, and earned letters
in baseball, football and basketball.
Upon graduating from high school in 1959, he rejected a contract from a minor league professional baseball team so that he could attend the University of Illinois
on a football scholarship.
After his second semester at that predominantly white school, Jackson transferred to North Carolina A&T
, a historically black university
in Greensboro, North Carolina
. Accounts of the reasons for this transfer differ. Jackson has said that he changed schools because racial prejudice prevented him from playing quarterback and limited his participation on a competitive public-speaking team.
Writing an article on ESPN.com
in 2002, sociologist Harry Edwards
noted that the University of Illinois had previously had a black quarterback, but also noted that black athletes attending traditionally white colleges during the 1950s and 1960s encountered a "combination of culture shock and discrimination".
Edwards also suggested that Jackson had left the University of Illinois in 1960 because he had been placed on academic probation,
but the school's president reported in 1987 that Jackson's 1960 freshman year transcript was clean, and said he would have been eligible to re-enroll at any time.
At A&T, Jackson played quarterback and was elected student body president.
He became active in local civil rights protests against segregated libraries, theaters and restaurants.
He graduated with a B.S.
in 1964, then attended the Chicago Theological Seminary
on a scholarship.
He dropped out in 1966, three classes short of earning his master's degree, to focus full-time on the civil rights movement
He was ordained a minister in 1968, and in 2000 was awarded a Master of Divinity Degree based on his previous credits earned plus his life experience and subsequent work.
Civil rights activism
The Greenville Eight
On July 16, 1960, while home from college, Jackson joined seven other African Americans in a sit-in
at the Greenville Public Library in Greenville, South Carolina, which only allowed white people. The group was arrested for "disorderly conduct". Jackson's pastor paid their bond, the Greenville News
said. DeeDee Wright, another member of the group, later said they wanted to be arrested "so it could be a test case.” The Greenville City Council closed both the main library and the branch black people used. The possibility of a lawsuit led to the reopening of both libraries September 19, also the day after the News
printed a letter written by Wright.
SCLC and Operation Breadbasket
Jackson has been known for commanding public attention since he first started working for Martin Luther King Jr.
In 1965 he participated in the Selma to Montgomery marches
organized by James Bevel
, King and other civil rights leaders in Alabama.
Impressed by Jackson's drive and organizational abilities, King soon began giving Jackson a role in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC), though he was concerned about Jackson's apparent ambition and attention-seeking.
When Jackson returned from Selma, he was charged with establishing a frontline office for the SCLC in Chicago.
In 1966 King and Bevel selected Jackson to head the Chicago branch of the SCLC's economic arm, Operation Breadbasket
and he was promoted to national director in 1967.
Operation Breadbasket had been started by the Atlanta leadership of the SCLC as a job placement agency for blacks.
Under Jackson's leadership, a key goal was to encourage massive boycotts by black consumers as a means to pressure white-owned businesses to hire blacks and to purchase goods and services from black-owned firms.
T. R. M. Howard
, a 1950s proponent of the consumer boycott tactic, soon became a major supporter of Jackson's efforts – donating and raising funds, and introducing Jackson to prominent members of the black business community in Chicago.
Under Jackson's direction, Operation Breadbasket held popular weekly workshops on Chicago's South Side featuring white and black political and economic leaders,
and religious services complete with a jazz band and choir.
Jackson became involved in SCLC leadership disputes following King's assassination on April 4, 1968. When King was shot, Jackson was in the parking lot one floor below.
Jackson told reporters he was the last person to speak to King, and that King died in his arms – an account that several King aides disputed.
In the wake of King's death, Jackson worked on SCLC's Poor People's Crusade
in Washington, D.C., and was credited with managing its 15-acre tent city – but he began to increasingly clash with Ralph Abernathy
, King's successor as chairman of the SCLC.
In 1969 The New York Times
reported that several black leaders viewed Jackson as King's successor and that Jackson was one of the few black activists who was preaching racial reconciliation.
Jackson was also reportedly seeking coalition with whites in order to approach what were considered racial problems as economic and class problems. "When we change the race problem into a class fight between the haves and the have-nots, then we are going to have a new ball game", he said.
In the 21st century, some public school systems are working on an approach for affirmative action that deals with family income rather than race, recognizing that some minority members have been very successful. The Times
also indicated that Jackson was being criticized as too involved with middle-class blacks, and for having an unattainable goal of racial unity.
In the spring of 1971 Abernathy ordered Jackson to move the national office of Operation Breadbasket from Chicago to Atlanta and sought to place another person in charge of local Chicago activities, but Jackson refused to move.
He organized the October 1971 Black Expo in Chicago, a trade and business fair to promote black capitalism and grass roots political power.
The five-day event was attended by black businessmen from 40 states, as well as politicians such as Cleveland Mayor Carl Stokes
, and Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley
. Daley's presence was seen as a testament to the growing political and economic power of blacks.
In December 1971 Jackson and Abernathy had a complete falling out, with the split described as part of a leadership struggle between Jackson, who had a national profile, and Abernathy, whose prominence from the Civil Rights Movement
was beginning to wane.
The break began when Abernathy questioned the handling of receipts from the Black Expo, and then suspended Jackson as leader of Operation Breadbasket for not obtaining permission to form non-profit corporations. Al Sharpton
, then youth group leader of the SCLC, left the organization to protest Jackson's treatment and formed the National Youth Movement
Jackson, his entire Breadbasket staff, and 30 of the 35 board members resigned from the SCLC and began planning a new organization. Time
magazine quoted Jackson as saying at that time that the traditional civil rights movement had lost its "offensive thrust."
Operation PUSH and the Rainbow Coalition
This section needs expansion
. You can help by adding to it
. (October 2012)
People United to Save Humanity
(Operation PUSH) officially began operations on December 25, 1971;
Jackson later changed the name to People United to Serve Humanity.
T. R. M. Howard was installed as a member of the board of directors and chair of the finance committee.
At its inception, Jackson planned to orient Operation PUSH toward politics and to pressure politicians to work to improve economic opportunities for blacks and poor people of all races.
SCLC officials reportedly felt the new organization would help black businesses more than it would help the poor.
In 1978 Jackson called for a closer relationship between blacks and the Republican Party, telling the Party's National Committee
that "Black people need the Republican Party to compete for us so we can have real alternatives ... The Republican Party needs black people if it is ever to compete for national office."
In 1983 Jackson and Operation PUSH led a boycott against beer giant Anheuser-Busch
, criticizing the company's level of minority employment in their distribution network. August Busch IV
, Anheuser-Busch's CEO was introduced in 1996 to Yusef Jackson, Jesse's son, by Jackson family friend Ron Burkle
. In 1998 Yusef and his brother Jonathan were chosen by Anheuser-Busch to head River North Sales, a Chicago beer distribution company, leading to controversy. "There is no causal connection between the boycott in 1983 and me meeting in the middle '90s and me buying this company in 1998," said Yusef.
In 1984 Jackson organized the Rainbow Coalition
and resigned his post as president of Operation PUSH in 1984 to run for president of the United States, though he remained involved as chairman of the board.
PUSH's activities were described in 1987 as conducting boycotts of business to induce them to provide more jobs and business to blacks and as running programs for housing, social services and voter registration.
The organization was funded by contributions from businesses and individuals.
In early 1987 the continued existence of Operation PUSH was imperiled by debt, a fact that Jackson's political opponents used during his race for the 1988 Democratic Party nomination.
In 1996 the Operation PUSH and Rainbow Coalition organizations were merged.
Jackson's influence extended to international matters in the 1980s and 1990s. In 1983 he traveled to Syria
to secure the release of a captured American pilot, Navy Lt. Robert Goodman
, who was being held by the Syrian government. Goodman had been shot down over Lebanon while on a mission to bomb Syrian positions in that country. After Jackson made a dramatic personal appeal to Syrian PresidentHafez al-Assad
, Goodman was released. The Reagan administration was initially skeptical about Jackson's trip, but after Jackson secured Goodman's release, Reagan welcomed Jackson and Goodman to the White House on January 4, 1984.
This helped to boost Jackson's popularity as an American patriot and served as a springboard for his 1984 presidential run. In June 1984 Jackson negotiated the release of 22 Americans being held in Cuba
after an invitation by Cuban president Fidel Castro
On the eve of the 1991 Persian Gulf War
, Jackson made a trip to Iraq to plead with Saddam Hussein
for the release of foreign nationals held there as a "human shield", securing the release of several British and 20 American individuals.
His international efforts continued into the 2000s. On February 15, 2003, Jackson spoke in front of over an estimated one million people in Hyde Park, London
at the culmination of the anti-war demonstration
against the imminent invasion
by the U.S. and the United Kingdom. In November 2004 Jackson visited senior politicians and community activists in Northern Ireland
in an effort to encourage better cross-community relations and rebuild the peace process and restore the governmental institutions of the Belfast Agreement
In August 2005 Jackson traveled to Venezuela
to meet Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez
, following controversial remarks by televangelist Pat Robertson
that implied that Chávez should be assassinated. Jackson condemned Robertson's remarks as immoral. After meeting with Chávez and addressing the Venezuelan Parliament, Jackson said there was no evidence that Venezuela posed a threat to the U.S. He also met representatives from the Venezuelan African and indigenous communities.
In 2005 Jackson was enlisted as part of the United Kingdom's "Operation Black Vote", a campaign Simon Woolley ran to encourage more of Britain's ethnic minorities to vote in political elections ahead of the May 2005 General Election.
In 2009 Jackson served as a speaker for The International Peace Foundation on the topic "Building a culture of peace and development in a globalized world".
He visited multiple locations in Malaysia, including the Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and in Thailand, including NIST International School
During the 1980s Jackson achieved wide fame as a politician and a spokesman for civil rights issues. In 1980, for example, he mediated in a firefighters' strike.
1984 presidential campaign
Jackson in 1983
In the Democratic primaries
, Jackson, who had been written off by pundits as a fringe candidate with little chance at winning the nomination, surprised many when he took third place behind Senator Gary Hart
and former Vice PresidentWalter Mondale
, who eventually won the nomination. Jackson garnered 3,282,431 primary votes, or 18.2% of the total, in 1984,
and won primaries and caucuses in Louisiana, the District of Columbia, South Carolina, and Mississippi.
More Virginia caucus-goers supported Jackson than any other candidate, but Mondale won more Virginia delegates.
In May 1988 Jackson complained that he had won 21% of the popular vote
but was awarded only 9% of the delegates. He afterwards stated that he had been handicapped by party rules. While Mondale (in the words of his aides) was determined to establish a precedent with his vice presidential candidate by picking a woman or visible minority, Jackson criticized the screening process as a "p.r.
parade of personalities". He also mocked Mondale, saying that Hubert Humphrey
was the "last significant politician out of the St. Paul–Minneapolis" area.
Relations with Jewish community
Jackson was criticized in the early 1980s for referring to Jews as "Hymies" and New York City as "Hymietown" in remarks to a black Washington Post reporter.
" is a pejorative
term for Jews
.) He had mistakenly assumed the references would not be printed. Louis Farrakhan
made the situation worse by issuing, in Jackson's presence, a public warning to Jews that "If you harm this brother [Jackson], it will be the last one you harm."
During a speech before national Jewish leaders in a Manchester, New Hampshire synagogue
, Jackson publicly apologized to Jews for the pejorative remarks, but did not denounce Farrakhan's warning. A rift between Jackson and many in the Jewish community endured at least through the 1990s.
Shortly after President Jimmy Carter
fired U.N. Ambassador Andrew Young
for meeting with Palestine Liberation Organization
representatives, Jackson and other black leaders began publicly endorsing a Palestinian state, with Jackson calling Israel's prime minister a "terrorist" and soliciting Arab-American financial support.
Jackson has since apologized for some of these remarks, but they badly damaged his presidential campaign, as "Jackson was seen by many conservatives in the United States as hostile to Israel and far too close to Arab governments."
1988 presidential campaign
In 1988 Jackson again sought the Democratic presidential nomination. According to a November 1987 New York Times
article, "Most political analysts give him little chance of being nominated – partly because he is black, partly because of his unretrenched liberalism."
But his past successes made him a more credible candidate, and he was both better financed and better organized than in 1984. Jackson once again exceeded expectations as he more than doubled his previous results, prompting R.W. Apple
of The New York Times
to call 1988 "the Year of Jackson".
In early 1988 Jackson organized a rally at the former American Motors
assembly plant in Kenosha, Wisconsin
, approximately two weeks after new owner Chrysler
announced it would close the plant by the end of the year. In his speech he spoke out against Chrysler's decision: "We have to put the focus on Kenosha, Wisconsin, as the place, here and now, where we draw the line to end economic violence!" He compared the workers' fight to that of the 1965 Voting Rights Movement
in Selma, Alabama
. As a result, the UAW Local 72 union voted to endorse Jackson, even against UAW rules.
After winning 55% of the vote in the Michigan
Democratic caucus, Jackson was considered the front-runner for the nomination, as he surpassed all the other candidates in total number of pledged delegates
. But Jackson's campaign suffered a significant setback less than two weeks after the UAW endorsement when he narrowly lost the Colorado primary to Michael Dukakis
and was defeated handily the following day by Dukakis in the Wisconsin
primary. Jackson's showing among white voters in Wisconsin was significantly better than in 1984, but was also noticeably lower than pre-primary polling had predicted. The back-to-back victories established Dukakis as the front-runner. He went on to win the party's nomination, but lost the general election in November.
Jackson's campaign was also interrupted by allegations regarding his half-brother Noah Robinson Jr.'s criminal activity.
Jackson had to answer frequent questions about Noah who was often called "the Billy Carter
of the Jackson campaign".
At the conclusion of the Democratic primary season, Jackson had captured 6.9 million votes and won 11 contests: Seven primaries (Alabama, the District of Columbia, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Puerto Rico, and Virginia) and four caucuses (Delaware, Michigan, South Carolina, and Vermont).
Jackson also scored March victories in Alaska's caucuses and Texas's local conventions, despite losing the Texas primary.
In both races Jackson ran on what many considered to be a very liberal
platform. In 1987 The New York Times
described him as "a classic liberal in the tradition of the New Deal and the Great Society".
Declaring that he wanted to create a "Rainbow Coalition" of various minority
groups, including African Americans
, Hispanic Americans
, Asian Americans
, Native Americans
, family farmers
, the poor
and working class
, and homosexuals
, as well as European American progressives
who fit into none of those categories, Jackson ran on a platform that included:
With the exception of a resolution to implement sanctions against South Africa for its apartheid policies, none of these positions made it into the party's platform in either 1984 or 1988.
Stance on abortion
Although Jackson was one of the most liberal members of the Democratic Party, his position on abortion was originally more in line with pro-life
views. Less than a month after the 1973 Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade
legalized abortion, Jackson began a PUSH campaign against the decision, calling abortion murder and declaring that Jesus and Moses might not have been born if abortion had been available in ancient times.
Jackson's strong rhetoric on abortion temporarily alienated one of his major supporters, T. R. M. Howard, a black physician who performed abortions.
In 1975 Jackson endorsed a plan for a constitutional amendment banning abortion.
He also endorsed the Hyde Amendment
, which bars the funding of abortions through the federal Medicaid
program. In a 1977 National Right to Life Committee
News report Jackson argued that the basis for Roe v. Wade
– the right to privacy – had also been used to justify slavery and the treatment of slaves on the plantations. Jackson decried what he believed was the casual taking of life and the decline in society's values. But Jackson later adopted the view that women have the right to an abortion and that the government should not interfere.
Later political activities
Jackson ran for office as "shadow senator
" for the District of Columbia when the position was created in 1991
serving as such through 1997, when he did not run for reelection. This unpaid position was primarily a post to lobby for statehood for the District of Columbia.
On May 2, 1999, during the Kosovo war, three US soldiers who had been held captive were released as a result of talks with Jackson.
Jackson's negotiation was not sanctioned by the Clinton administration.
On November 18, 1999, seven Decatur, Illinois
high school students were expelled for two years after participating in a brawl at a football game. The incident was caught on home video and became a national media event when CNN ran pictures of the fight. After the students were expelled, Jackson argued that the expulsions were unfair and racially biased. He called on the school board to reverse its decision.
On January 20, 2001, Bill Clinton's final day in office, Clinton pardoned Congressman Mel Reynolds, John Bustamante, and Dorothy Rivers; Jackson had requested pardons for them. Jackson had also requested a pardon for his half-brother Noah Robinson who had been convicted of murdering Leroy Barber and sentenced to life imprisonment, but Clinton did not pardon Robinson on the grounds that Robinson had already submitted three pardon appeals, all of which the Justice Department had denied.
In early 2005 Jackson visited the parents in the Terri Schiavo case
; he supported their unsuccessful bid to keep her alive.
In March 2006 an African-American woman accused three white members of the Duke University
men's lacrosse team of raping her. During the ensuing controversy
, Jackson stated that his Rainbow/PUSH Coalition would pay for the rest of her college tuition regardless of the outcome of the case. The case against the three men was later thrown out and the players were declared innocent by the North Carolina Attorney General.
Jackson took a key role in the scandal caused by comedic actor Michael Richards
's racially charged comments in November 2006. Richards called Jackson a few days after the incident
to apologize; Jackson accepted Richards's apology
and met with him publicly as a means of resolving the situation. Jackson also joined black leaders in a call for the elimination of the "N-word
" throughout the entertainment industry.
On June 23, 2007, Jackson was arrested in connection with a protest at a gun store in Riverdale, a poor suburb of Chicago, Illinois. Jackson and others were protesting due to allegations that the gun store had been selling firearms to local gang members and was contributing to the decay of the community. According to police reports, Jackson refused to stop blocking the front entrance of the store and let customers pass. He was charged with one count of criminal trespass to property.
On July 6, 2008, during an interview with Fox News
, a microphone picked up Jackson whispering to fellow guest Reed Tuckson:
"See, Barack's been, ahh, talking down to black people on this faith-based... I want to cut his nuts off."
Jackson was expressing his disappointment in Obama's Father's Day
speech chastisement of black fathers.
Subsequent to his Fox News interview, Jackson apologized and reiterated his support for Obama.
On November 4, 2008, Jackson attended the Obama victory rally in Chicago's Grant Park
. In the moments before Obama spoke Jackson was seen in tears.
Jackson in 2012
Awards and recognition
named Jackson to its "100 most influential black Americans" list in 1971.
In 1979, Jackson received the Jefferson Award
for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged.
In 1999 he received the Golden Doves for Peace journalistic prize issued by the Italian Research Institute Archive Disarmo.
In an AP-AOL "Black Voices" poll in February 2006, Jackson was voted "the most important black leader".
Jackson married Jacqueline Lavinia Brown (born 1944) on December 31, 1962,
and together they have five children: Santita
(1963), Jesse Jr.
(1965), Jonathan Luther
(1966), Yusef DuBois (1970), and Jacqueline Lavinia (1975).
Jackson's younger brother, Charles "Chuck" Jackson, was a singer with the vocal group The Independents
, and as a solo artist issued two albums in the late 1970s. Along with his songwriting partner and fellow producer, Marvin Yancy
, he was largely responsible for launching the career of Natalie Cole
On Memorial Day, May 25, 1987, Jesse was made a Master Mason
on Sight by Grand Master Senter of the Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Illinois; thereby making him a Prince Hall Freemason
In 2001, it was revealed Jackson had an affair with a staffer, Karin Stanford, that resulted in the birth of a daughter Ashley in May 1999. According to CNN, in August 1999, the Rainbow Push Coalition had paid Stanford $15,000 in moving expenses and $21,000 in payment for contracting work. A promised advance of an additional $40,000 against future contracting work was rescinded once the affair became public.
This incident prompted Jackson to withdraw from activism
for a short time.
Jackson was paying $4,000 a month in child support as of 2001.
- ^ Frady, Marshall (November 28, 2006). Jesse: The Life and Pilgrimage of Jesse Jackson. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-4349-7.
- ^ Blue Clark, Indian Tribes of Oklahoma: A Guide, University of Oklahoma Press (2012), p. 75
- ^ a b c d Smothers, Ronald (January 31, 1997). "Noah L. Robinson, 88, Father of Jesse Jackson". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Purnick, Joyce; Oreskes, Michael (November 29, 1987). "Jesse Jackson Aims for the Mainstream". The New York Times. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- ^ a b c "Topics: Jesse Jackson". History.com. A & E Television Networks. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- ^ a b Henderson, Ashyia, ed. (2001), "Jesse Jackson", Contemporary Black Biography, Volume 27, Gale Group, retrieved September 30, 2012
- ^ a b c "Jesse Jackson". MSN Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. October 31, 2009.
- ^ a b c Harry, Edwards (February 28, 2002). "The man who would be King in the Sports Arena". Espn.go.com. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- ^ "University says Jackson records show no blemish". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, Kansas. December 31, 1987. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- ^ a b Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 168. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
- ^ a b "Jackson to get a degree". The Telegraph-Herald. Dubuque, Iowa. June 1, 2000. p. 10A. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- ^ "Rev. Jesse Jackson Sr. Receives Master's Degree From Chicago Theological Seminary". Findarticles.com. June 19, 2000. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- ^ Wineka, Mark (October 23, 2018). "DeeDee Wright recalls the time when the 'Greenville Eight' were arrested, not celebrated". Salisbury Post. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
- ^ Thomas, Evan (May 7, 1984). "Pride and Prejudice". Time. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Beito, David T.; Beito, Linda Royster (2009). Black Maverick: T.R.M. Howard's Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press. pp. 206–216. ISBN 9780252034206. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- ^ a b c d e King, Seth G. (December 12, 1971). "Jackson Quits Post at S.C.L.C. In Policy Split With Abernathy". The New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
- ^ a b c d e Hebers, John (June 2, 1969). "Operation Breadbasket Is Seeking Racial Solutions in Economic Problems" (PDF). Retrieved October 5, 2012.
- ^ a b "Rev. Jesse Jackson Chief B-CC Speaker". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. April 19, 1971. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- ^ "Nation: Turmoil in Shantytown". Time. June 7, 1968. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- ^ a b "Races: Black Expo in Chicago". Time magazine. October 11, 1971. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
- ^ Interview with Al Sharpton, David Shankbone, Wikinews, December 3, 2007.
- ^ "Politics: In Search of a Black Strategy". Time. December 20, 1971. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
- ^ a b c d e "Races: Jackson PUSHes On". Time magazine. January 3, 1972. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
- ^ a b c d e Oreskes, Michael (October 7, 1987). "Operation PUSH Clearing Debts, Leader Says". The New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
- ^ "Nation: Wooing the Black Vote". Time. January 30, 1978.
- ^ "Jackson". Crain's Chicago Business. October 15, 2005.
- ^ "Jackson Contacts Cultivated Beer Deal". tribunedigital-chicagotribune.
- ^ Sachdev, Melissa Harris and Ameet. "Yusef Jackson: Beer boundaries didn't work". chicagotribune.com.
- ^ "Jesse Jackson's Mission to Damascus". Eightiesclub.tripod.com. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- ^ Depalma, Anthony (July 13, 2010). "New York Times". Topics.nytimes.com. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- ^ Terry, Don (April 15, 2009). "Jesse Jackson reunites with hostage he rescued 19 years ago". Frost Illustrated. Frost Inc. NNPA. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
- ^ "The Pilgrimage of Jesse Jackson". Frontline. Episode 1415. Boston. April 30, 1996. PBS. WGBH. Show #1415 transcript.
- ^ Wilson, Joseph (2005) . The politics of truth : inside the lies that put the White House on trial and betrayed my wife's CIA identity : a diplomat's memoir. Carroll & Graf Publishers. pp. 146–7. ISBN 978-0-7867-1551-0. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
- ^ "PBS Frontline chronology". PBS. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- ^ Wilpert, Gregory (August 28, 2005). "Jesse Jackson Says Venezuela No Threat, Praises Venezuelan Government Concerns". venezuelanalysis.com. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- ^ "Operation Black Vote - Jesse Jackson tour kick starts!". Obv.org.uk. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- ^ "International Peace Foundation - Previous speakers and artists". 2007. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
- ^ "2009-04-23: Bridges - Rev. Jesse Jackson". NIST International School. 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
- ^ Jackson and White, p. 33.
- ^ "In Black America; Reverend Jesse Jackson". American Archive of Public Broadcasting. Retrieved November 4, 2020.
- ^ "1984 Texas Jackson-for-President Campaign Collection: An Inventory of Records at the Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library". Lib.utexas.edu. April 21, 1984. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- ^ Beck, Melinda (April 16, 1984). "Keeping 'Em Corralled". Newsweek.
- ^ Williams, Juan (May 22, 1984). "Manatt, Jackson to Confer Again on Vote-Delegate Disparity". The Washington Post. The primaries lasted through June 12, and the final percentage has been calculated as 18.09%.
- ^ Thomas, Evan. "Trying to Win the Peace", Time, July 2, 1984
- ^ a b c Larry J. Sabato's Feeding Frenzy (July 21, 1998). "Jesse Jackson's 'Hymietown' Remark – 1984". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 273. ISBN 0-465-04195-7. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- ^ Elliott, Justin (December 16, 2010) A White House campaign funded by ... Libya?Archived June 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Salon.com
- ^ "Don't ask, don't tell". Salon. August 17, 2000. Archived from the original on January 25, 2003.
- ^ "Civil rights activist Jesse Jackson endorses Sanders". March 8, 2020.
- ^ R.W. Apple Jr. (April 29, 1988). "Jackson is seen as winning a solid place in history". The New York Times.
- ^ Dudley (1994)
- ^ Dionne, E. J. Jr. (April 6, 1988). "Dukakis Defeats Jackson Handily in Wisconsin Vote". The New York Times.
- ^ An investigation into allegations that Robinson had ordered the murder of a former employee was begun in 1987. See, Gibson, Ray; Possley, Maurice (October 4, 1987). "Jackson's Half-brother Probed In Killing Of Former Employee". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
Robinson was ultimately convicted on racketeering and drug conspiracy charges, and of being an accessory to the attempted murder of another employee. He was sentenced to life in prison. See, O'Connor, Matt (August 22, 1992). "Robinson To Spend Life In Prison For Drug, Conspiracy Convictions". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
- ^ "Shakedown" by Kenneth Timmerman
- ^ "Keep Hope Alive". Jesse Jackson, pages 234-235.
- ^ "Jackson and Dukakis Lead in Texas Voting". The New York Times. March 20, 1988. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- ^ Spencer, Hal (March 12, 1988). "Jackson Edges Out Dukakis In Alaska". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- ^ "Christians Join Bishop's Ban on Abortion". The Milwaukee Journal. United Press International. December 1, 1975. p. 4.
- ^ "Reprint of a Washington Post article from 1988". Swissnet.ai.mit.edu. May 21, 1988. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- ^ Robin Toner (July 6, 1990). "Jackson to Run For Lobby Post In Washington". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2008.
- ^ Berke, Richard L. (March 27, 1991). "Behind-the-scenes role for a 'shadow senator'". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
- ^ a b Berke, Richard L. (March 6, 1998). "Testing of the President: The Counselor; Once a Nemesis, Jackson Has Become the President's Spiritual Adviser". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2008.
- ^ Beinart, Peter (October 6, 2010) Obama's a Lock in 2012, The Daily Beast
- ^ a b SUSAN SACHS, CRISIS IN THE BALKANS: PRISONERS; Serbs Release 3 Captured U.S. Soldiers May 2, 1999 New York Times
- ^ "7 Students Charged in a Brawl That Divides Decatur, Ill". The New York Times. November 10, 1999.
- ^ Timmerman, Kenneth, "Shakedown, Exposing the Jesse Jackson Racket"
- ^ Haskell, Dave (July 26, 2002). "Jury convicts white supremacists". United Press International. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
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